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January, 1946Back to Top
We're Pleased Too
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I pat myself on the back, that to your inquiry whether I would like a Jewish magazine like COMMENTARY I said yes. I read practically every word in the first issue of the magazine and the verdict is a splendid periodical for the enlightenment of our Jewish people in an unbiased and straightforward manner on Jewish life and happenings—giving them an education that heretofore was not possible at all. I wish you continued success, and hope that all English-reading Jewish people will avail themselves of this splendid opportunity. Am enclosing my Rabbi's and my subscription, and shall endeavor to get more, as I am passing around my first number to others. James H.

Reply to Dr. Kaplan
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Dr. Mordecai M. Kaplan's “The Truth About Reconstructionism“ in the December issue fails to meet the difficulties of the Reconstructionist position to which I pointed in my November article.

Religious Thought Needed
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As a charter subscriber to the Contemporary Jewish Record and one of the 2,267 people who answered your questionnaire I want to express my congratulations to you on your first issue.

Demurrer to Jarrell
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his review of A. M. Klein's “Poems” in the November issue of COMMENTARY, Mr. Randall Jarrell rakes two and a half pages in an attempt to show—that Mr.

The Crisis of the Individual: II. Terror's Atomization of Man
by Leo Lowenthal
This series, initiated last month by Reinhold Niebuhr's article, “Can Civilization Survive Technics?” aims to bring to bear the minds of a number of leading men of thought in America and Europe on, a basic issue of our times, “The Crisis of the Individual.” The problem is stated as follows: “In our time the individual human being has been more violently debased than in many centuries.

Will Nuremberg Serve Justice?
by Milton Konvitz
The greatest trial of all time is taking place in our own day—at Nuremberg. It will certainly overshadow the Dreyfus Affair, the Sacco-Vanzetti case and the Russian treason trials.

A New Covenant to Live By?
by Adolph Oko
This COMMENTARY by the late Adolph S. Oko on Waldo Frank's book on the problem of the modem American Jew is, like many Jewish commentaries of the old tradition, more than a mere commentary: it is a creative extension of one man's thought by another's.

Crisis in Palestine: The Temper of the Yishuv
by Robert Weltsch
Jerusalem Ve-day was not celebrated in Palestine with the enthusiasm we all expected it would be a few years ago. As in many other countries, the feeling prevailed in Palestine that the end of the war had not brought redemption.

Crisis in Palestine: The Battle of the Children
by Meyer Levin
Tel-Aviv It took a full week for even the Jerusalem population to realize that wounding fifty-one people by shooting into a crowd and by subsequent sniping without a single serious case of injury to police or soldiers during four days of high-powered military occupation hardly added up to “terroristic mob rule in Tel-Aviv.” I was in Tel-Aviv during those eventful days. I went about among the police and troops for two days and encountered not a single human remark, while murderous conversations about the Jews were endless.

Hungary: Liberation's Bitter Fruit
by Hal Lehrman
Budapest When the Navy Day party was breaking up, Major General Key, chief of our military mission here, invited a few of us along with him to a Hungarian party.

Nothing To Be Afraid Of
by Morris Freedman
The lights came on in the post theatre and released him suddenly from the wonderful civilian world on the screen.

Tschernichowsky: Poet of Myths
by Eisig Silberschlag
In an autobiographical sketch, written in 1904, Saul Tschernichowsky wrote of his ancestors: “And so I begin with the mythology of our family, which is very rich in heroes of the spirit as well as in men of might.” “The heroes of the spirit” is a poetic exaggeration.

Enforcing Human Rights Internationally: Sovereignty Bars the Way
by Frederick Dunn
The development of effective international machinery for the protection of human rights is a continuing concern of COMMENTARY. Those who support this movement are now centering their efforts around the Commission for the Promotion of Human Rights set up in the United Nations Charter.

Enforcing Human Rights Internationally: A Good Start
by Philip Jessup
The Commission for the Promotion of Human Rights is a possible device for releasing the atomic energy of international law. International law has developed under a cloak of fictions among which the sovereign state held first place.

Enforcing Human Rights Internationally: A Too Remote Goal
by Nathaniel Peffer
It is an ungrateful task to throw cold water on a lofty ideal, one that expresses the best in persons of fine instincts.

Cedars of Lebanon: XVIII. The Sabbath
by Hermann Cohen
This astonishingly modern essay was delivered in the form of a lecture, in Berlin in January 1869, by Hermann Cohen, considered by many the foremost Jewish thinker since Spinoza.

From the American Scene: We Were a P.W.I. Team
by Karl Frucht
We Were a team of six—four enlisted men and two officers. All of us were foreign born, all were now Americans, though none of long standing.

The Study of Man: The Jews of Yankee City
by Harold Orlansky
This month, “The Study Of Man,” COMMENTARY's review of new thought and research in the social sciences, is given over to a full-length report and analysis of a unique study of the adaptation of ethnic groups to life in a New England town.

Germany is Our Problem, by Henry Morgenthau, Jr.
by Guenter Reimann
Shall Germany be Ruralized? Germany is Our Problem. by Henry Morgenthau, jr. New York, Harper & Bros., 1945. 239 pp. $2.00. Shortly after Hitler's rise to power prominent Nazi politicians drew up a plan for the “solution of the Jewish problem.” Under its terms the Jews of Europe, and perhaps those of other continents as well, were to be deported to Kenya in Africa.

Jewish Frontier Anthology
by Israel Knox
Frontier or Frontiers? Jewish Frontier Anthology. New York Jewish Frontier Association, Inc., 1945. 565 Pp. $2.00. The Jewish Frontier, now in its eleventh year, is the intellectual organ of the American Labor Zionists and as such represents a definite point of view.

Mother Goose Rhymes for Jewish Children, by Sara G. Levy
by Robert Warshow
Rhymes for a Reason Mother Goose Rhymes For Jewish Children. by Sara G. Levy. New York, Bloch Publishing Co., 1945. 61 pp. $1.25. Nothing is simple any more, once it has become necessary for a culture to be maintained artificially, by conscious activity—and this is surely the situation of Jewish culture in the United States, weak and isolated as it is against the great expanse of all that is not Jewish.

The Yogi and the Commissar, and Twilight Bar, by Arthur Koestler
by Hannah Arendt
The Too Ambitious Reporter Twilight Bar. by Arthur Koestler. New York, The Macmillan Company, 1945. 104 pp. $2.00. The Yogi and the Commissar. by Arthur Koestler. New York, The Macmillan Company, 1945.

All God's Children, by Armond E. Cohen
by Solomon Fineberg
No More Apologies All God's Children: A Jew Speaks. by Armond E. Cohen. New York, The Macmillan Co., 1945. 104 pp. $1.50. Rabbi Cohen writes a series of “open letters” to Christians.

Meet Amos and Hosea, by Rolland Emerson Wolfe
by Mordecai Chertoff
Capturing the Prophets Meet Amos and Hosea: The Prophets of Israel. by Rolland Emerson Wolfe. New York, Harper & Bros., 1945. 180 pp.

Trouble Zone, by Leon Dennen
by Lewis Coser
Always the Balkans Trouble Zone. by Leon Dennen. New York, Chicago, Ziff—Davis Publishing Co., 1945. 173 pp. $1.50. Leon Dennen spent nine months in 1944 in the Near East as a representative of an American relief agency.

Jewish Youth at War, edited by Isaac E. Rontch
by Martin Greenberg
For Publication Only Jewish Youth At War: Letters From American Soldiers. by Isaac E. Rontch. New York, Marsten Press, 1945. 304 pp. $3.00. A Collection of letters of Jewish soldiers in the armed forces might have cast a revealing light on the character of the American soldier had the selection of the letters been made with less of the pious and sanctimonious bias that shapes this dull book.

The Month in History
by Sidney Hertzberg
The Balance Sheet The British Empire was dying and throughout the world Britain and its wards were acting out the last few scenes of an inexorable global tragedy in which nobody moved according to his will, but according to roles set by history.


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February, 1946Back to Top
No Party Line
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . I congratulate you on the high quality of the contents of this first issue. You have taken a heavy responsibility upon yourself, to maintain the standards you have set.

Integrating Two Strands
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . I am not what one would call a Jewish author. My interest in Jewish affairs was forced upon me by Hitler (and I still think that the so-called Jewish problem in reality is a Gentile problem).

Help Wanted—Now
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to express my appreciation to you for the stimulating articles which these first few issues of COMMENTARY have carried.

From Rabbi Baeck
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . I feel I must write you, too, some words about COMMENTARY. In my opinion COMMENTARY is already, and I think will remain, one of the finest reviews I have ever come to know; a genuine one.

Disparaging the West
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Recently a friend of mine, of European origin, commented that despite America's bigness, prosperity and seeming superiority-complex, there yet seems a terrible feeling of loneliness running through American writings and many individuals. Professor Salo Baron, too, is of European origin, and so it may be that some other reason prompts this statement in his otherwise valuable and discerning study “The Spiritual Reconstruction of European Jewry” in the November COMMENTARY: “The great religious message for which the prosperous but as yet spiritually uncreative Jewish communities of Western Europe and America have been groping ever since the Emancipation may yet be spoken by these shattered remnants of European Jewry.” Why must the disparagement of things American (and here of entire Western Jewry) be accepted as a matter of course? Granting that our achievements have been far from utopian, must we nonetheless consider them spiritually worthless? This country, England, and Germany and the other countries of Western Europe have given rise to no Hassidic movement, but neither have they produced a Sabbatai Zevi.

The Saga of America's Russian Jews
by Solomon Bloom
For several centuries now the Western world has been in profound and incessant turmoil. The conditions of its material and spiritual life have been altered almost beyond recognition.

Candor About Negro-Jewish Relations
by Kenneth Clark
Three Negro women appeared before a mediating panel of clergymen with complaints that a Jewish butcher was “refusing to sell meat to many Negro residents of the neighborhood, but selling to white Irish Catholics who live outside of the area but formerly lived within it.” Furthermore: “The complainants report that this sort of discriminatory practice occurs elsewhere in the neighborhood—that in 'two instances angry Negro customers threatened the storekeeper—and in one instance also injured the storekeeper so that he was obliged to close up for a few days.” The following quotation appeared last January in a national Negro newspaper.

Project for a Modern Jewish Museum
by Paul Goodman
The following notes were engendered by reflecting on the difficulties—and opportunities—of making a real museum out of the present mere collections of Jewish cultural objects.

Arab Ferment and Power Politics
by Leon Dennen
Until the advent of Hitler in 1933 the Arab Middle East lay stagnant and all but forgotten by the Western world.

Imperialism: Road to Suicide
by Hannah Arendt
This article is the third in the series, “The Crisis of the Individual,” which already includes articles by Reinhold Niebuhr and Leo Lowenthal published in the past two months.

Bazaar of the Senses
by Isaac Rosenfeld
It was late on a Friday afternoon, and my stepmother, having finished with the house, had just come out of the tub.

Solution for Palestine: A British View
by H. Brailsford
London The joint Anglo-American commission which is to report on the Jewish problem in Europe and Palestine has to deal with the most complex subject on our common political horizon.

Ley's Last Lie
by Walter Mehring
There seem to be three kinds of anti-Semites: the snob, the rascal and the neurotic. In the defendants' dock at the trials in Nuremberg we find them all together. To the first category belong the Prussian Junkers and generals—Neurath, Papen, Ribbentrop, the apes of gentility, who managed to avoid soiling their gloves in the actual dirty work of extermination.

We Fought Back in France
by Abraham Raisky
On August 14, 1941 German occupation troops marched through the streets of a still docile Paris posting huge placards announcing the execution of three young Frenchmen.

From the American Scene: Leonard Bernstein: Theory and Practice
by Kurt List
At Twenty-Seven, Leonard Bernstein has already conducted the country's major symphony orchestras, has appeared with the New York and Boston Symphonies as piano soloist, has done a highly successful ballet, Fancy Free, for the American Ballet Theatre, and provided the music for the great Broadway hit On the Town.

Cedars of Lebanon: XIX. Four Epistles to the Jews of England
by Solomon Schechter
“Four Epistles to the Jews of England” first appeared during 1901 in the Jewish Chronicle in London. They still possess relevance, although the panegyric on the East-European Jews in the second “Epistle” reads today more like an elegy than an admonition. The “Epistles” are printed here by permission of the Jewish Publication Society of America (the copyright owners) which included them in a small collection of Schechter's writings, called Studies in Judaism, Second Series, published in 1908 and reprinted in 1938.

The Study of Man: Toward Intellectual Teamwork
by Sidney Hook
More than five years have elapsed since the organization of the Conference on Science, Philosophy and Religion in Their Relation to the Democratic Way of Life.

Sabbath Prayer Book, published by The Jewish Reconstructionist Foundation
by Theodor Gaster
Dr. Kaplan's Prayer Book Sabbath Prayer Book, with a Supplement Containing Prayers, Readings and Hymns and with a New Translation. by Theodor Gaster.

Focus, by Arthur Miller
by Evelyn Shefner
Art or Argument Focus. by Arthur Miller. New York, Reynal and Hitchcock, 1945. 217 pp. $2.50. The reviewer inevitably feels some strain when a novel presents, as does Focus, a timely and important issue—in this case the growth of organized anti-Semitism in America—and attempts with good intentions and some ingenuity to solve it.

The Age of Jackson, by Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr.
by Edward Saveth
Liberalism's Ebb And Flow The Age of Jackson. by Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. Boston, Little, Brown and Company, 1945. 577 pp. $5.00. History does not repeat itself, although the recurrence of events widely separated in time and having aspects of similarity, might cause one to think that it does.

Diagnosis of Our Time, by Karl Mannheim
by Mordecai Grossman
The Third Way Diagnosis of Our Time. by Karl Mannheim. New York, Oxford University Press, 1944. 195 pp. $3.00. The significance of Dr. Mannheim's latest book transcends the time and place of its composition.

Island of the Innocent, by Madeleine Kent, and Little Superman, by Heinrich Mann
by Dorothy Adelson
Phenomena of Fascism Island of the Innocent. by Madeleine Kent. New York, Harper and Bros., 1945. 302 pp. $2.50. Little Superman. by Heinrich Mann. New York, American Book-Stratford Press, 1945.

Safeguarding Civil Liberty Today, by Carl L. Becker, Max Lerner, James Lawrence Fly, Robert E. Cushman, Francis Biddle, and Edmu
by Milton Konvitz
The Realities Of Freedom Safeguarding Civil Liberty Today. by Carl L. Becker, Max Lerner, James Lawrence Fly, Robert E. Cushman, Francis Biddle, and Edmund Ezra Day. Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1945.

The Month in History
by Sidney Hertzberg
The Infiltrees As the first winter of liberation settled into the bones of Europe's millions, the struggle for simple survival was not yet over. The position of the Jews varied with political geography.


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March, 1946Back to Top
Rejoinder to Dr. Gaster
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In the last number of COMMENTARY, Dr. Theodor H. Gaster reviews the Sabbath Prayer Book, published by the Jewish Reconstructionist Foundation.

Rebuttal
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Lipkowitz seems to think that the Nuremberg trial is taking place so that we may in the future have law-enforcement machinery with which to meet new outcroppings of fascism.

Proposal on Germany
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It is certainly no understatement to say that the Morgan case has in no way contributed to the enhancement of the effect of the Jewish voice in the world.

Nuremberg Will Serve Justice
by Our Readers
To the Editor: “Will Nuremberg Serve Justice?” by Milton R. Konvitz in the January COMMENTARY is an amazing revelation of how far legal minds can remove themselves from the wellspring of law: moral indignation.

From Brazil
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am happy to say that COMMENTARY is a Jewish review everyone with inclination to clear and independent thinking had strongly missed before. Let me tell you a small episode: Just on the day when COMMENTARY arrived I had to go to Rio de Janeiro in the company of a friend, a very cultured and well-read man.

The Crisis in Human History
by John Dewey
This article is the fourth in a series which aims to bring to bear the minds of a number of leading men of thought in America and Europe on a basic issue of our times, “The Crisis of the Individual.” The problem is stated as follows: “In our time the individual human being has been more violently debased than in many centuries.

A Palestinian's Solution
by Mosche Smelansky
RehovotIs there any hope of establishing a pattern of government and of living in Palestine on which a peaceful existence can be based?During all of my fifty-five years in this country I have believed in the possibility of the peaceful co-existence of Jews and Arabs in Palestine and of a mutual understanding between them.

The People Vs. Discrimination
by Felix Cohen
The American people are today aroused as never before to the dangers—and the dollars-and-cents-cost—of racial and religious prejudice. The recent successful filibuster by a handful of bitter-enders in the Senate against the bill to establish a permanent Fair Employment Practice Commission did not alter this basic fact.

On Being of the B'nai B'rith
by Sigmund Freud
Right Honorable Grand President, honorable Presidents, dear Brothers: Thank you for the honor you have done me today. You know why I cannot answer in my own voice.

Rumania: Equality with Reservations
by Hal Lehrman
Bucharest My Interview with Father Constantin Burducea Minister of Religion, was very gratifying. He looked most venerable, a proper shepherd of the varied Rumanian cults, in his orthodox black silk soutane buttoned up at the throat like a Russsian blouse.

Nasty Kupperman and the Ku Klux Klan
by Louis Berg
Every time I cross the Brooklyn Bridge at night and see the huge electric sign of the Jewish Daily Forward, my spirits rise.

The Inner World of the Hasid
by Harold Rosenberg
Nothing could be more difficult for the modern mind to grasp than the reality of Hasidism—the mystical movement that flourished in Poland in the 18th and 19th centuries and still exercises a far-flung influence on Jewish religious thinking and culture today.

Clem Has Been Here
by Karl Frucht
What do American veterans think of the rest of the world? On this question the experts split all the way from Smith, who knows that the main hope is Allied unity, to Jones who wants America to keep the peace with plenty of atom bombs.

The Freedom of the Chessboard
by Milton Finkelstein
In 1941 the Deutsche Schachzeitung, the official German chess publication, printed a series of articles which dealt harshly with what was described as the “Jewish idea of defense,” which had, it was claimed, vitiated the chess world for half a century.

The Arab League: Tool or Power?
by Bernard Weinryb
A new political phenomenon burst upon the scene of Middle Eastern politics just about one year ago—the Arab League. Disparaged as a tool of the British Colonial Office, denounced as a Fascist threat and hailed as a step to Arab unity, its character, origins, strength and future possibilities have not yet been made clear to the Western world. Formed in March 1945, the Arab League—consisting of Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Transjordan, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq and Yemen—made its international debut at the UNO conference in San Francisco soon after, and went on to open offices in London and Washington in October.

From the American Scene: The Jewish Delicatessen
by Ruth Glazer
When I was sixteen my father became convinced he would never make his fortune as a milkman and decided to give the free enterprise system a chance to show what it could do for him.

Cedars of Lebanon: A New Conception of Jewish History
by Simon Dubnow
The essay below, which forms the introduction to Dubnow's Universal History and appears in its first volume, was written some time in the twenties.

The Study of Man: Dice, Dr. Hayek and the Consumer
by Ben Seligman
It may seem a far cry from shooting dice or playing chess to predicting how a battle between great economic combines will work out.

Wasteland, by Jo Sinclair
by Isaac Rosenfeld
Wasteland's New Priests Wastelend. by Jo Sinclair. New York, Harper and Brothers, 1946. 321 pp. $2.50. This $10,000 prize-winning novel is an epistle to the Jews who are poor in spirit.

One Destiny, by Sholem Asch
by Theodor Gaster
A Judeo-Christian Civilization? One Destiny: An Epistle To The Christians. by Sholem Asch. New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1945. 88 pp. $1.50. One of the most dangerous features of contemporary thinking is the way in which irrationality is praised as an ideal when it serves so-called “good” ends, but denounced as a prejudice when it serves so-called “bad” ones.

Reveille for Radicals, by Saul D. Alinsky
by Daniel Bell
“Grass Roots” for Big Cities Reveille For Radicals. by Saul D. Alinsky. Chicago, University of Chicago Press. 228 pp. $2.50. Chicago's “back-of-the-yards” district is a smoky, sprawling area where nearly 100,000 packing-house workers live in old, dreary tenements whose rotting walls soak in the acrid stench of the stockyards.

The Rise of the Jew in the Western World, by Uriah Zevi Engelman
by Joshua Starr
Jewish Vital Statistics The Rise of the Jew in the Western World. A Social And Economic History of the jewish people of Europe. by Uriah Zevi Engelman and Niles Carpenter. New York, Behrman's Jewish Book House, 1944.

Puritanism and Democracy, by Ralph Barton Perry
by Sidney Morgenbesser
Puritan into Democrat Puritanism and Democracy. by Ralph Barton Perry. New York, Vanguard Press, 1944. 687 pp. $5.00. Judged from the vantage point of any single discipline, Ralph Barton Perry's Puritanism and Democracy is not a major contribution.

Continuity: Anthology of American Yiddish Poetry, edited by Moshe Starkman
by Israel Knox
Yiddish Poetry in America Hemshekh: Antologie Fun Amerikaner-Yiddisher Dikhtung. (“Continuity: Anthology of American Yiddish Poetry.”) by Moshe Starkman. New York, “Hemshekh,” 1945. 432 pp.

The Month in History
by Sidney Hertzberg
The Dilemma The historical fact upon which hung the Jewish interest as well as every other specific interest in the world was the sharpening conflict between the soviet Union's expansionism and Britain's effort to harmonize socialist evolution at home with colonial nationalism abroad.

April, 1946Back to Top
Word of Praise
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have read the copy of Commentary which you sent me. The magazine strikes me as being of very high calibre.

The Dangers of Mass Culture
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I've read Leo Lowenthal's article, “Terror's Atomization of Man,” in the January issue of COMMENTARY, and it interested me very much.

Schechter and Catholic Israel
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In the February issue of your always interesting publication, I came across the error (p. 73)—repeated, singularly enough, in one of the “Letters from Readers” (Rabbi Bial, p.

Needed: An Architectural Agency
by Our Readers
To the Editor: There seems to be much interest at present in the design of synagogues, and our office, like others in New York, has had numerous requests for advice from different sections of the country.

Made in the U.S.A.
by Our Readers
To the Editor: This report from Cuba on the crumbling of another Eden is not prompted by any desire to sound the alarm—cui bono? Consider it rather a scientific footnote on the process of cultural diffusion—or a historical footnote on a neglected phase of the civilizing march of North American democracy in the backward lands of our Latin-American neighbors. For some years past, Cuba has been a friendly first port of call for American Jews who hankered for a few weeks of sun and palm trees, free from “selected clientele” distinctions that somehow don't exist outside of the United States.

Brotherhood Week
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To the Editor: I enjoyed Dr. Gaster's sound and penetrating review of Sholem Asch's “One Destiny,” in the March issue, but I feel that his last paragraph reveals that he misses the meaning of Brotherhood Week. Like Mother's Day, Religious Book Week, Negro History Week, etc., Brotherhood Week is an attempt to dramatize and highlight a spirit and a way of thinking and acting that should, of course, be binding throughout all the weeks of the year.

Religion Without Tears
by Irwin Edman
Anyone these days who reads at all must have noted certain winds of doctrine that are sweeping over the spiritual awareness of men.

The Solitary
by Pearl Buck
This article is the fifth in the series, “The Crisis of the Individual,” which already includes articles by Reinhold Niebuhr, Leo Lowenthal, Hannah Arendt and John Dewey, published in previous issues.

No Hope Except Exodus
by Shlomo Katz
The invitation to abandon illusions regarding [a] situation is an invitation to abandon a situation which has need of illusions. —Karl Marx. The recent statement of Lieutenant General Morgan, head of the German Division of UNRRA, that the remaining Jews of Poland are plotting an exodus from Europe, provoked a storm of protest so tragi-comic in its implications as to leave one in despair.

Chronicles of the Lost: American Series
by Charles Reznikoff
“I don't like to see our people going to pieces, that's all.”—Mendel Quixano in The Melting-Pot by Israel Zangwill. Judah Monis The name “Monis” is supposed to be Portuguese and Judah Monis may well have been a descendant of Marranos fled from Portugal to be Jews.

My Beginnings
by Marc Chagall
The first thing that met my eyes was a tub. Simple, square, with rounded corners, and shallow. A tub from the bazaar.

The Schools Fight Prejudice
by Mordecai Grossman
Our country was built by immigrants—those who came to seek opportunity and those who were brought as slaves—and by the descendants of immigrants.

Richard Beer-Hofmann
by Erich Kahler
On September 26, 1945 Richard Beer-Hofmann's princely life came to a close, fittingly enough, on the verge of patriarchal old age. It can be said of him that he lived all the stages of the life of man to their fullest measure, in the spirit most naturally appropriate to them: full of provocative bravado, in a sense even revolutionary, in his youth; measured and finely balanced in maturity; contemplative, wise and full of reminiscence in his old age.

My Sister Hans
by Jenny Klein
My sister Hans is no more. I hold her new-born babe in my bare hands. Its body bums my flesh.

Build Palestine on Realities
by Ahad Ha'am
Upon my return from Palestine in 1912, I summed up my views in an article “Summa Summarum.” When I then met violent criticism from various sides, I wrote some words to accompany that article as an interpretation of the criticism.

France: A Nation Broods
by Bernard Lecache
The French today face the future in the frame of mind of an inexperienced swimmer approaching the water's edge. Their pale faces, troubled minds, and the hard and anxious tone of their voices mirror their inner tensions.

From the American Scene: My War with Sol Bloom
by Solomon Bloom
The other day, browsing through the English Dictionary of National Biography, I was rather surprised to stumble across the name of Julius Caesar.

From the American Scene: My Father's Russians
by David Bernstein
My Father, Herman Bernstein, in his professional life a dignified journalist and editor, was in his spare time a very easy mark for the fly-by-night publishing firms which, in the 200's, produced numerous imitations of “Who's Who in America.” And when one of these firms sent him a questionnaire asking for his favorite hobby, after pondering “people” and “travel,” he wrote in the word “Russia.” My own opinion, even at that time, was that “hobby” was a feeble description for an activity which consumed so many of my father's waking hours.

Cedars of Lebanon: Jewish Law and the Beautiful
by Anonymous
We believe this essay of sharp relevance to the Jewish religious plight in our age. Unlike traditional Christianity, traditional or Orthodox Judaism demands a more or less complete change in their way of life on the part of those who come to it.

The Study of Man: Polls on Anti-Semitism
by Samuel Flowerman
Of all the tools utilized by the social sciences, public opinion polls have made the greatest impact on the American mind.

The Jewish Dilemma, by Elmer Berger
by Israel Knox
Whose Dilemma? The Jewish Dilemma. by Elmer Berger. New York, The Devin-Adair Company, 1945. 257 pp. $3.00 Rabbi Berger is Executive Secretary and one of the official ideological leaders of the American Council for Judaism, an active and vocal anti-Zionist group which aggressively promotes the thesis that Jews are Jews by creed only, and are in no sense a people.

Song of the Dnieper, by Zalman Shneour
by Norbert Guterman
Jewish Hercules Song of The Dnieper. by Zalman Shneour. Translated by Joseph Leftwich. New York, Roy Publishers, 1945. 376 pp. $3.00. In the preface the author states his essential purpose: it is to tell of “the coachmen, butchers, plasterers, hewers of wood .

The Wisdom of Ecclesiastes, by Robert Gordis
by David Daiches
Re-Translating Koheleth The Wisdom of Ecclesiastes. by Robert Gordis. New York, Behrman House, 1946. 82 pp. $2.00. Dr. Gordis, who has made himself master of most of the modem scholarship on Koheleth, has given us a new translation of this fascinating and often puzzling book, together with an introduction which puts the book in its historical context and clears up many of the popular confusions about it.

Star of the Unborn, by Franz Werfel
by Sholom Kahn
Last Testament Star of the Unborn. by Franz Werfel. New York, Viking Press, 1946. 645 pp. $3.00. One hesitates to use the sharpest edge of the critical blade when no reply is possible.

It's a Secret, by Henry Hoke, and Time Bomb, by E. A. Piller
by David Bazelon
More Than A Conspiracy It's a Secret. by Henry Hoke. New York, Reynal and Hitchcock, 1946. 312 pp. $2.50. Time Bomb. by E. A. Piller. New York, Arco Publishing Co., 1945.

Nationalities and National Minorities, by Oscar Janowsky, and The League of Nations and National Minorities, by Pablo de Azcarat
by Maurice Goldbloom
Minorities and the State Nationalities and National Minorities. by Oscar Janowsky. New York, Macmillan, 1945. 232 pp. $2.75. The League of Nations and National Minorities. by Pablo de Azcarate. Washington-New York, Carnegie Endowment, Columbia University Press, 1945.

Man's Most Dangerous Myth, by M. F. Ashley Montagu
by Alfred Werner
The Nazi's Best Weapon Man's Most Dangerous Myth: The Fallacy of Race. by M. E. Ashley Montagu. With a foreword by Aldous Huxley.

The Month in History
by Sidney Hertzberg
Politics—Foreign and Domestic In the Spring of 1946, it became clear that the United States at last had a foreign policy that was definite in at least one respect: it was against Russian expansionism.

May, 1946Back to Top
Thought Provoking
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I know of no other magazine currently being published, the contents of which are so uniformly excellent as Commentary.

The Ideal of Community
by Our Readers
To the Editor: John Dewey's article in the March Commentary marks a watershed for me—and I suspect for a good many others as well.

No Exodus Down Here
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Of all the articles I have read dealing with the plight of the Jews in postwar Europe, that by Shlomo Katz is at once the most candid, the most pessimistic, and the most challenging to Jews and non-Jews alike.

Mr. Bernstein Protests
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have been greatly upset by a reference in Kurt List's article about me which appeared in the February issue of COMMENTARY.

Helping Others Help Themselves
by Our Readers
To the Editors: I wish I had time to comment more fully on Pearl Buck's article in the April Commentary. I believe that we have to blaze entirely new trails in thinking about our responsibility in connection with helping other peoples in the world improve their living standards, as I believe this is probably the only way in which we can hope to have a lasting peace. Of course, I cannot agree that in a capitalistic economy we can make food, shelter and clothing free commodities to all men.

Dep't of Editorial Fallibility
by Our Readers
Dep't of Editorial Fallibility In our prefatory note on Simon M. Dubnow's Introduction to his Universal History of the Jews, which appeared in the March “Cedars of Lebanon,” we stated that this was the first publication of the essay in English.

Deploring Miss Buck
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have always felt that it takes a certain amount of nerve for a lady from uptown to preach manners to a woman of the tenements, and for a rich man to preach thrift to a poor one.

Beyond FEPC
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Thanks for sending me Commentary with the article by Felix Cohen, and other pieces which I have enjoyed.

Approving Miss Buck
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Before commenting on Pearl Buck's interesting article in the April COMMENTARY, let me commend you for the series as a whole.

The Jewish State: Fifty Years After
by Hannah Arendt
Rereading Herzl's The Jewish State today is a peculiar experience. One becomes aware that those things in it that Herzl's own contemporaries would have called utopian now actually determine the ideology and policies of the Zionist movement; while those of Herzl's practical proposals for the building of a Jewish homeland which must have appeared quite realistic fifty years ago have had no influence whatsoever. The last is all the more surprising because these practical proposals are far from antiquated even for our own age.

Everyman Amid the Stereotypes
by William Orton
This article is the sixth in the series “The Crisis of the Individual,” which already includes articles by Reinhold Niebuhr, Leo Lowenthal, Hannah Arendt, John Dewey and Pearl Buck, published in previous issues.

Poet of the Jewish Middle Class
by Robert Warshow
Before migrating to America, all the ethnic groups of Yankee City possessed a family pattern of the patriarchal type in which the wife was subordinated to the husband and the children to the father.

The Economic Outlook: Favorable If-
by Robert Nathan
The importance of a sound and healthy economy to the strength and future of democratic life—as it concerns both the individual and his group relationships—is axiomatic.

The Parachutists from Palestine
by Marie Syrkin
To the long line of legendary heroes of Israel, the Second World War has added the gallant band of young men and women known as the parachutists from Palestine.

The Foreigner
by Kurt Wolff
I had seen the girl on the street near where we lived. Her face had been so layered with paint and powder that I couldn't tell what it was really like; and her eyebrows and lashes, at least in their blackness and perhaps in their density, were obviously not her own.

Judaism and Christianity: Rivals or Partners?
by James Parkes
The question in my title will perhaps seem odd; that I ask it at this time is the result of a cobbler not having stuck to his last.

Greece: Unused Cakes of Soap
by Hal Lehrman
Athens The fashionable phrase in Salonika for a Jew back from deportation is “unused cake of soap.” This brand of Hellenic wit requires a toughness of stomach more common among ancients.

Death of the Flowers
by Zalman Shneour
. . . But happy the errant plant in a forgotten corner No sower sowed in tears, nor reaper with joy shall harvest, That blooms, bears fruit unheeded, and, in silence upgathered, Pours ten thousand seeds of spirit into the soil. Yea, though it cease to the light of the eye, inheritor—Buds enough endure to scatter its fame Among a thousand conserving and permanent beings: Borne by wind and bird they sow stone and plain. Oh, let us learn to die, comrades, like fruit of the growing green With the largesse of wealth, the sere's exaltation; Let each greet his end, yearning like a bride, Scattering as she goes among poor wandering eagles Her complete virtues to deck their lonely nests. Let us not die like our fathers—the shame! In misery, painfully trembling, faint With famine, frost-bloatings, and rags, and stench .

Berlin Apartment House
by Hans Adler
In that undamaged house in a half-ruined German city, a bit crowded but not too uncomfortable, live fifty average Germans, thirty-two females, eighteen males, all between the ages of seventeen and sixty-five.

From the American Scene: The Jewish Stationery Store
by Rose Englander
When the New York Telephone Company gave my father a dollar-a-week raise in 1896, just as he got married, my mother was ecstatic. “But how will we spend $10 a week?” she asked. That was before they became parents.

Cedars of Lebanon: A Rational Exposition of the Jewish Faith
by Salomon Maimon
The entrance of the Eastern Jew of the 8th century into lands of Western emancipation was vastly more than a change of country.

The Study of Man: The Social Scientists Dissect Prejudice
by Nathan Glazer
The intellectual current that now impels writers—in the big national magazines as well as the more serious little magazines—to talk about race prejudice has not left social scientists unmoved.

David the King, by Gladys Schmitt
by Harold Rosenberg
David In Petticoats David The King. by Gladys Schmitt. New York, Dial Press, 1946. 631 pp. $3.00. Gladys Schmitt is a sort of biblical Howard Fast.

The Case Against the Nazi War Criminals, by Robert H. Jackson
by Max Radin
Nuremberg's New Precedents The Case Against The Nazi War Criminals. by Robert H. Jackson. With A Preface By Gordon Dean. New York, Alfred A.

The Glory of Elsie Silver, by Louis Golding
by Diana Trilling
Exploiting Jewish Tragedy The Glory of Elsie Silver. by Louis Golding. New York, Dial Press, 1946. 390 pp. $2.75. From my own experience, I can report that it is unnecessary to know Louis Golding's previous novels in order to appreciate—if appreciate is the word-his new book about the Silver family, The Glory of Elsie Silver.

Treasury for the Free World, edited by Ben Raeburn
by David Bazelon
Freedom is Freedom is Freedom Treasury For The Free World. by Ben Raeburn. New York, Arco Publishing Co., 1946. 417 pp. $3.50. “The material in this book, now enlarged and revised, originates from the files of Free World, the publication which has become a focal point for the ideas of international leaders and statesmen on the urgent problems of our time,” says the editor.

This Is Judaism, by Ferdinand M. Isserman, and Conservative Judaism, by Robert Gordis
by Sidney Morgenbesser
Modern Guides To The Perplexed? This Is Judaism. by Ferdinand M. Isserman. Chicago, Willett, Clark & Co., 1944. 238 pp. $2.50. Conservative Judaism: An American Philosophy. by Robert Grdis. New York, Behrman House, 1945.

The Palestine Yearbook, edited by Sophie A. Udin
by Seymour Melman
Palestine Handbook The Palestine Yearbook. by Sophie A. Udin. Washington, Zionist Organization of America, 1945. 526 pp. $3.50. This useful compendium issued by the Zionist organization of America is a fine reference book which is rendered especially useful by a series of articles rich in data on various aspects of the Jewish community in Palestine. Jewish economic development is discussed by Eliezer Kaplan, treasurer of the Jewish Agency, and David Horowitz, a highly competent economist, who writes on Palestine's absorptive capacity.

An Encyclopedia of Religion, edited by Vergilius Ferm
by Mordecai Chertoff
Handy Compendium An Encyclopedia of Religion. by Vergilius Ferm. The Philosophical Library, New York, 1945. 844 pp. $10.00. The Philosophical Library first came to this reviewer's attention with the publication of what is undoubtedly one of the worst attempts at classics-popularization ever undertaken—Auerbach's translation-distortion of selections from the Babylonian Talmud.

The Month in History
by Sidney Hertzberg
Hunger In the Spring of 1946 the world was a suppliant before the heads of the three great states. They were exercising the most basic and direct kind of power: the distribution of food to keep men alive.

June, 1946Back to Top
Wanted: Poetry
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have been reading the last three issues of COMMENTARY with increasing wonderment. We are a people who live by handfuls among the nations of this earth and yet here you manage to turn out the sort of periodical that Harper's and the Atlantic used to be.

Most Understanding and Objective
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I found Hertzberg's analysis [of the report of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry] most excellent. Indeed it is the most understanding and objective discussion of the report that I have seen. Joseph C.

Exodus is Not Retreat
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Jews are inevitably suffering from shock, declares Mr. Rorty in his letter [in the May issue] commenting on my article “No Hope Except Exodus,” which appeared in the April COMMENTARY.

Ex Post Facto at Nuremberg
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his review of The Case Against the Nazi War Criminals in the May Commentary, Professor Max Radin says that I am not justified in criticizing the Nuremberg trial for rejecting the defense of ex post facto, because (1) Nazi Germany had done away with this defense, and ex post facto “is not the basis of existing Russian law, except so far as it can be equitably supported .

The Dilemma of Our Times
by Arthur Koestler
I should like to start with a story which is familiar. But it will lead us straight to the heart of our problem.

Whittling Away Religious Freedom
by Milton Konvitz
Religious freedom, as based on the rigorous separation of church and state, has traditionally been regarded as one of the foundation stones of American democracy.

Argentina: The Choice Before Peron
by Alfred Temkin
When Argentinians return home from the United States, they usually carry with them the impression that the United States is not only a different country but a different world.

The Economic Outlook: The Unsolved Crisis
by Fritz Sternberg
The outlook for democracy and healthy inter-Group living in America is, as we know, inextricably bound up with a sound and healthy national economy.

Journal of Kibbutz Buchenwald
by With introduction
Introduction These are excerpts from the group diary of “Kibbutz Buchenwald,” an agricultural commune formed by some of the survivors of Buchenwald with the intention of going to Palestine.

The Guest
by David Rubin
When he passed Meyer's barbershop the street shadows were already on the clock in the darkened window. Inside Meyer was sweeping up.

The Central Problem of Modern Man
by Waldo Frank
Waldo Frank's is the seventh article in the series “The Crisis of the Individual.” The still reverberating events of the recent war and the years that led up to it in Germany and elsewhere have revealed a collapse in the concept of the inherent dignity of the human personality that is rendered all the more ominous by the mass scale on which it has occurred.

Europe's Neurotic Nationalism
by Lewis Coser
National independence movements in Europe have always had a strong hold on Americans. Mazzini, Garibaldi and Kossuth were heroes in this country as well as in their own.

From the American Scene: My Sisters Take Culture
by Rose Englander
Whenever I watch my small daughter run barefoot and free at “rhythm class,” I remember how my devoted mother kept buying expensive ballet slippers for my sisters and me.

Cedars of Lebanon: Study as a Mode of Worship
by Nathan Isaacs
The essay below is typical of Isaacs' approach to a subject in which he was keenly interested both as a thinker and as a religious Jew.

The Study of Man: The Philosophic Scene: Scientific Method on the Defensive
by Sidney Hook
During the last few years philosophers in the United States have been engaged in a profound searching of heart. They have been discussing the nature and justification of philosophy in our troubled world. Among the causes for this current stocktaking may be mentioned a sense of futility among some philosophers about the relevance of technical philosophical issues to problems of war and peace.

Arch of Triumph, by Erich Maria Remarque
by Paul Massing
That Old Gang of Remarque's Arch of Triumph. by Erich Maria Remarque. New York, Appleton-Century, 1946. 455 pp. $3.00. Remarque's latest novel continues the phenomenal popular success of All Quiet on the Western Front, the book that placed him among the leading spokesmen of the “lost generation” of World War I.

Grooves of Change, by Viscount Samuel
by Samuel Hurwitz
He Remained an Englishman Grooves of change. by Viscount Samuel. Indianapolis-New York, Bobbs-Merrill, 1946. 364 pp. $3.75. If the age of discretion is reached when one has learned how to be indiscreet discreetly, Viscount Samuel, at the age of seventy-five, has not yet attained it.

Pirke Aboth, edited by H. Travers Herford, and Sayings of the Fathers or Pirke Aboth, edited by the Very Reverend Dr. Joseph H.
by James Grossman
The Everyday Vision Pirke Aboth: The Tractate “Fathers,” from the Mishnah. by R. Travers Herford. New York, Jewish Institute of Religion, 3rd revised edition, 1945.

Confessions of a European Intellectual, by Franz Schoenberner
by Kurt List
Simplicissimus Confessions of A European Intellectual. By Franz Schoenberner. New York, Macmillan, 1946. 315 pp. $2.75. I don't think that during all the years in which I read Simplicissimus religiously it made me laugh once.

The Gospel According to Gamaliel, by Gerald Heard, Behold Your King, by Florence Marvyne Bauer, and The Lance of Longinus, by Pr
by Jacob Sloan
The Ancieit Reproach The Gospel According to Gamaliel. by Gerald Heard. New York, Harper, 1945. 154 pp. $2.00. Behold Your King. by Florence Marvyne Bauer. Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill, 1945.

One Nation, by Wallace Stegner, One America, edited by F. J. Brown and J. S. Roucek, and A Nation of Nations, by Louis Adamic
by Oscar Handlin
E Pluribus Unum One Nation. By Wallace Stegner and Look. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1945. 340 pp. $3.75. 340 pp. $3.75. One America: the History, Contributions, and Present Problems of our Racial and National Minorities. by F.

The Month in History
by Sidney Hertzberg
The New Dynamic For the first time in history Britain offered India, her jewel, full independence. There were no strings attached—or at least none that the Indians felt were unfairly binding. This offer seemed to be the keystone of Britain's new master plan—a plan that might prove to be the democratic world's effective alternative to the Soviet dynamic. For eight months inside the United Kingdom itself Britain's new Socialist government had been quietly chipping away at British capitalism.

July, 1946Back to Top
Is There a Crisis of the Individual?
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Dissatisfaction with contemporary civilization, its political structures and its culture, has arisen naturally from the war crisis and the events that preceded and followed.

Harmonizing Religion and Science
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Sidney Hook's article in the February issue of COMMENTARY on the Conference on Science, Philosophy and Religion in Their Relation to the Democratic Way of Life, filled me with a sense of sadness.

The Anglo-American Report Points the Way
by Mosche Smelansky
Sad it is indeed that the recommendations of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry are still being debated two months after their publication by the very same people who had pledged themselves in the beginning to accept and immediately carry them out.

The Germans and the Jews: Postwar Report
by Moses Moskowitz
Amidst the ruins of an ancient German city, the leader of a crew that was clearing away wreckage pointed to an inscription on a toppling wall near the site of the former Nazi party headquarters.

Grace After Bread
by David Baumgardt
Wherever Jews live in accordance with their traditions, they are united at “all the ends of the earth” by similar forms of prayer.

A Peaceable Answer to the Russian Challenge
by Louis Fischer
President Truman said in his first message to Congress on April 16, 1945: “In this shrinking world, it is futile to seek safety behind geographical barriers.

The Examination
by Harry Wedeck
Saturday afternoon, in Edinburgh, when the autumn mildness had not yet turned to the sharp winds that sweep into the city from the North Sea. A soft, mellow light filtered through things, giving them cosiness.

A Psychoanalytic Approach to Anti-Semitism
by Otto Fenichel
The instinctual structure of the average man in Germany was no different in 1935 from what it was in 1925.

Understanding Jewish Resistance in Palestine
by Shlomo Katz
For the first time since the days of Bar Kochba, Jews have appeared on the historical scene fighting with arms for their national rights.

Cesar Tiempo: Argentine Poet
by Donald Walsh
Cesar Tiempo is the pen name of Israel Zeitlin, a naturalized Argentine born in the Ukraine in 1906. A Russian pogrom drove the Zeitlin family to Hamburg, and soon after, they set sail for America.

From the American Scene: One Touch of Delicatessen
by A Symposium
New England Testimony Samuel A. Persky To Dismiss Ruth Glazer's article on “The Jewish Delicatessen” as merely an amusing and nostalgic little essay, as I fear most readers might, would be a grave mistake. My professional life, thus far bracketed between the reigns of Theodore and Franklin, has been devoted almost exclusively to the interests of malefactors of small wealth and bush-league economic royalists.

Cedars of Lebanon: Can Judaism Survive in Free America?
by Israel Friedlaender
The essay below was first published in 1908-9 in the Jewish Comment and was reprinted in 1999 in a collection of Friedlaender's English essays, published under the title Past and Present by the Ark Publishing Company in Cincinnati.

The Study of Man: Government by Manipulation
by Nathan Glazer
Everyone within reach of a radio loudspeaker or a newspaper headline knows of the tremendous advances made by science during the war: atomic bombs, radiocontrolled planes, rockets and radar, DDT, new ways of preventing disease, better ways of curing them, etc., etc.

The First Freedom, by Morris L. Ernst
by James Rorty
Toward Cultural Totalitarianism The First Freedom. by Morris L. Ernst. New York, Macmillan, 1946. 271 pp. $3.00. With the help of four able research assistants, Mr.

The Economic Mind in American Civilization: 1606-1865, by Joseph Dorfman
by Daniel Bell
The Economic Founding Fathers The Economic Mind in American Civilization: 1606-1865. by Joseph Dorfman. New York, Viking, 1946. Two Volumes. $7.50. As America moves toward its “manifest destiny,” its statesmen and thinkers are striving to redefine a sense of national interests and national ideals so as to present some coherent image to the world and to the historians of the future who will chart the lifelines of empire.

The Wise Men of Helm, by Solomon Simon
by Pearl Kazin
The Wisdom of Fools The Wise Men of Helm. by Solomon Simon. Translated from the Yiddish “Di Helden fun Chelm,” by Ben Bengal and David Simon.

Life, I Salute You! by Boris Kader; My Caravan of Years: An Autobiography, by Goldie Stone; and The Son of the Lost Son, by Soma
by Martin Greenberg
Three Lives Life, I Salute You! by Boris Kader. Cambridge, Sci-Art Publishers, 1945. 368 pp. $3.00. My Caravan of Years: An Autobiography. by Goldie Stone. New York, Bloch, 1945.

The Creative Mind, by Henri Bergson
by Israel Knox
The Dangers of Intuition The Creative Mind. by Henri Bergson. New York, Philosophical Library, 1946. 307 pp. $3.75. Bergson's philosophy achieved great popularity during his lifetime, aided no little by the limpid clarity of his writing, by its fresh and memorable metaphors, and by the ease with which one could grasp the continuity of his thought through the unity of his method.

Seven Books on Nazi Atrocities
by Norbert Guterman
In What Words Speak? No Traveler Returns. by Henry Shoskes and Curt Riess. New York, Doubleday Doran, 1945. 267 pp. $2.50. The Promise Hitler Kept. by Stefan Szende. New York, Roy Publishers, 1945.

The Month in History
by Maurice Goldbloom
The Atom Lucretius held that the world took its origin from the swerving of the atoms. Ever since Hiroshima, many had feared that man's world, at least, might find its end in their splitting. In the hope that some way to avoid this fate could be found, the United Nations had set up the Atomic Energy Commission.

August, 1946Back to Top
The Social Scientist's Responsibility
by Our Readers
To the Editor: There can be no question of the urgent importance of the issues Mr. Glazer raises in his article “Government by Manipulation” in the July COMMENTARY. As to the responsibility of the social scientist, I am not entirely clear in my own mind.

The Retort Amused
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would in general hardly think of answering even the most surprising critical statements, but I must frankly admit that I was rather amused at Mr.

Social Scientists are Citizens
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Essentially the problem Mr. Glazer raises concerning the application of social science to human affairs is a moral one.

On Released Time
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Milton R. Konvitz's discussion of the present threats to the traditional separation of church and state, and to the guarantee of religious freedom, is most timely, particularly because of the challenge these fundamental principles are facing in the public school system by the “released time” movement, which is spreading throughout the entire country.

No Problem for Mr. Bernays
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I think Mr. Glazer in his article “Government by Manipulation” uses a lot of long sentences and much involved thinking and writing to present a question every professional man has to solve.

Mr. Sloan Replies
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Perhaps Prince Hubertus has managed in his book, The German in History, to present a good case for the traditional Christian tolerance towards Jews.

Ethics for Social Scientists
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In connection with Mr. Glazer's sympathetic and painstaking study of the problem of applied social science, your readers may be interested to learn of the existence of a Committee on Professional Ethics within the Society for Applied Anthropology.

Centuries Even of Friendship
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It is always difficult for an author to comment on reviews of his own works, but I found COMMENTARY'S view of The Lance of Longinus decidedly worthwhile and interesting.

Nationalism is the Enemy
by Ernest Munz
The question of whether the world can overcome nationalism and learn to think in supra-national terms concerns all of humanity and not only Jews.

Between the Millstones in Poland
by Zachariah Shuster
The Jews of Poland are on the march. Thousands are stampeding in caravans and trucks across the mountain passes into Czechoslovakia, through Austria, and into the U.

The Gift of Sholom Aleichem
by S. Niger
One of Sholom Aleichem's plays is called “It's Hard To Be A Jew.” When Solomon Rabinowitz made his first appearance as a writer, it was even harder to be a Jewish humorist—if not in real life, certainly in literature.

Race Discrimination in Trade Unions
by Herbert Northrup
The racial policies of American unions vary from the outright exclusion of some minority groups to their complete acceptance, with all the rights and privileges of members.

Hollywood's Terror Films
by Siegfried Kracauer
Films saturated with terror and sadism have issued from Hollywood in such numbers recently as to become commonplace. The trend undoubtedly had its source in the requirements of wartime propaganda.

The Hut
by Avigdor Hammeiri
Fruit of the goodly tree, leaves of the palm tree, Branch of the myrtle, and willows of the stream,— God of every fearful hour, In this forest of horrors, guard Thou my hut, Hut of young shoots, hut of creativity, From the conjurings of men, and men that come of lions. Fruit of the goodly tree, branch of the myrtle, Willows of the stream, and leaves of the palm tree— God of every pleasant hour, In this forest of horrors, never fête for victory, No exulting over spoils, and no paean after battle; Here in the straits, guard Thou this hut of mine. Fruit of the goodly tree, willows of the stream, Leaves of the palm tree, and branches of myrtle— God of each eternal hour, In this forest of horrors, only this coign is for me, In all of the earth, and in all of heaven. Perhaps, perhaps, perhaps, Thou'llt not move me again?

Shock Treatment
by Irwin Stark
Emma Richter had liked him from the beginning of the night-school term. Michels, submitting to the inevitable, blamed it on his deceptively youthful manner as well as on his blond hair. She would approach his desk after the period and inform him in a fluttery whisper, “You said it right this time, Mr.

The Journal of Kibbutz Buchenwald
by Meyer Levin
Introduction When the Buchenwald concentration camp was freed by the American Army on April 11, 1945, some of the Jewish survivors formed themselves into a group with the purpose of setting themselves up as an agricultural commune, a “kibbutz,” in Palestine.

London: British Jewry Postwar
by Alan Schper
London The situation here in London is as tense as it is confusing. Anglo-Jewry is intensely shocked at the recent events in Palestine.

From the American Scene: Back to Eighty-Sixth Street
by Aaron Frankel
After three army years, two in Europe, within six days after docking I was home—eager to plunge into the difficulties of which we were assured, and the delights of which I was certain. With cheerful resolution I faced Readjustment to Civilian Life.

Cedars of Lebanon: Christian Mystery and Jewish Moral Drama
by David Koigen
The short essays and notes printed below—for the first time in English—are taken from a small selection of Koigen's Jewish writings that Schocken Verlag published in Germany in 1934, under the editorship of Ernst Hoffmann and under the title Das Haus Israel (“The House of Israel”).

The Study of Man: The Immigrant in American History
by Edward Saveth
Historical literature dealing with the immigrant and the “ethnic” group in American life is voluminous. But from the beginning it has been largely the monopoly of the amateur historian, the ethnic jingoist, the minority booster; and it has been designed mainly to please circumscribed ethnic audiences by puffing the merits of their ancestors.

Passage from Home, by Isaac Rosenfeld
by Irving Howe
Of Fathers and Sons Passage from Home. By Isaac Rosenfeld. New York, Dial Press, 1946. 280 pp. $2.50. One approaches with some scepticism a novel written by a young intellectual that has Jewish family life as its background.

Palestine: Problem and Promise, by Robert R. Nathan, Oscar Gass, Donald Creamer
by Alvin Johnson
Can Palestine Be Self-Supporting? Palestine: Problem and Promise. An Economic Study. by Robert R. Nathan, Oscar Gass, Donald Creamer. Washington, D. C., Public Affairs Press, 1946.

A History of Jewish Art, by Franz Landsberger
by Rachel Wischnitzer-Bernstein
Is There a Jewish Art? A History Or Jewish Art. by Franz Landsberger. Cincinnati, Union of Hebrew Congregations, 1946. 369 pp. “Is there such a thing as Jewish art?” This challenging question, raised by Dr.

Germany Tried Democracy, by S. William Halperin
by Karl Korsch
Did Germany Try Democracy? Germany Tried Democracy. by S. William Halperin. New York, Crowell, 1946. 567 pp. $3.75. Professor Halperin deals very sparingly with democracy as it was experienced and practiced (more or less successfully) by the German people themselves or by the various strata of which the German nation was composed.

On the Nature of Value: The Philosophy of Samuel Alexander, by Milton R. Konvitz
by Arthur Murphy
Human Values On The Nature of Value: The Philosophy of Samuel Alexander. by Milton R. Konvitz. New York, King's Crown Press, 1946. 128 pages.

Values for Survival, by Lewis Mumford
by William Barrett
Anti-Pragmatic Liberal Values for Survival. by Lewis Mumford. New York, Harcourt Brace, 1946. 314 pp. $3.00. This book, a collection of articles (some of which appeared in the liberal weeklies), radio talks, and public addresses, all centering more or less about the political situation at the time of our entry into the war, might seem somewhat out of date at the present moment of publication.

The Month in History
by Maurice Goldbloom
The Peacemakers When four men met at Munich in 1938, one of them returned home to proclaim that they had achieved “peace in our time.” It was doubtful that any of the four who met in Paris in the summer of 1946 was so sanguine.

Reader Letters August 1946
by Our Readers
The Social Scientist's Responsibility To TiE EDTrOR OF COMMENTARY: There can be no question of the urgent im- portance of the issues Mr.

September, 1946Back to Top
The Road to Security
by Our Readers
To the Editor: “Back to Eighty-Sixth Street,” by Aaron M. Frankel, sounds a warning that Jewish followers of a racial ideology should heed, right here in America.

The Churches Admit Failure
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have read Doctor Konvitz' article, “Whittling Away Religious Freedom,” with great satisfaction, and find myself in emphatic agreement with his conclusions.

Secularism is the Trouble
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Frankel has seen one aspect of American Jewish life through sour eyes. He is unquestionably correct in his statement that there has been an overemphasis by supersensitive Jews upon the so-called “Jewish Problem.” From my own experience, and from my contacts with war veteran groups, I can also testify that we “sniff anti-Semitism on every tainted breeze,” even when it does not exist. I disagree completely, however, when he tries to maintain that the uncertainty which characterizes young Jews in America stems from overemphasis upon anti-Semitism.

Scholarship and Charm
by
To the Editor: . . . David Baumgardt's essay in the July COMMENTARY, “Grace After Bread,” reads like a philosophic homily on grace.

Back Talk from 86th Street
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I should like to comment on Aaron Frankel's “Back to Eighty-Sixth Street” in the August number of Commentary, not only because I am deeply interested in the theme, but also because I have spent the last fifteen years working on 86th Street, struggling with the very problems Mr.

At Ease in Zion
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The 86th Street-Central Park West neighborhood is middle-class and Judeo-centric, but what is there so deplorable about this? Jewish residents of the West Side are not primarily concerned with the morbid, pathological, and negative aspects of Jewish experience.

Acknowledgment
by Our Readers
In our introductory note to the reprint of the essay, “Study as a Mode of Worship,” by Nathan Isaacs, in the June “Cedars of Lebanon, “we gave credit to The Jewish Library, First Series, edited by Leo Jung, from which the essay was reprinted with the permission of the editor.

This Century of Betrayal
by Hans Kohn
We have all grown up with the belief that society must rest upon the dignity and inviolability of the individual human being.

The Promise and the Pale
by William Barrett
It is time the Gentile took careful notice of Sholom Aleichem. And why not? Where is it written in the Talmud that a Gentile should not write about Sholom Aleichem? And, on the other hand, does not the Bible say: “The stranger may see new things in the house?” Or, as someone in Kasrilevka remarked when the first news arrived that a certain Jewish Captain Dreyfus had been accused in France of selling his country's secrets: “What won't a Jew do these days to earn a living?” And not only a Jew. Of course, this involves limitations: Reading The Old Country, the volume of Sholom Aleichem's stories newly published by Crown, I cannot check the translation point by point, though it seems to me it must be a very good one, for I can continually guess behind the English the intonation and turn of phrase (on which so much in Sholom Aleichem depends) of the original. Nor am I able to speak authoritatively about the selection of stories, beyond saying that the whole volume maintains a consistently satisfying level throughout.

Empire and Zionism: A Bankrupt Partnership
by Victor Eppstein
The sentimentality or Byronic romanticism of Zionism has received far more emphasis than the politico-economic currents that have constituted its real strengths or weaknesses.

Atonement
by Avigdor Hammeiri
From the synagogues calamity is howling While from the sky favors the blest sun. How excellent this day to pour one's heart in autumn. This day is Atonement, day of universal shame. Let us bear it, strongly, one brief hour For our miserable lives, and our living horror. And for every wretch whose anguish will not cease to pain Let us forgive our folk his calamity. Let us forgive one another, comradely. This day is Atonement, look we and be silent. This is the day when every aching plaint Blossoms into fire, kindles into flame. And our distant God, terrible with awe— This day let us regard him with the same forgiveness. This day let us forgive him, too, for creating us.

Checkmate for Rabble-Rousers
by Solomon Fineberg
What should be done when a rabble-rouser appears on the local scene? There are those who urge an all-out program of the widest publicity and organized mass-protest aimed at “arousing the community.” But there are others who remain skeptical of the wisdom of the “aggressive” public approach in dealing with the professional hate-monger, no matter how useful that method may be in other situations. The genuine rabble-rouser is not to be confused with men of wealth or political power who may, on occasion, indulge in attacks upon racial or religious groups.

Germany is No More
by Alfred Doeblin
Baden-Baden “Germany” has become a word without meaning. It is a case of finished history. For, with its defeat, “Germany” has ceased to exist.

The Presence is in Exile, Too
by J. Ayalti
“Where I come from, when people want to compare somebody's good luck to something, they say, ‘He's living the life of God in France!’ Let me tell you, I wish all the enemies of Zion the sorry face our religion wears in this country!” With these words Reb Issachar, “the foreman of the Kaddish Minyan” (the quorum of ten), as they used to call him in the Jewish quarter of Paris, began his conversation the last time we met, on a bench in one of the squares of that neighborhood. He tucked in the heavy black linen cloak that he wore winter and summer, sucked in his sunken cheeks, and, scratching his sparse yellow beard with two fingers, as was his habit when engrossed in speculation, Reb Issachar continued, “Yet if you so wish, you might prove just the opposite—the contrary can be proven!

Jewish Music on Records
by Kurt List
Phonograph records, once dismissed as “canned music,” today hold a high estate—indeed they represent a kind of official canon of public taste.

International Bill of Rights: Second Phase
by H. Lauterpacht
At the very outset of World War II the notion of an international recognition and declaration of human rights had been put forward by governments and by private bodies and individuals as one of the major purposes of the struggle.

France: Nothing is Concluded
by Bernard Lecache
Paris It is indeed disillusioning to rub elbows with the great of this world, and all the charm of the Parisian summer cannot alter the fact.

From the American Scene: Sarah to Sylvia to Shirley
by A. Roback
Many are the aspects of names and naming: names affect the persons who bear them, names are taboos, names act as charms or prophylactics.

Cedars of Lebanon: The Debate on the Messiah at Tortosa
by Solomon Verga
The excerpt from Shebet Yehudah given below was translated by Olga Marx for In Time and Eternity: a Jewish Reader, an anthology of selections from Jewish post-Biblical written tradition, edited by Nahum N.

The Study of Man: Whither Civilization?
by Karl Polanyi
Although in its quiet way England has staged a social revolution, he would be a courageous man who would assert that any conscious process of thought accompanied it.

The Faith of a Liberal, by Morris R. Cohen
by Arthur Schlesinger
Where Liberalism is Vulnerable The Faith of a Liberal. by Morris R. Cohen. New York, Henry Holt, 1946. 497 pages. $3.75. As a political catchword, liberalism has notoriously lost whatever clarity of outline or firmness of meaning it ever possessed.

The Black Book: The Nazi Crime Against the Jewish People; and Hitler's Professors, by Max Weinreich
by Hannah Arendt
The Image of Hell The Black Book: The Nazi Crime Against The Jewish People. by the World Jewish Congress, the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee, the Vaad Leumi, and the American Committee of Jewish Writers, Artists and Scientists. New York, Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1946.

The American, by Howard Fast
by Oscar Handlin
Fake The American: A Middle Western Legend. by Howard Fast. New York, Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1946. 337 pp. $3.00. Superficially, the career of John Peter Altgeld follows the traditional American scheme of success.

Out of This Century, by Peggy Guggenheim
by K. Hardesh
A Martyr to Bohemia Out of This Century. by Peggy Guggenheim. New York, Dial Press, 1946. 365 pp. $3.00. The book-reviewers, with their customary severity, have scolded Miss Guggenheim for not being a better girl than she is, or at least for not professing the minimum virtues we all owe to print.

Gentile and Jew: A Symposium, edited by Chaim Newman
by George Becker
What Gentiles Think Gentile And Jew: A Symposium. by Chaim Newman. London, Alliance Press Limited, no date. 372 pp. 12s. 6d. This curious little book has a real significance, though logically it should be valueless.

Philosophical Classics in Hebrew
by Leon Roth
Building a Language Philosophical Classics. Vols. 1-22. Jerusalem, Hebrew University Press. $.75 and $1.00 per volume.. The publication in Hebrew of the famous first book (“Of the Understanding”) of David Hume's Treatise of Human Nature sets the seal on an enterprise of considerable educational and philological interest.

The Month in History
by Sidney Hertzberg
Labour's Master Plan All the world was divided into two parts. One was the Soviet Union, which was using its military strength and its propaganda organizations in other countries to achieve world dominion through political totalitarianism and economic change.

Reader Letters September 1946
by Our Readers
Back Talk from 86th Street TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I should like to comment on Aaron Frankel's "Back to Eighty-Sixth Street" in the August number of COMMENTARY, not only because I am deeply interested in the theme, but also because I have spent the last fifteen years work- ing on 86th Street, struggling with the very problems Mr.

October, 1946Back to Top
What's in a Name?
by Our Readers
To the Editor: “Sarah to Sylvia to Shirley” in last month's COMMENTARY struck home—perhaps I mean literally. Originally I was named Zelda, after my maternal grandmother, Sarah.

Religion in the Public Schools
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The article by Dr. Milton R. Konvitz in the June COMMENTARY on “Whittling Away Religious Freedom,” is a heartening example of clear perception and courageous acceptance of a moral issue.

Essay Contest
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Your readers may be interested to learn that the Institute for Religious and Social Studies is sponsoring a contest for essays on “Problems of Group Adjustment.” It is hoped that the contest will stimulate investigation of the causes and cures of tensions arising from differences of race, religion, or nationality interests. The winning essay will receive an award of $2,500 and will be published by Harper and Brothers.

Enough Rope
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It seemed to me that in “Checkmate for Rabble-Rousers” in the September COMMENTARY, Dr. Fineberg said much that needed to be said about the strategy and tactics of handling small-time hate-mongers.

Dr. Senator Explains His Resignation from Jewish Agency
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I enclose a copy of my letter of resignation [from the Executive of the Jewish Agency] to Dr.

An Inspired Poet
by Our Readers
To the Editor: For the writer, the name of Cesar Tiempo is a revelation, and a very remarkable revelation [ “Cesar Tiempo: Argentine Poet,” by Donald D.

Palestine Plans and Counter-Plans
by Robert Weltsch
Despite the Paris Peace Conference and the German question, that main issue of the postwar world still looming unsettled in the background, the British public and press continue to be occupied with Palestine to a degree quite out of proportion to the real scale of the problem and of the country concerned.

The True, the Good, and the Jew
by Paul Weiss
The faith of a Jew is the faith of a man for whom there are no synods, no edicts, no authorities to whom he can turn for final answers to his questions regarding the specific nature of things, mundane or divine.

Death of a Killer
by Julian Jr.
One afternoon last spring a man lay dying. But this was no ordinary man. He was a Nazi. But this was no ordinary Nazi.

I Wish They Wouldn't Do That!
by Anonymous
“Dr. Benjamin Fine, Education Editor, New York Times, will direct the first institute on public relations for Jewish community leaders,” a news item in Editor and Publisher states. Dr.

Hungary-Rumania: Crime and Punishment
by Hal Lehrman
The average reader—as he follows day-to-day news stories from abroad and the run of political comment on them—seldom gets the one thing that interests him most: the sense of what living in these various countries is like for the ordinary citizen.

A Story of Women
by Alison Lurie
Daisy sat reading on the porch, curled up in a white wicker chair. Lazy, she turned the page, pulled her shoulders up and let them go with a yawn; pushing back luxuriously into the cushions of the chair, she reached out for another of the delightful Russian cookies from that little shop near the station.

Economic Development and World Crisis
by Fritz Sternberg
That Western culture as a whole is in the grip of a serious crisis is a fact, about which it is hardly necessary to go into detail.

The Caucasian Mountain Jews
by Fannina Halle
For many centuries, the so-called Caucasian Mountain Jews have been living isolated in their remote and lofty auls, or villages.

From the American Scene: The Lost Young Intellectual
by Irving Howe
A new social type has appeared in recent years on the American Jewish scene: the struggling young author who has published a few stories—perhaps even a novel!—or written a few reviews for obscure magazines; the painter whose pictures seldom reach public view; the leader of a revolutionary political group who has very few followers; and most frequently, the unattached intellectual who can function neither as creator nor politician because he is either frustrated and barren in his cultural pursuits or disillusioned with politics. In the type we have in mind here we do not include those intellectuals who retain a sense of kinship with Jewish activities, such as the Yiddishist or Zionist, or the semi-intellectual who finds security in the world as a professional.

Cedars of Lebanon: The Great Wall of China
by Franz Kafka
The story by Kafka printed below—which presents his universe in brief—is the one that gives its title to the collection of his short stories, sketches, and aphorisms which Schocken Books will publish in the near future, in a translation by Edwin Muir, the Scotch poet and critic.

The Study of Man: Jewish Personality Traits
by Harold Orlansky
There has been much talk of Jewish personality traits, but little study of them. Stereotypes supersede critical judgment, argument substitutes for investigation, and the whole question is enveloped in myth.

Religious Liberty: An Inquiry, by M. Searle Bates
by Milton Konvitz
The Second Freedom Religious Liberty: An Inquiry. By M. Searle Bates. New York and London, International Missionary Council, 1945. 604 pp. $3.50. Recently the New York Times reported that the Franco regime has granted permission to the Jews in Spain to reopen a synagogue in Barcelona and to worship there.

All the King's Men, by Robert Penn Warren
by Leo Kirschbaum
Leading Pulitzer Contender All the King's Men. by Robert Penn Warren. New York, Harcourt, Brace, 1946. 464 pp. $3.00. This is the story of Willie Stark, a Huey Long type of governor in a Louisiana type of state, and of his intellectual gunman Jack Burden, who tells the story.

The River Jordan, by Nelson Glueck
by Theodor Gaster
Roll, Jordan The River Jordan. by Nelson Glueck. Philadelphia, The Westminster Press, 1946. 268 pp. $3.50. For over a decade Professor Nelson Glueck, the gifted and fortunate Director of the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem, has been wandering up and down the River Jordan, enriching the world with the results of his archaeological surveys and himself with a deep and unique experience.

The Perennial Philosophy, by Aldous Huxley; and Vedanta for the Western World, by Christopher Isherwood
by Harold Rosenberg
The Yogi and the Englishmen The Perennial Philosophy. by Aldous Huxley. New York, Harper, 1945. 312 pp. $3.00. Vedanta for the Western World. By Christopher Isherwood. California, The Marcel Rodd Co., 1945.

Democratic Education, by Benjamin Fine; and Education for Modern Man, by Sidney Hook
by Sidney Morgenbesser
What Shall We Teach? Democratic Education. by Benjamin Fine. New York, Thomas Y. Crowell, 1945. 251 pp. $2.50. Education For Modern Man. by Sidney Hook. New York, Dial Press, 1946.

The Month in History
by Sidney Hertzberg
Inner Contradictions The two parts into which the world now found itself divided went their separate ways. But these separate ways were not without inner contradictions and by-paths which upset the pattern at least for the short term. Austria passed a nationalization law whereby its principal industrial facilities would come under government ownership.

November, 1946Back to Top
The Pot and the Kettle
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I quote from “Sarah to Sylvia to Shirley” by A. A. Roback, in the September COMMENTARY:“Particularly painful to the lover of the traditional is the neglect Jews show toward that richest of all treasuries of given names, the Bible—a treasury pre-eminently their own.” In the catalogues of the New York Public Library, there are listed twenty of the masterly works of the erudite A.

Jewish Music on Records
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I read Dr. List's “Jewish Music on Records” in the September COMMENTARY with genuine interest and appreciation. Before answering some of Dr.

For All Mankind, by Leon Blum
by Lewis Coser
Has Blum Retreated? For All Mankind. by Leon Blum. New York, Viking, 1946. 186 pp. $2.50. This book, written in 1941-1942 behind the walls of a Vichy prison by the one-time premier of France and leader of the French Socialist party, is the spiritual testament of one of the few remaining great figures in modem progressive politics. One can approach the book on two levels: It is the credo of a man who—in the midst of events that shattered the whole structure of the society in which he had lived and labored, which seemingly rejected and defiled all the values for which he had fought—summoned up the will and courage to proclaim from the ruins his unshakeable belief in a resurrection of liberal values.

From a French Leader
by Our Readers
To the Editor: [I find] COMMENTARY . . . a very interesting review, and I will try to translate, with your permission, some of the articles of general interest in the documentation and education of our comrades of the socialist movement in France.

Empire and Zionism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Despite the valiant efforts of Victor Eppstein [ “Empire and Zionism: A Bankrupt Partnership” in the September COMMENTARY] to liberate his thinking from deadening stereotypes, he remains completely enmeshed in the coils of unrealistic, Marxist dialectics, which looks for the source of all evils in capitalism and imperialism and, correspondingly, for the cure of all ills in the advance of economic “progressivism.” This formula is utterly confounding when applied to the problem of Zionism. To begin with, it is only superannuated economics that imagines a small industrial Palestine to be a commercial threat to British interests in the Middle East.

Back to 86th Street
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was very greatly interested in the article by Aaron M. Frankel called “Back to Eighty-Sixth Street” in the August COMMENTARY.

Is America Exile or Home?
by Israel Knox
Because of the war and the extermination camps, America's Jewish community has today become the largest and strongest in the world.

Opera: Music for the Masses
by Kurt List
When the curtain goes up on season's opening at the Metropolitan Opera, the audience presents a picture of aristocratic splendor and ostentation.

A Palestinian Warns against Small States
by Mosche Smelansky
The association of the two concepts statehood and smallness contains a fundamental absurdity. Where there is smallness—literal and physical—there can be no true statehood.

The Bratzlav Rabbi to His Scribe
by Jacob Glatstein
Nathan, no thought today. Have you ever seen a world With splendors so serene? I'll slap you If you squeeze forth a thought. Are you sick of living? Live with all your limbs And breathe sun like a midge. Let us begin to return. Let us think away our wealth And squander thoughts at each turn. Let us become holy peasants With holy cows, on a holy pasture. Let us eat porridge and milk Let us smoke stinking pipes Tell whoppers about elves. Let us sing: Die-donna-die, die-donna-die. No words, all melody: Die-donna-die. I see, a cloud is gathering On your forehead. You'll get a rap in the mouth If you stop to ponder. Today you must lock The Thinker behind doors. Today we are singing babes, Can barely count to two. Hold on to this How grand it is: One—echad. One, separate and together Still is—echad. And again, and once again, echad. Just hear how simple How singular, beautiful, how sadly        beautiful Is one—echad.    Little grass sing,    Little bee hum,    Fondle flower;    Clouding rain    Freshen the ways    Soak the lanes. Nathan, night will soon be falling. Let us sleep undreaming and unthinking Like the peasants. Let us lay away the ladder Not go skywards this evening. Let the angels do the climbing Down and up, up and down. Let's catch a nap and forty winks. And wake to greet a flaming east With the melody: Die-donna-die, die-donna-die. I'll break your bones If you miss this melody; If you add a word or tone. It must be as clear as this: Die-donna-die. _____________   (2) There is a certain kind of folk I Who think for a year and a day Till their head turns holy, holy. But their body remains sod. They look into a book Their eyes roll up to God But their feet and their hands Remain dust and sand. And over their belts, And under their suits Everything's polluted. They study fine words and recite them They're pilgrims to the sacred places But let a tired wretch ask their grace— Their hands close tight And their hearts tighter. Their heads lack all sense. They think they're stirring up the orbits; But, poor mortals, they Are lost beyond redemption. Therefore I say to you, Nathan Thinking is like notes to singing And the songs live in the heart. Let the heart think more serenely And the head will stop its ringing. I dislike the “pious Jew,” The would-be know-it-all Whose dripping candle soaks The letters of his scroll With clotted thought. Take a light and light creation. Bara—He created. Berayshis—Creation. God!

Egypt: Empire and Araby
by Hal Lehrman
Egypt (March-April, 1945)—My fourth visit to Cairo. It's even more depressing than my last station, Naples, where the dirt is caked down in layers.

Western Personality and Social Crisis
by Abram Kardiner
There is a widespread conviction that we are currently in the midst of one of the worst social crises in human history.

Adam and I
by Irving Kristol
I was quite unprepared for Adam, for his peculiar insensibility, his directness, his momentous inertia. He didn't at all fit the picture that I had imagined—or that had been imagined for me—of the liberated Jew. I met Adam in the spring of 1945 at the Zionist headquarters in Marseille, a shabby building on the Rue de Convalescence not far from the center of the city.

How Fight Rabble-Rousers?
by Our Readers
In “Checkmate for Rabble-Rousers,” in our September issue, Dr. Solomon Andhil Fineberg opposed mass demonstrations as a method of combating demagogues like Gerald L.

From the American Scene: The Jewish Spirit in the Machine Age Uncle Julius and the BMT
by Ethel Rosenberg
I know what you're thinking you're thinking I made up Uncle Julius, that there is no such person . .

From the American Scene: The Jewish Spirit in the Machine Age The Technical Expert
by Leo Katz
The ship, a steamer of 7,000 tons, carried 1,100 passengers. Hardly any had ever seen the sea before. For fourteen days the ship danced on the waves.

Cedars of Lebanon: The Red Calf
by Mendele Sforim
“The Red Calf,” which we publish below in an English translation by Jacob Sloan, is an imaginative chapter from Mendele's memoirs.

The Study of Man: Are Businessmen Human Beings?
by Ben Seligman
Increasingly in recent years economists have become concerned with the psychological why's and wherefores of economic behavior. The naive notion of “economic man” that served as the psychological underpinning of classical economics in the second half of the 19th century was blasted by the advances of the other social sciences, but economists then deceived themselves by thinking that they could do without any psychology' at all.

A Partisan Guide to the Jewish Problem, by Milton Steinberg
by Theodor Gaster
Programmatic Jewishness A Partisan Guide to the Jewish Problem. by Milton Steinberg. New York-Indianapolis, The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1946. 308 pp. $3.00. The problem Rabbi Steinberg discusses in this volume is, basically, how the modem Western Jew can best achieve and express identification with the tradition and destiny of his people and how Judaism can best be preserved in the contemporary world and perpetuated for the future. The author thinks that we ought first to clear up the question: What is Judaism?, His answer to this is that Judaism is the culture of the Jews.

Act of Faith and Other Stories, by Irwin Shaw
by Isaac Rosenfeld
Left-Wing Middle-Brow Act Of Faith: And Other Stories. By Irwin Shaw. New York, Random House, 1946. 212 pages. $2.50. Irwin Shaw's fiction, as Faulkner says of Popeye's face, has “the depthless, vicious quality of stamped tin.” But Mr.

The Death of Virgil, by Hermann Broch
by Paul Goodman
A New Virgil Myth The Death of Virgil. by Hermann Broch. Translated by Jean Starr Untermeyer. New York, Pantheon Books, 1945. 494 pp.

The Story of the Jewish Legion, and An Answer to Ernest Bevin, by Vladimir Jabotinsky; To Whom Palestine?, by Frank Gervasi; The
by Seymour Melman
Right and Left in Palestine The Story of The Jewish Legion. by Vladimir Jabotinsky. New York, Bernard Ackerman, 1945. 191 pp. $3.00. An Answer to Ernest Bevin. by Vladimir Jabotinsky. New York, Bernard Ackerman, 1946.

Rembrandt, the Jews and the Bible, by Franz Sternberger
by William Schack
Rembrandt's Jews Rembrandt, the Jews and the Bible. by Franz Landsberger. Translated from the German by Felix N. Gerson. Philadelphia, The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1946.

The Month in History
by Sidney Hertzberg
Fog on the Potomac In the fall of 1946 it became evident that the executive branch of the United States government was in a state of collapse.

December, 1946Back to Top
The Immigrant in American History
by Our Readers
To The Editor: Dr. Saveth's article on “The Immigrant in American History,” published in the August COMMENTARY, is like a breath of fresh air in a stifling room.

Program Notes
by Our Readers
To The Editor: Kurt List's splendid article “Jewish Music on Records” in the September issue is a valuable guide for rabbis who are interested in this subject. I was especially gratified at Mr.

Profiteering
by Our Readers
To The Editor: I have rarely seen such organized misinformation and inaccuracies as appeared on page 347 of your October issue, in “The Month in History.” You refer to the “orgy of guaranteed profits” made by American capitalists during the war.

I Wish They Wouldn't Do That
by Our Readers
We have received a large number of letters discussing the article “I Wish They Wouldn't Do That!” which appeared in the October issue, and they continue to pour in as we go to press.

For The Record
by Our Readers
To The Editor: Your “The Month of History” of November, treating the report of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, makes the following statement: “The President had been able to control his overwhelming desire for the immigration of 100,000 Jews into Palestine when it involved support of the Anglo-American Committee recommendations or the federalization plan, both of which were opposed by Zionist extremists.” I underscore your use of the words “Zionist extremists.” Your readers might assume from that, that there were organized forces in the Zionist movement that supported the Anglo-American Committee recommendations.

Darwin was the Betrayer
by Our Readers
To The Editor: Reading the first article in the September COMMENTARY [“This Century of Betrayal,” by Hans Kohn] prompts me to offer a few remarks. I wonder whether the 20th century has been a century of betrayal of human freedom.

About COMMENTARY
by Our Readers
To The Editor: I have read COMMENTARY magazine since its first issue. I think it is one of the most promising journalistic ventures in America.

The Common Man of the Nazis
by Martin Greenberg
The outbreak of the war put an end once and for all to the large but undistinguished body of anti-Nazi literature that flourished in the 30's.

Father Benoit: Ambassador of the Jews
by James Rorty
The time, October 1943. Italy was out of the war, but the Germans were rapidly taking over in Rome and elsewhere, and veteran Nazi divisions had halted the parade of the American and British forces up the Italian peninsula. Southern France, refuge of tens of thousands of Jews from Germany, Poland, Greece, and Hungary, was being evacuated by the Italian troops, while close on their heels, like a pack of bloodthirsty ferrets, came the German SS and the Gestapo. From the point of view of the French and Italian underground movements, the Italian surrender had its unfortunate aspects.

The Lost Chance for Full Employment
by Benjamin Ginzburg
The turbulent reconversion period which began with V-J Day, and ended a few weeks ago with President Truman's scuttling of meat controls and stabilization, will go down in history as a period of lost opportunity.

We Wish You Wouldn't Do That!
by Ralph Samuel
One of the most hopeful developments in group relations in the United States during recent years has been the melting away of the reluctance to bring the problem out into the open for full and free discussion.

Palestine Issues and Congress Agenda: Curfew in Jerusalem
by Shlomo Katz
There's a curfew in Jerusalem. It has been in force for nearly three weeks, and there is no indication that it will end soon.

Palestine Issues and Congress Agenda: Construction, Not War
by Mosche Smelansky
Rehovot After the adjournment until December of the Palestine Conference in London, representatives of the Jewish Agency entered into “unofficial” discussions with members of the British government in an attempt to establish conditions that would permit the Agency to participate in the Conference when its sessions are resumed.

Modern Man's Anxiety: Its Remedy
by Louis Finkelstein
Twenty-five centuries of philosophical study and argument have deepened our insight into the problem of the individual. But so far as alternatives are concerned, we stand today where we stood in the days of Aristotle.

The Gift of the Emperor
by Leo Katz
Mordche, who was shames at the middle synagogue and taught Hebrew to women and young girls on the side, would never have dreamt of entering into direct correspondence with the Emperor.

Austria: Way-Station of Exodus
by Hal Lehrman
Vienna (July 1946)—Three boys, aged about seven, were furiously at work in a comer of the common room, stuffing fresh white bread into their faces as fast as it could go.

From the American Scene: My Father and Mr. Preston
by Harold Kaplan
All of us were curious and excited when the Prestons came to occupy the flat above ours, for they were not like the tenants we had known before.

Cedars of Lebanon: The Journey to Zion
by Jehuda Halevi
The poems below—rendered into felicitous English by Nina Salaman, and appearing here by permission of the Jewish Publication Society, which in 1924 published them in a book along with other poems of Halevi's and their original Hebrew texts—all deal with the poet's almost nostalgic longing for Palestine and with his long and circuitous journey there.

The Study of Man: Can We Fight Prejudice Scientifically?
by Samuel Flowerman
The three-day Public Relations Workshop recently sponsored in New York by the American Council of Race Relations brought into sharp focus the quandary in which workers in the field of combating group prejudice find themselves today.

Thieves in the Night, by Arthur Koestler
by Philip Rahv
Jews of The Ice Age Thieves In The Night. by Arthur Koestler. New York, Macmillan, 1946. 357 pp. $2.75. Taken as a piece of analytical reporting on Palestine and as comment on the fate of the Jews, Koestler's new book is significant and wonderfully readable.

The Roots of American Loyalty, by Merle Curti
by Edward Saveth
Changing Fashions in Patriotism The Roots Of American Loyalty. by Merle Curti. New York, Columbia University Press, 1946. 267 pp. $3.00. Most historians of American thought are confronted with at least two possible approaches to their themes: they can concentrate upon the idea in its relationship to the individuals expressing it, with particular stress upon the motivations involved; or else they can center upon the ebb and flow of ideas in a broad historical panorama.

Island in the Atlantic, by Waldo Frank
by Harold Rosenberg
Continent in the Sky Island In The Atlantic. by Waldo Frank. New York, Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1946. 503 pp. $3.00. Once again, Mr.

Light from the Ancient Past, by Jack Finegan
by Theodor Gaster
Our Biblical Ancestors Light From The Ancient Past: The Archaeological Background Of The Hebrew-Christian Religion. By Jack Finegan. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1946.

Burning Lights, by Bella Chagall
by J. Ayalti
By Sabbath Candlelight Burning Lights. By Bella Chagall. With thirty-six drawings by Marc Chagall. New York, Schocken Books,1946. 268 pp. $3.00. Raised as a child in White Russia, in a patriarchal Hasidic home, where the light of the Friday candles with their appropriate prayers wandered the whole week between the walls and waited for a new Sabbath—where the weekdays of the year were only bridges between the different holidays—little Bashke leaves the house of her father, studies Russian at a high school and at the Moscow University, writes her thesis on “the liberation of the Russian peasants” and about Dostoievski, and then proceeds to the miraculous, brilliant cities of the West.

Years of Wrath: A Cartoon History: 1931-1945, by David Low
by Clement Greenberg
Limits of Common Sense Years Of Wrath: A Cartoon History: 1931-1945. by David Low. With a Chronology and Text by Quincy Howe. New York, Simon and Schuster, 1946.

The Month in History
by Sidney Hertzberg
Status of the Struggle In the struggle between totalitarianism and democracy, there were significant developments on both sides. And the struggle within the forces of democracy, between the American tendency to fight totalitarianism with a static capitalism and the British tendency to fight it with democratic socialism, was sharpening. The city of Berlin in 1946 was the spearhead of Western dissent against the Eastern glacier.

Reader Letters December 1946
by Our Readers
I Wish They Wouldn't Do That We have received a large number of letters discussing the article "I Wish They Wouldn't Do That!" which appeared in the October issue, and they continue to pour in as we go to press.




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