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January, 1947Back to Top
I Wish they Wouldn't Do That!
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I suppose it is an illiberal and bigoted act to protest about an article before one has read a single word of it, and before one has an informed idea of the content of the article.

Democracy Needs the Open Door
by Oscar Handlin
The agonizing difficulty of finding loopholes in existing law through which to draw into this country even a few survivors of Europe's disaster offers a pitiful commentary upon the reversal of the historic American attitudes towards immigration.

The Intellectuals and Europe's Future
by Stephen Spender
Reopening the Lines of Communication in Western Culture In September of 1946, a meeting of European intellectuals was held in Geneva.

Why the DP's Can't Wait
by Leo Srole
Proposing an International Plan of Rescue Allied troops sweeping across Germany early in 1945 reacted to Dachau, Bergen-Belsen, Buchenwald, Auschwitz, with incredulity, revulsion, and fury.

From Marxism to Judaism
by Will Herberg
Until nine or ten years ago, I was a thoroughgoing Marxist. I had spent most of my life in the radical movement, and Marxism was to me more than a mere strategy of political action, more than a program of economic and social reconstruction, more even than a comprehensive theory of history and society.

Palestine: A Possible Solution
by Alvin Johnson
The Case for a Non-Territorial Federal State Life, Mr. Justice Holmes used to say, is made up mainly of problems that can never be solved.

Degrees
by Yehoash
From how many hands has earth ingathered seed, And Thine will be the field to have and to inherit; And without remembrance, thankless of their merit, Thou shalt fill Thy sheds with heaped up sheaves. Well, then!

In Our Infancy
by Eliot Wagner
Paul, in the bathroom which connected his room with his mother's, listened tensely at her door. He could hear only her singing, the same old song: he knew it by heart.

Yivo Comes to Morningside
by Milton Konvitz
America Gains a New Institute of Learning Early last January a letter was found in Brooklyn near a house that had just burned down.

The Parlor Terrorists
by Nathan Glazer
Koestler's Fellow-Travelers and their Politics If some of my best friends are right, and the big thing right now is to show that the Jew is as common a common man as the next, Arthur Koestler's Thieves in the Night is the finest thing that has happened to the Jews since Benny Leonard.

From the American Scene: The Americanism of Adolph S. Ochs
by Louis Berg
The publication of Gerald Johnson's full-length, heavily documented biography of the late Adolph S. Ochs, “the man who built the New York Times,” affords us an excellent opportunity to study one of the key figures of our era and the social surroundings that produced him.

Cedars of Lebanon: Tales of the Hasidim
by Martin Buber
The stories, anecdotes, and sayings below were selected from Tales of the Hasidim, a book largely written as well as edited by Martin Buber, which Schocken Books of New York will publish in March 1947 in a translation made from the German by Olga Marx.

The Study of Man: Adjusting Men to Machines
by Daniel Bell
Social Scientists Explore the World of the Factory The resources of the social sciences are called upon more and more frequently to deal with everyday problems of our society, particularly those arising from conflict and friction between groups.

The Miracle of the Bells, by Russell Janney
by David Bazelon
Wishing Will Make it So The Miracle of the Bells. By Russell Janney. New York, Prentice-Hall, 1946. 497 pp. $3.00. John Brunini, director of the Catholic Poetry Society, says, “This is a story of God's grace, originating in the simple goodness and faith of a young girl, spreading in ever widening circles through the lives of many and uniting individuals of all classes in a new sense of brotherhood.” The publisher considers The Miracle of the Bells to be a novel “of joyousness in life that will sweep the reader into a delightful liberating experience.

Stefan Zweig, by Friderike Zweig; Translated, by Erna McArthur
by Heinz Politzer
In Search of a Lost Security Stefan Zweig. by Friderike Zweig. Translated by Erna McArthur. New York, Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1946. 277 pp. $3.00. Though blessed with an abundance of gifts, Stefan Zweig was never a happy man.

The Talmudic Anthology, edited by Louis I. Newman and Samuel Spitz
by Theodor Gaster
A Jewish Miscellany The Talmudic Anthology: Tales and Teachings of the Rabbis. Selected and edited by Louis I. Newman in collaboration with Samuel Spitz. New York, Behrman House, Inc., 1945.

An Enemy of the People: Anti-Semitism; and The Jewish Problem in the Modern World, by James Parkes
by Marie Jahoda
Really, Dr. Parkes . . . An Enemy of the People: Anti-Semitism. by James Parkes. New York, Penguin Books, 1946. 160 pp. 25 ¢. The Jewish Problem in the Modern World. by James Parkes. Oxford University Press, 1946.

Barabbas, by Emery Bekessy
by Mordecai Chertoff
The Same Old Story Barabbas: A Novel of the Time of Jesus. by Emery Bekessy. Translated from the German by Richard and Clara Winston. New York, Prentice-Hall, 1946.

The Month in History
by Sidney Hertzberg
United Nations The meeting of the General Assembly of the United Nations in New York in the fall of 1946 was the most revealing international gathering since the end of World War II.

February, 1947Back to Top
Adolph S. Ochs
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The article in the January number of COMMENTARY entitled “The Americanism of Adolph S. Ochs” has, as you know, provoked grave dissent and concern.

The End of the Biltmore Road
by Robert Weltsch
THE twenty-second Zionist Congress met in Basel against a background of tension and violence in Palestine, with the Jewish DP's still waiting in the de- tention camps-and with a sense of the ur- gency of a settlement of the Palestine ques- tion beyond anything in Zionist history.

Our Obsolete Market Mentality
by Karl Polanyi
The first century of the Machine Age is drawing to a close amid fear and trepidation. Its fabulous material success was due to the willing, indeed the enthusiastic, subordination of man to the needs of the machine.Liberal capitalism was in effect man's initial response to the challenge of the Industrial Revolution.

What About Jewish Anti-Semitism?
by N. Pelcovits
That many Jews who reached intellectual maturity in the age of Hitler reject and despise the fact of their Jewishness is a family secret we can no longer keep either from the children or the neighbors.

The Fate of Isaak Babel
by Raymond Rosenthal
For almost two decades, Isaak Babel maintained a place in Soviet literature as an obsolete but durable survivor of a moment of romantic élan that came with the revolution and quickly passed.

The Awakening
by Isaak Babel
All the men of our circle: brokers, shopkeepers, employees of banks and shipping companies, had their children take music lessons.

Check-Reins for Labor?
by A. Raskin
American unions, grown strong under fourteen years of protective legislation fostered by President Roosevelt, enter Year One of the Republican Resurgence with no clear-cut program for resisting the assaults that are being made upon them in and out of Congress.

The Knife
by Milton Kaplan
We have tried words before—always in vain— To strip the growing tumor from the brain, And still we pick and probe with words to find The fingered root of madness in the mind. Perhaps if we used words with surgeon care, The scalpel words that slit through matted hair With steel incisiveness, and cut with thin, Discriminating strokes through moldy skin, Through muscle, fat, until the blade scrapes dull And grates upon the tympanum of skull; If we could grind trephining words through bone To bare the whitened cortex, rotten-grown, Before the neoplasmic fingers plait The mind—perhaps we then could extirpate The root of hatred that has always lain Deep in the convolutions of the brain. If words fail us and we despair for life, (Have mercy on us) we must use the knife.

Pledged to the Marvelous
by Harold Rosenberg
In “From Marxism to Judaism,” published in the January COMMENTARY, Will Herberg, well known as a radical and labor theorist, outlined the course of thinking and experience by which he has been led to believe that the Jewish religion is superior to Marxism as a philosophy and a way of life for those who seek, as he does, to better the social, economic, and political conditions of human life.

Yagur Revisited
by Meyer Levin
Twenty years ago when I was fresh out of college I came to Palestine during a wanderyear, and was excited by the spirit of the Jewish pioneers, the halutzim who were rebuilding the land.

I Was, I Am
by Jacob Sloan
I was this screaming boy, screaming (this was no dream) against the barber's crawling clip, the shorn-hair-plastered hands waving a two-bladed, crisscross knife at my childhood, that fell on my eyes, neck, lips and screaming mouth. I am this still man, sitting (this is my pain) before the mirror, star- ing at another still man sitting in another.

From the American Scene: The Neighborhood Druggist
by Marcella Tow
The day Lefty Louie was executed, sorrow descended upon our neighborhood like a fog. Lefty was a Jew. He had committed a murder, and he was being punished.

Cedars of Lebanon: More Tales of the Hasidim
by Martin Buber
The great zaddikim (zaddik: the completely righteous one) of the Hasidic movement, whose acts and sayings are here retold by a noted modern Jewish scholar, were the last religious heroes of the Judaism of Eastern Europe.

The Study of Man: What is Sociology's Job?
by Nathan Glazer
THE recent annual meeting of the American Sociological Society in Chi- cago (Hotel Stevens, December 27- 30) brought together perhaps ,ooo people who call themselves sociologists-mostly professors, instructors, and graduate students, but also gov- ernment employees and researchers on the staffs of foundations.

In Darkest Germany, by Victor Gollancz
by Irving Kristol
In Hillel's Steps In Darkest Germany. By Victor Gollancz. London, Victor Gollancz Ltd., 1947. 128 pp. With 144 photographs. 8s.6d. In the eyes of the British public, Victor Gollancz is probably one of the outstanding Jewish laymen in the country.

Really the Blues, by Mezz Mezzrow and Bernard Wolfe
by Kurt List
Show Me the Way to Go Home Really The Blues. By Mezz Mezzrow and Bernard Wolfe. New York, Random House, 1946. 388 pp.

The Great Challenge, by Louis Fischer
by Bertram Wolfe
The Double Rejection The Great Challenge. By Louis Fischer. New York, Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1946. 346 pp. $4.00. In form, Louis Fischer's new book seems to be one more in the flood of journalists' distillations of wartime adventures.

Art and Social Nature, and The State of Nature, by Paul Goodman
by Irving Howe
The Discovery of Sex Art and Social Nature. By Paul Goodman. New York, Vinco Publishing Co., 1946. 98 pp. $3.00. The State of Nature. By Paul Goodman. New York, Vanguard, 1946.

Minority Problems in the Public Schools, by Theodore Brameld
by Marie Syrkin
C+ for Effort Minority Problems in the Public Schools. By Theodore Brameld. New York, Harper, 1946. 264 pages. $2.50. It is obvious that the American public schools are strategically situated to combat the growth of racial and religious prejudice.

The Herdsman, by Dorothy Clarke Wilson
by Mordecai Chertoff
Amos The Herdsman. by Dorothy Clarke Wilson. Philadelphia, Westminster Press, 1946. 373 pp. $3.00. The very paucity of biographical information in the Book of Amos provides both a challenge and an opportunity for the writer of historical fiction.

The Month in History
by Sidney Hertzberg
Stirring on the Left In The United States, which matured industrially and politically later than Europe, it was inevitable that progressive forces should mature later too.

Reader Letters February 1947
by Our Readers
Adolph S. Ochs TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: The article in the January number of COM- MENTARY entitled "The Americanism of Adolph S. Ochs" has, as you know, provoked grave dissent and concern.

March, 1947Back to Top
In Approval
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I cannot refrain from sending you a line or two of appreciation for COMMENTARY. The quality of the articles you secure is altogether remarkable.

Defending "Barrabas"
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It is sad that the obsessed anti-Semite who sees everywhere evidence of a Jewish plot should breed the obsessed anti-anti-Semite who sees everywhere evidence of anti-Semitic propaganda.

The Parlor Terrorists
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I agree with Nathan Glazer about the terrorists (“The Parlor Terrorists,” January COMMENTARY). I think it is better to get ulcers than to commit political errors.

Our Need for Immigrants
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The publication of “Democracy Needs the Open Door” by Professor Handlin in the January COMMENTARY is both timely and useful.

Radio: Political Threat or Promise?
The Networks' Influence On The Public Mind

by Norbert Muhlen
Is Radio propaganda the great potential menace—or, if used properly, the great popular cure-all? Norbert Muhlen, who here offers an answer to this question, has had broad experience in political psychology and the study of public opinion, and was for two years editor of the Radio Audience, a publication devoted to the study of public reaction to radio. _____________   “Give me two weeks and the proper machinery and I will change the so-called mind of the American people on any given subject.” George Creel made this boast when he was chairman of the Committee on Public Information under Woodrow Wilson.

Intelligence and Evil in Human History:
An Answer to Intellectual Defeatism

by Sidney Hook
The terms “transition” and “crisis” are two great semantic beacons of our times. They blink at us, not only in the ephemera of journalism, but in the most abstruse pages of contemporary political, social, and philosophical discussion.

Did Truman Scuttle Liberalism?
The Progressives' Complaint and the Administration's Record

by James Wechsler
Since Franklin Delano Roosevelt's death his name has been taken in vain by friends and foes alike. The Democratic party introduced recordings of his voice in the 1946 campaign.

The Inspector
by Jean Malaquais
Jean Malaquais is a well-known French writer, author of a number of books, of which the best-known in the United States are Les Javanais, a novel, published here in 1942 as Men From Nowhere, and War Diary, an account of experiences as a French soldier in the late war, published here in 1944. _____________   “Act natural.

The Problem of Synagogue Architecture:
Creating a Style Expressive of America

by Rachel Wischnitzer-Bernstein
There are many signs that these postwar years will witness a new wave of synagogue building in the United States.

I Know on a Night Overcast
by Hayim Bialik
I Know On a Night Overcast, here translated from Hebrew by Jacob Sloan, was written in 1906, three years after the notorious Kishinev pogrom; the references to Jewish suffering in this poem relate to that event.

Behind Palestine's Arab Armies: Power Politics and Mid-East Intrigue
by J. Teller
Two Arab armies, Najada and Futuwah, have been sharing the limelight of Palestine news dispatches with Hagana, central Jewish resistance movement, and the two Jewish dissident groups, Irgun Zvai Leumi and the Stern group. Although their leaders swaggeringly call them “armies,” Najada and Futuwah are listed with the government as boy scout organizations.

Jewish Culture for America?: A Golden Age?
by Moses Lasky
In his article “Is America Exile or Home?” (in our November 1946 issue) Israel Knox declared that it was high time that American Jews began to create a culture of their own, indigenous to this soil.

Jewish Culture for America?: Against Separatist Culture
by Herbert Ehrmann
In his article “Is America Exile or Home?” (in our November 1946 issue) Israel Knox declared that it was high time that American Jews began to create a culture of their own, indigenous to this soil.

The Seventh Commandment:
Romantic Love and Jewish Literature

by David Scheinert
A reader wrote in the other day pointing out that in fourteen issues of COMMENTARY there had not been a single story that as much as mentioned love between the sexes (a not unfamiliar subject in other magazines), and asking quite pointedly how this came to be.

From the American Scene: The Logic of My Aunt Yetta
by Ethel Rosenberg
Ethel Rosenberg wrote “Uncle Julius and the B.M.T.” (our November issue), which in some quarters has been hailed as a significant addition to American folklore.

Cedars of Lebanon: My Return to Hamburg
by Solomon Maimon
Solomon Maimon, whose admiration for Maimonides led him to adopt his name, was born in a Lithuanian village in 1754.

The Study of Man: Is There a Bigot Personality?
by Jerome Himelhoch
Those concerned with the problem of race hatred have been turning increasingly to the fields of psychology, psychiatry, and psychoanalysis for light.

Gentleman's Agreement, by Laura Z. Hobson
by Diana Trilling
Americans Without Distinction Gentleman's Agreement. by Laura. Z. Hobson. New York, Simon & Schuster, 1947. 275 pp. $2.75.   It is interesting that Mrs. Hobson's novel about anti-Semitism should be published, and evidently very happily, by the same house that a few years ago voluntarily suppressed a book by Jerome Weidman on the ground that its unattractive Jewish characters would increase anti-Jewish feeling in this country.

In Time and Eternity: A Jewish Reader, edited by Nahum N. Glatzer
by Harold Rosenberg
The Rediscovery of Judaism In Time and Eternity: A Jewish Reader. by Nahum N. Glatzer. New York, Schocken Books, 1946. 225 pp. $2.75.   Modestly offered as a “reader” in Jewish literature from post-Biblical times through Hasidism, Dr.

The Plotters, by John Roy Carlson
by William Petersen
The Native Fascist Threat The Plotters. by John Roy Carlson. New York, Dutton, 1946. 408 pp. $3.50.   Carlson's new book, like its predecessor, Under Cover, has climbed to the best-seller lists.

The Spirit Returneth, by Selma Stern
by Harold Kaplan
The Salve of Self-Pity The Spirit Returneth. by Selma Stern. Translated by Ludwig Lewisohn. Philadelphia, The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1946. 265 pp.

The Palestine Year Book
by Alvin Johnson
The Economics of Palestine The Palestine Year Book. New York, The Zionist Organization of America, 5707-1946. 658 pp. $3.75.   This is an uncommonly interesting year book.

The Month in History
by Sidney Hertzberg
Sidney Hertzberg devotes most of his department this month to charting the intricate and confusing currents and cross-currents that have marked Palestine developments in the period following the Basel World Zionist Congress.

Reader Letters March 1947
by Our Readers
We have received many interesting letters, some lengthy, on Will Herberg's article "From Marxism to Judaism" in the January issue and Harold Rosenberg's commentary on it, "Pledged to the Marvelous," in the February.

April, 1947Back to Top
From John Roy Carlson
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The man who reviewed The Plotters is intellectually dishonest. He is dishonest because after seeking to convey the completely false impression that I am, or have been, pro-Communist, he neglects to mention that I thoroughly denounced American Communists and the Communist philosophy in a lengthy chapter entitled “The American Communist Party.” This chapter has aroused the furious action of the comrades against me.

On "Commentary"
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I want to compliment you again upon the variety and completeness of your numbers. . . . You were wise to give your magazine the title, “Commentary.” If you had not such a broad title, you could hardly print such provocative and stimulating reading as appeared in the March issue.

Synagogue Architecture
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to write a word of appreciation of Rachel Wischnitzer-Bernstein's most informative article on “The Problem of Synagogue Architecture.” As one who has had a limited experience in this field, I can say that there is a tremendous educational task involved in conveying to the rabbis, building committees, and others concerned even the elementary rudiments of the inherent problems, and the proper approach to the evaluation of the design of synagogues in America.

Adolph S. Ochs
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I did not know the late Adolph Ochs intimately, but I knew him well enough to be able to characterize Louis Berg's appraisal of him as unjust and wholly distorted. I met Mr.

A Contribution to Judaism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I wish to express my appreciation to you for printing the article by Professor Paul Weiss [“The True, the Good, and the Jew”] in the October COMMENTARY.

"Liberalism" vs. Liberalism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The basic disagreement between your correspondents and myself about my review of Gentleman's Agreement is, I think, a significant one, involving more than a difference of opinion about this particular book.

On "Gentleman's Agreement"
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Your reviewer Diana Trilling dismisses Laura Hobson's novel, Gentleman's Agreement, with very faint praise and much sharp condemnation, in about a one to ten proportion.

The Outlook for a New FEPC:
The 80th Congress and Job Discrimination

by Malcolm Ross
The Republican party, which holds the majority in the 80th Congress, has pledged itself to pass a permanent FEPC law outlawing the practice of discrimination in employment.

The Faith of Henry Wallace:
The Populist Tradition In The Atomic Age

by David Bazelon
In many quarters, Henry A. Wallace is regarded as the most important political leader and ideologist that American liberals possess, and the possible head of a movement of resurgent progressivism.

Should Jews Change Their Occupations?
A Rational Approach To The Maldistribution ProblemM/em>

by Samuel Flowerman
Prophetic voices are again warning American Jews that their economic position spells trouble for them—especially if there is a major depression.

The Peoples of My Home Town:
Before Nationalism Crushed Rumania's Design For Living
by Solomon Bloom
This autobiographical footnote to history brightly illuminates the process by which the principle of national self-determination, after World War I, tore apart the fabric of harmonious living among the varied peoples of the old Austrian and Turkish Empires and left them the embattled racists of today. _____________   Moving from one continent to another is a confusing experience.

United Nations: Cultural Division:
Unesco's Program and Problems

by Stephen Spender
Stephen Spender, the well-known English poet, is among those intellectuals who seek to play an active part in efforts to meet the problems that face the modern world; this sense of responsibility led him to Spain during the Civil War and it brings him today into all efforts to establish lines of communication and cooperation among men of thought throughout the world.

No Grapes, No Wrath
A Story

by Hans Adler
Isaac Nedinsky began to help his father on the family's little mud-farm in Poland when he was fifteen years old.

From Mendelssohn to Kafka:
The Jewish Man of Letters In Germany

by Heinz Politzer
In 1772, Issachar Falkensohn Behr published his Poems of a Polish Jew in the German language in Mitau and Leipzig.

Budget of a Fish Factory:
The Cost of Cooperative Living In Palestine

by Meyer Levin
Meyer Levin, the novelist, here uses the dollars-and-cents figures of an actual budget to make us see the scale of human relationships and values of a Palestine commune, that unique form of cooperative living together and working together which many think a highly valuable contribution toward the solution of the problem of collective production within the framework of democratic freedom.

From the American Scene: Papa's Conflict
by Henry Steig
Henry Steig has been at various times a jazz musician, a cartoonist, a lifeguard, a toolmaker, a photographer, and a teacher of arts and crafts, but he has concentrated on writing for the past twelve years.

Cedars of Lebanon: The Situation of the Hebrews
by Simone Luzzatto
Rabbi Simone (Simhah) ben Isaac Luzzatto (1583–1663), early member of a noted Italian Jewish family that was to produce many a distinguished figure after him, was born, lived, and died in Venice, where he sat on the rabbinical collegium.

Final Judgment
by Yehoash
Yehoash (Solomon Bloomgarden—1870—1927) is well known as a modern Yiddish poet. The present poem was published in the Zukunft in 1927 (after the author's death) under the title, “Degrees.” It is here translated by Jacob Sloan. _____________ Each of them attained to a single clod, Now will He all the grasses gather; Some there were that made attempt to stammer, And now will He say the Great Word aloud. On the blinded ways wanderers did creep, And at every turn there was an audacious print; Now will He, the Last One and the Master, Double them all in one winning sweep. And there will hang upon His citadels A blessing, silent as a rainbow; Blessed be the dead and unquickened roe, The luckless hand, and the steps that fail!   _____________  

The Study of Man: The Alienation of Modern Man
by Nathan Glazer
If, as Sidney Hook wrote recently, the two great semantic beacons of our time are the terms “transition” and “crisis,” then a third term is perhaps necessary to capture the special quality of this transition and this crisis.

King Jesus, by Robert Graves
by Mordecai Chertoff
History for Art's Sake King Jesus. by Robert Graves. New York, Creative Age Press, 1946. 424 pp. $3.00.   Robert Graves himself notes that “many of the historical assumptions made by characters in this story are not necessarily valid,“ and, accommodatingly enough, lists some of these assumptions.

Yivo Annual of Jewish Social Science
by Oscar Handlin
The Jewish Historical Sense Yivo Annual of Jewish Social Science. Volume I. New York, Yiddish Scientific Institute—Yivo, 1946. 319 pp.   The activities of the Yiddish Scientific Institute have long been of interest to students of the social sciences concerned with problems that touch upon the Jews, the more so since its headquarters moved to New York in 1939.

An International Convention Against Anti-Semitism, by Mark Vishniak
by Milton Konvitz
Can Anti-Semitism be Outlawed? An International Convention Against Anti-Semitism. by Mark Vishniak. New York, Research Institute of the Jewish Labor Committee, 1946. 135 pp.

Nothing is a Wonderful Thing, by Helen Wolfert
by Jacob Glatstein
The Heritage of the East Side Nothing is a Wonderful Thing. by Helen Wolfert. New York, Simon and Schuster, 1946. 118 pp. $2.00. There is a Jewish proverb which says that a story should not be too closely questioned.

The Mind and Death of a Genius, by David Abrahamsen
by William Barrett
Genius and Madness The Mind and Death of a Genius. by David Abrahamsen. New York, Columbia University Press, 1946. 228 pp. $3.00.   Otto Weininger, the subject of this biographical and psychoanalytic study, was born in Vienna in 1880.

Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the Americas, by Frank Tannenbaum
by Diana Bernstein
The Anglo-Saxon's Great Failure Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the Americas. by Frank Tannenbaum. New York, Knopf, 1947. 128 pp. $2.00.   To most of us, the colonizers of the American continents are the Spanish, Dutch, French, and English.

The Month in History
by Sidney Hertzberg
In this regular department, Sidney Hertzberg seeks to provide an objective and unpartisan monthly report of Jewish affairs in their relationship to world events.

Reader Letters April 1947
by Our Readers
On "Gentleman's Agreement" TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Your reviewer Diana Trilling dismisses Laura Hobson's novel, Gentleman's Agreement, with very faint praise and much sharp condemnation, in about a one to ten proportion.

May, 1947Back to Top
Marxism and Judaism
by Our Readers
To the Editor I enjoyed Harold Rosenberg's pleasantly chummy “open letter” to me in the February issue of your publication. Much of what he says, whether true or false, seems to me to be utterly irrelevant to the article of mine [“From Marxism to Judaism,” in the January COMMENTARY] which he criticizes and therefore hardly calls for comment on my part.

The Last Days of the Warsaw Ghetto:
A Survivor's Account of a Heroic Chapter in Jewish History

by Ziviah Lubetkin
So far as we know, Ziviah Lubetkin's is the only firsthand account extant of the aftermath as well as the actual events of the Jewish uprising in the Warsaw Ghetto, which began April 19, 1943, and was finally crushed just four years ago, in the closing days of May.

Jewish Culture in America:
Some Speculations by an Editor

by Elliot Cohen
These notes represent an effort to sketch tentatively and in outline an approach to the much-discussed problem of furthering Jewish culture in America.

Homes for Aryans Only:
The Restrictive Covenant Spreads Legal Racism in America

by Charles Abrams
Almost unnoticed by the public, the restrictive covenant, used by real-estate interests to protect city neighborhoods and suburban developments from “undesirable races,” has spread nationally until it represents a serious menace to democratic living in the United States.

Citizen God
A Story

by Jacob Glatstein
Jacob Glatstein, poet, critic, and novelist, is one of the leaders of modem Yiddish literature, especially noteworthy for the degree to which his work reflects the dominant currents of world literature as a whole.

Jerome Kern and American Operetta:
He Wedded Opera Lyrique and American Vaudeville

by Kurt List
At the moment, Jerome Kern seems destined to be remembered as a primal source of tuneful ballads for the All-Time Hit Parade—indeed, this is his role in Hollywood's technicolor canonization of the composer, When the Clouds Roll By.

My Father's Fence
by Jacob Sloan
My father built a fence around his head Of half-said words, before he died, and went Leaving me untold to stand and dig Holes for posts to string the wire against. Now I am always sticking on the barbs And sucking at my wrist and tamping dirt With heavy iron where his light foot said, Perhaps—settling his unsurveyed earth. I do not like it.

Is Every German Guilty?
A German Anti-Nazi Fighter Discusses Individual Responsibility

by Paul Massing
This personal statement on individual responsibility of Germans for Nazi crimes, written by a man active among German anti-Nazis, uses as its text Victor Bernstein's important book Final Judgment: The Story of Nuremberg (With an introduction by Max Lerner.

British Jewry in Heavy Weather:
Palestine and Postwar Tensions Bring New Problems

by Mark Raven
It is strange (returning after a long visit to America) to rediscover how closely knit is British Jewry. Here is a community that for prestige, variety, and interest must surely rank very high, not only in contemporary life, but even in history.

Oil, Palestine, and the Powers:
The Struggle for Strategic Resources in the Middle East

by Ernest Aschner
If Uncle Sam is now very much the man in the middle in the Middle East, it is not solely because Britain has cried out for help.

From the American Scene: The Trojans of Brighton Beach
by Milton Klonsky
When my grandfather was alive he could walk up and down six thousand years as though it were a little narrow room; for him, all history could be contracted to the span of memory; and, since the Jews were the People of History, the memory of each one was a monad which represented the history of all.

Cedars of Lebanon: The Hebrews Among the Nations
by Simone Luzzatto
Below we print a second excerpt from Rabbi Simone (Simhah) ben Isaac Luzzatto's Discorso circa il Stato degli Ebrei, a book of apologetics published in Venice in 1638.

The Study of Man: Jewish History Freshly Appraised
by Milton Himmelfarb
As the first encyclopedic contribution of a school of Jewish learning relatively new to these shores, the publication of volume one of The Jewish People: Past and Present is an event of some magnitude in one area of the social sciences.

The Coming Crisis, by Fritz Sternberg
by Daniel Bell
It is an aim of this department to encourage discussion of significant issues raised by current books. Good reviewers, we have found, have independent judgment and often fresh points of view, and we afford them wide latitude for the expression of their individual opinions.

Tales of the Hasidim: The Early Masters, by Martin Buber; and The Story of the Baal Shem (Tov), by Dr. J. L. Snitzer
by Harold Rosenberg
Mystics of this World Tales of the Hasidim: The Early Masters. by Marten Buber. New York, Schocken Books, 1947. 335 pp $3.75. The Story of The Baal Shem (Tov). by Dr.

Action for Unity, by Goodwin Watson
by Alfred Lee
Community Action Against Hatred Action For Unity. by Goodwin Watson. New York, Harper, 1947. 165 pp. $2.00.   It is always refreshing to find an exception to a rule, especially a constructive exception. Surveys of the “strength of the forces of hate” and assessments of the “forces now pitted against them” in the communities of this country are seldom satisfactory—usually because they are made quickly, with inadequate staff, and on impressionistic and hearsay bases. How obviously and effectively hate—promoting must a person or organization be to be numbered among the “forces of hate”? One frequently suspects that the Gerald Smiths make the thousands of respectable and unconscious bate—mongers feel all the more invisible and complacent.

Nationalism and After, by Edward Hallett Carr; and Prophets and Peoples, by Hans Kohn
by Alfred Werner
Nationalism and Chauvinism Nationalism And After. by Edward Hallett Carr. New York, Macmillan, 1945. 76 pp. $1.25. Prophets And Peoples. by Hans Kohn. New York, Macmillan, 1946.

Life of Judah Touro (1775-1854), by Leon Huhner
by Oscar Handlin
Security Through Celebrity Life Of Judah Touro (1775-1854). by Leon Huhner. Philadelphia, Jewish Publication Society of America, 1946. 192 pp. $2.00.   This volume is less significant for its contents than for the mere fact of its appearance.

The Month in History
by Sidney Hertzberg
Sidney Hertzberg seeks in this regular dement to provide a fair and impartial report of important trends on world affairs in their implications for Jews.

Reader Letters May 1947
by Our Readers
Marxism and Judaism TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I enjoyed Harold Rosenberg's pleasantly chummy "open letter" to me in the February issue of your publication.

June, 1947Back to Top
A Science of Leftovers
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I found Nathan Glazer's article, “What is Sociology's Job?” [in the February Commentary] amusing, penetrating, and thought-provoking. Mr. Glazer seems quite correct in pointing out that American sociology—in distinction from European—has tended to concentrate on bread-and-butter problems and to stress amelioration, rather than the scientific study of society as a whole.

German Guilt
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The doctrine of mass guilt is most certainly a Nazi, not a democratic, concept, as Paul Massing points out in his article “Is Every German Guilty?” in” the May COMMENTARY.

Gentlemen's Disagreement
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I do not care so much that Jacob Glatstein in his review of Nothing is a Wonderful Thing in the April Commentary not merely failed to understand but completely misrepresented the entire meaning of the book.

On Isaak Babel
by Our Readers
To the Editor: With particular pleasure I read Isaak Babel's “The Awakening” in your February issue. .I think it is a beautiful story and, as far as I can judge, beautifully rendered. For many years it has been my opinion that the two outstanding Soviet Russian story-tellers are Yuriy Tynyanov and Isaak Babel.

For Liberal Self-Criticism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Diana Trilling's review of Laura Hobson's Gentleman's Agreement and, in an even higher degree, her answer to her counter-critics in the April number of COMMENTARY, are the most valuable and illuminating contributions that any American periodical has recently printed.

A Realistic Philosophy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was exceedingly interested in Sidney Hook's excellent article in the March Commentary on “Intelligence and Evil in Human History.” .

Slub-Ball, Immies, etc.
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Milton Klonsky's memories of our streets [‘The Trojans of Brighton Beach,” in the May issue] have an interesting point of view, but I rather think he strongly underestimates the pastoral side of that life: where there are a waterfront and gratings in the sidewalk and the basements of houses, there is plenty that is “raw, contingent, unassorted, and particular.” In fact he contradicts himself, for he speaks of collecting bottle-caps and Dixie tops (in my time, matchbooks), but these are found by keeping the eyes glued to the earth, not to the rectangles. But what astonishes me is the following phrase: “heavy reelies made of steel.” This is pure gibberish.

Why Jews in the World?
A Reaffirmation of Faith in Israel's Destiny

by Leo Baeck
Leo S. Baeck, chief rabbi of Berlin and a distinguished modern scholar, served his people in pre-Hitler Germany, during the Nazi regime, and in the concentration camps.

F. Scott Fitzgerald and Literary Anti-Semitism:
A Footnote on the Mind of the 20's

by Milton Hindus
I recently read The Great Gatsby for the first time, and it struck me that in all the praise of the book I had heard from both Jews and non-Jews, something important had been omitted—that viewed in a certain light the novel reads very much like an anti-Semitic document.

Re-educating the Germans:
The Dilemma of Reconstruction

by Franz Neumann
This description of the conflicting machineries and ideologies involved in the re-education of the German people illuminates in microcosm the whole political problem of reconstructing Germany as a sound member of Western society. _____________   It is difficult to educate; it is more difficult to re-educate; it is well-nigh impossible to re-educate a foreign nation.

The Writer and the Jewish Community:
Case History of a Culture-Maker

by Meyer Levin
Meyer Levin's autobiographical commentary on Elliot E. Cohen's article “Jewish Culture in America” (in last month's COMMENTARY) will be of special interest.

From the Secret Council of the Conquered
by Uri Gruenberg
Uri Zvi Gruenberg, one of the most powerful and original of the younger Palestinian poets, is considered the poet of the Revisionist movement there.

Ecuador: Eight Years on Ararat:
The Story of a South American Haven

by Benno Weiser
The family of Ecuadorians who in 1938 invited me to spend Christmas with them were surprised when I rose to leave after dinner instead of waiting to go with them to the misa de gallo (Midnight Mass on Christmas Eve). “I suppose you know I am a Jew,” I explained. “But what does that matter?” my host replied.

Creating a Modern Synagogue Style: Expressive of America
by Franz Landsberger
With many Jewish communities planning new synagogues or embarking upon building projects deferred by the war, the problem of Jewish religious architecture has become one of wide practical concern.

Creating a Modern Synagogue Style: No More Copying
by Ely Kahn
With many Jewish communities planning new synagogues or embarking upon building projects deferred by the war, the problem of Jewish religious architecture has become one of wide practical concern.

Creating a Modern Synagogue Style: In the Spirit of Our Age
by Eric Mendelsohn
With many Jewish communities planning new synagogues or embarking upon building projects deferred by the war, the problem of Jewish religious architecture has become one of wide practical concern.

Creating a Modern Synagogue Style: Tradition from Function
by Paul Goodman
As Rachel Wischnitzer-Bernstein has adequately shown, there is no living tradition of construction and style in the architecture of synagogues.

The Exiles
A Story

by Evelyn Shefner
Because I had, in those days, a tend cane to collect and cherish grievances, I brooded for months after wards over the indignities I suffered on my thirteenth birthday, inflating them like the monster balloons made in the shape of eggs.

Church, Schools, and the Constitution
by J. O'Neill
Recent efforts to obtain public funds for parochial schools, corresponding efforts to “bring religion into the public schools,” and—most recently—a Supreme Court decision permitting the expenditure of public funds to provide bus service to parochial schools, have once more spotlighted one of the important issues in American life: the relations of religion, government, and education.

From the American Scene: Labor Organizer: New Style
by Harry Gersh
Behind organized labor's rise to power in the 30's were vast economic movements and tides, government laws, and mass pressures.

Cedars of Lebanon: An Aristocracy of Learning
by Nathan Hannover
This vivid description of Jewish life in Poland in the 17th century is the final chapter of a book called Yeven Metzula (The Pit of Corruption) written by Rabbi Nathan Nata Hannover and published in Venice in 1653.

The Study of Man: The Dark Ground of Prejudice:
The Neurosis of Urbanization

by Arnold Rose
Books on race prejudice and anti-Semitism have shown a significant shift in the past few years: the emphasis is no longer on the history of anti-Semitism, an emphasis which perforce implied that understanding anti-Semitism was a matter of discovering and appraising various historical, economic, and social factors; it has become increasingly focused on its deeper “irrational”—or emotional—roots in the psychology of the human personality.

The Study of Man: The Dark Ground of Prejudice:
The Revolt against Rationality

by Siegfried Kracauer
Books on race prejudice and anti-Semitism have shown a significant shift in the past few years: the emphasis is no longer on the history of anti-Semitism, an emphasis which perforce implied that understanding anti-Semitism was a matter of discovering and appraising various historical, economic, and social factors; it has become increasingly focused on its deeper “irrational”—or emotional—roots in the psychology of the human personality.

East River, by Sholem Asch
by Harold Rosenberg
It is an aim of this department to encourage discussion of significant issues raised by current books. Good reviewers, we have found, have independent judgment and often fresh points of view, and we afford them wide latitude for the expression of their individual opinions.

The Great Wall of China, by Franz Kafka; and The Kafka Problem, edited by Angel Flores
by William Phillips
The Great Wall of Criticism The Great Wall of China. by Franz Kafka. Translated by Willa and Edwin Muir. New York, Schocken Books, 1946.

The History of the Jews in Italy, by Cecil Roth
by Joshua Starr
Italy's Jews The History of the Jews in Italy by Cecil Roth. Philadelphia, Jewish Publication Society of America, 1946. 575 pp. $3.00.   The long course of Italian-Jewish history, extending from pre-Christian times to our own day, comprises in a degree every facet of the evolution of Jewish life in Europe.

Legend of a Musical City, by Max Graf
by Kurt List
Mythical Vienna Legend of a Musical City by Max Graf. New York, Philosophical Library, 1945. 302 pp. $3.00.   The glamorized picture of Johann Strauss's waltzing Vienna did not originate in Hollywood.

A Star Pointed North, by Edmund Fuller; and There Was Once A Slave, by Shirley Graham
by Oscar Handlin
Slave and Freedman A Star Pointed North. by Edmund Fuller. New York, Harper, 1946. 361 pp. $2.75. There Was Once A Slave : The Heroic Story of Frederick Douglass. by Shirley Graham. New York.

The Month in History
by Sidney Hertzberg
Sidney Hertzberg seeks in this regular department to provide a fair and impartial report of important trends on world affairs in their implications for Jews.

Reader Letters June 1947
by Our Readers
Slug-Ball, Immies, etc. TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Milton Klonsky's memories of our streets ['"The Trojans of Brighton Beach," in the May issue] have an interesting point of view, but I rather think he strongly underestimates the pastoral side of that life: where there are a waterfront and gratings in the sidewalk and the basements of houses, there is plenty that is "raw, contingent, unassorted, and particular." In fact he contradicts himself, for he speaks of collecting bottle-caps and Dixie tops (in my time, matchbooks), but these are found by keeping the eyes glued to the earth, not to the rectangles. But what astonishes me is the following phrase: "heavy reelies made of steel." This is pure gibberish.

July, 1947Back to Top
A Scholar Surrenders
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . . You will know that the academic man has constantly to fight the desire to buy another book, to subscribe to another journal.

Respecting Waldo Frank
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his recent review of Waldo Frank's Island in the Atlantic [in the December COMMENTARY], Harold Rosenberg, it seems to me, succumbed to the use of a sad formula: he chose to look at the work through the wrong end of the telescope.

On “Commentary”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: From time to time I have tried to sow the seed of interest in your review, where the soil seemed receptive, but I constantly meet the reply that there are so many different publications on religious matters that one can't read them all; in fact, this “can't read them all” seems to be the sales resistance in all cases.

From the Civil Liberties Union
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Considerable comment has undoubtedly been aroused by Prof. J. M. O'Neill's article “Church, Schools, and the Constitution,” in your June issue.

“King Jesus”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It is a pity that your reviewer, Mordecai S. Chertoff, is so conscious of my being a Gentile that, skimming the later chapters of my King Jesus, he assumes that I necessarily take the classic Christian approach to the Gospel story and blame the Jews for Jesus's death.

Restrictive Covenants
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have nothing but the greatest admiration for Charles Abrams' piece, “Homes For Aryans Only,” in your May issue.

The East Side
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As it seems the battle between the Glatstein and Wolfert clans over the virtues and vices of the East Side [COMMENTARY: April, June 1947] is not just a private fight, I want to get in a couple of licks of my own.

Western Europe in Collapse:
The Problem of Survival In A World of Super-States

by Joel Carmichael
The collapse of Western Europe as a decisive international factor, now seen to be an astonishingly persistent postwar condition, has come about on so grandiose a scale that it is difficult to avoid falling into bombastic hyper-generalization to describe it.

They Did It in St. Louis:
One Man Against Folklore

by Malcolm Ross
The city of St. Louis lies at the geographical center of the United States. It has a strain of French blood from the Louisiana adventurers who went north in search of river plantations.

Assimilation in Militant Dress:
em>Should the Jews He “Like Unto the Nations”?

by Will Herberg
Will Herberg wrote the widely-discussed article “From Marxism to Judaism” (COMMENTARY, January 1947), in which he analyzed the current faith of many radicals, and asserted the superiority of traditional Judaism as a spiritual dynamic for programs of social reconstruction.

Italy: Viva la Palestina Ebraica!
by Mario Rossi
Italy today is one of the very few countries in Europe where almost no trace of anti-Semitism is to be found.

Cities
by Jean Malaquais
This poem was translated from the French by Mary Guggenheim.(The figure 15,121,-277,000, which appears in the last lines of the poem, is an estimate of the number of paving stones used by the Parisian workers in building barricades during the two uprisings of 1848.

Good Wine, Bad Vessel:
A Portrait

by Mark Raven
When Arthur and I met Vic in 1945, soon after his election as one of the new young Labor members of Parliament, it was inevitable that one of us should say: “Wouldn't old Tubby have been delighted?” “Goot vine in a bad wessel,” Arthur quoted, in Tubby's thick accent.

The Junker Plot to Kill Hitler:
The Dying Gesture of A Class

by Alfred Werner
The abortive putsch of the Junkers against Hitler was sheer melodrama. But it was more—it was the last gasp of one of Europe's historic power groups; its story, pieced together here from many publications, has important implications not only for the historian, but for all those concerned with reconstructing Germany along democratic lines.

The Lesson of Daniel De Leon:
A Chart For A New Political Philosophy

by Waldo Frank
One wintry day in 1886, a lecturer on International Law and South American Diplomacy in Columbia's School of Political Economy sat at the window of the university building on Madison Avenue, and against the background of St.

Palestine's Economy, Postwar:
The Country's Productivity and World Markets

by Gerda Luft
With the end of the wartime boom, the perennial problems of the Jewish economy in Palestine return to the center of the stage.

From the American Scene: Memoirs of a Pumpkin-Seed Peddler
by Morris Freedman
During the early 1930s, my brother and I contributed considerably to the litter of Crotona Park. But we also satisfied a deep-seated need of several thousand Bronxites, for in those lean years we supplied the means for long sessions of noshing at very nominal cost (nosh: a nibble, a snack).

Cedars of Lebanon: Jewish Travellers of the Middle Ages
by Israel Abrahams
One of the most distinguished modern scholars of Judaism in English-speaking countries, Israel Abrahams was born in London in 1858, one of three scholarly brothers who all distinguished themselves in Jewish life.

The Study of Man: The Myths of the State
by Hans Kohn
Crystallizing recent thinking on one of the most important themes in political science, the myths of the modern state, Hans Kohn here reports on four recent significant books: The Myth of the State, by Ernst Cassirer (New Haven, Yale, 1946); The Web of Government, by Robert M.

Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism, by Gershom G. Scholem
by David Baumgardt
The Jewish Mystics Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism. by Gershom G. Scholem. New York, Schocken Books, 1946. 545 pp. $5.50.   From Moses Mendelssohn to Julius Guttmann, the philosophers of Judaism have hesitated to admit that any kind of mysticism could be valued as a legitimate offspring of the purity of monotheistic Jewish thought.

Refugees in America, by Maurice R. Davie
by Oscar Handlin
The Refugee as Asset Refugees in America. Report of the Committee for the Study of Recent Immigration from Europe. by Maurice R.

Einstein: His Life and Times, by Philipp Frank
by Sidney Morgenbesser
The Mind of Einstein Einstein: His Life and Times. by Philipp Frank. Translated by George Rosen. Edited and revised by Shuichi Kusaka. New York, Knopf, 1947.

Knock on Any Door, by Willard Motley
by George Becker
Naturalism in Our Day Knock on Any Door. by Willard Motley. New York, Appleton-Century, 1947. 504 pp. $3.00.   This account of Nick Romano, who dies in the electric chair before he is twenty-one, is at first glance merely another violent story of human waste in patent imitation of Studs Lonigan and Native Son.

The Struggle for the World, by James Burnham
by Maurice Goldbloom
The Communist Conspiracy The Struggle for the World. by James Burnham. New York, John Day, 1947. 248 pp. $3.00.   James Burnham has a regrettable knack for proceeding with inexorable logic from major premises which are almost correct, by way of minor premises a little less sound, to conclusions which are largely wrong. Thus, he recognizes and clearly laments the fact that in contemporary political life the traditional values of Western civilization are shot to hell, despite the widespread lip-service which they receive.

Blessed is the Match, by Marie Syrkin
by Meyer Levin
The Jewish Resistance Blessed is the Match. by Marie Syrkin. Philadelphia, The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1947. 361 pp. $3.00.   Marie Syrkin has given us the first over-all picture of Jewish resistance in World War II, though we have had many reports and several books on various phases of the struggle before.

The Month in History
by Sidney Hertzberg
Sidney Hertzberg seeks in this regular department to provide a fair and impartial report of important trends in world affairs in their implications for Jews.

Reader Letters July 1947
by Our Readers
The East Side TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: As it seems the battle between the Glatstein and Wolfert clans over the virtues and vices of the East Side [COMMENTARY: April, June I947] is not just a private fight, I want to get in a couple of licks of my own.

August, 1947Back to Top
A Real Delight
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have been reading COMMENTARY eagerly for some months—I regard it as a first-rate publication, and it is a real delight to see a Jewish publication of this standard. Victor Gollancz London, England _____________  

A Correction
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In my review of Blessed Is the Match, by Marie Syrkin, in the July COMMENTARY, I said: “It is significant to me that Miss Syrkin's book was published by the Jewish Publication Society; I do not know whether it was offered to a general publisher, but I suspect that, despite the exciting material it contains, most publishers would have had the reaction that ‘the general public doesn't want to read about these things, yet.’” Since writing this I have learned that Miss Syrkin's book is to be published by Alfred A.

German Guilt
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I read Paul Massing's article, “Is Every German Guilty?” in the May COMMENTARY with a great deal of enthusiasm.

Kafka the Jew
by Our Readers
To the Editor: William Phillips' “Great Wall of Criticism” in the June issue of COMMENTARY looked to me like one of the most adequate pieces to appear about Kafka in a long time, especially where it concerned itself with those highly inadequate ones which were lately assembled in The Kafka Problem.

F. Scott Fitzgerald
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was struck (I should say stricken) by Milton Hindus' article, “F. Scott Fitzgerald and Literary Anti-Semitism,” and surprised at its appearance in the June Commentary.

The Refugee Contribution
by Our Readers
To the Editor: What contribution the intellectuals driven to this country by Hitlerism are making and will make cannot be easily answered.

The First Light
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have known Dr. Leo S. Baeck for many years, although I only met him for the first time a few weeks ago.

Europe's Jews: Summer, 1947
A Firsthand Report by an American Observer

by David Bernstein
When you come back from Europe in the summer of 1947, it is not the plentiful food nor the well-stocked stores nor the undamaged cities that startle you most.

Letter to the Movie-Makers:
The Film Drama as a Social Force

by Elliot Cohen
A boyhood as one of a Jewish storekeeping family in the Negro district of an Alabama town and some four decades of interest in Jewish life may account, in part, for the concern of the writer of this letter with the problem of prejudice.

The Aims of British Foreign Policy:
Remodeling an Empire While Building Socialism

by C. Grattan
Any aspect of British foreign policy must, to be understood, be viewed as part of a complex network whose ultimate purpose is to support the security of the United Kingdom, its empire, and the British Commonwealth.

The Adventures of Ilya Ehrenburg:
Portrait of an Artist as a Soviet Journalist

by Martin Thomas
“My life resembles a vaudeville act with many changes of costume, but I am not a ham. .I am only trying to be obedient.” “I don't believe in anything at all.

Place Me in the Breach
by Yehuda Karni
Place me in the breach with every other     stone, And pound me in; Perhaps I shall then appease my motherland, And the guilt of a people which did not Reclaim its ruins will be absolved. How good it would be to know That I am one with the stones of Jerusalem, That my bones are mixed with her wall— How glorious! Why should my body be less favored than     my soul Which went mute or wailing with its people Through fire and water? Take me with the stones of Jerusalem And set me in the wall— Mortar me in! Then from the wall shall my failing bones     sing And greet the Messiah.

Economic Democracy Without Statism:
Planning in the Framework of Liberty

by Lewis Corey
Many thoughtful people see the central political problem of our time as that of achieving economic security without thereby sacrificing the values of the liberal tradition.

Sabra
A Story

by Irene Orgel
Aryeh is a sabra. A sabra is a species of cactus indigenous to the hot dry soil of Palestine; and sabra is the name for one of those rare Jews (there aren't so many of them yet) who have been lucky enough to be born in the Land of Israel. Aryeh plays the violin with the Palestine Symphony Orchestra, and he was born in Rosh Pinnah.

Heine's Religion:
The Messianic Ideals of the Poet

by Leo Lowenthal
Why did Heine become a Christian? We can discount many of the usual motives that lead to conversion. .Heine did not expect any financial advantage.

Racism and America's World Position:
The Potential of Democratic Nationalism

by Carl Dreher
The experience of the past fifteen years has made the question of nationalism a crucial one for all the peoples of the world, and for Jews in particular.

From the American Scene: Scandal on an Island
by Solomon Bloom
Nothing about the Jews is fixed, not even the reactions they evoke. The metropolis with its Jewish masses, the small town with its dozen families, the isolated village or farm where the Jew is but the echo of a name—each sees the Jews differently. An island is a thing apart.

Cedars of Lebanon: The Language of Faith
by Our Readers
These prayers are taken from a collection of verse translations (with the Hebrew, Yiddish, and Aramaic texts on facing pages) which is to be published next month by Schocken Books under the title The Language of Faith.

The Study of Man: Diagnosing the German Malady
by Samuel Hurwitz
Discussion of the “German problem” has too often been smothered in a mist of understandable emotion, prejudice, and voluble ignorance.

From Caligari to Hitler, by Siegfried Kracauer; and Magic and Myth of the Movies, by Parker Tyler
by David Bazelon
It is an aim of this department to encourage discussion of significant issues raised by current books. Good reviewers, we have found, have independent judgment and often fresh points of view, and we afford them wide latitude for the expression of their individual opinions.

Behind the Silken Curtain, by Bartley C. Crum; and Palestine Mission: A Personal Record, by Richard Crossman
by Sidney Hertzberg
Failure of a Mission Behind the Silken Curtain. by Bartley C. Crum. New York, Simon and Schuster, 1947. 297 pp. $2.75. Palestine Mission: A Personal Record. by Richard Crossman. New York, Harper and Brothers, 1947.

Seedtime, by Leo Katz
by Irving Howe
The Art of Exhaustion Seedtime. by Leo Katz. New York, Knopf, 1947. 381 pp. $3.00.   Seedtime is a parable of passivity. Its plot is tangential to a sequence of events which dominate and loom over it: a Rumanian peasant rebellion in 1907 spurred by the most terrible misery but soon suppressed by the regime of the boyars.

The Face of Benedictus Spinoza, by Simon L. Millner
by Meyer Schapiro
How Did Spinoza Look? The Face of Benedictus Spinoza. by Simon L. Millner. New York, Machmadim Art Editions, 1946. .51 pp., 42 pi.

The Children, by Howard Fast
by Alison Lurie
Realism and Sociology The Children. by Howard Fast. New York, Duell, Sloan & Pearce, 1947. 190 pp. $2.50.   Curiosity always undermines my resolution never to read authors' prefaces and I turn back to learn that Maisie symbolizes the petty bourgeoisie or that Herbert stands for the immortality of the poetic spirit: they are not Maisie and Herbert at all.

Charioteer, by Gertrude Eberle
by Mordecai Chertoff
A Joseph Story Charioteer. by Gertrude Eberle. Grand Rapids, Michigan, Wm. B. Erdman's Publishing Co., 1946. 295 pp. $2.50.   Mrs. Eberle believes that “a steadfast, positive faith accomplishes all things,” and her two-ply rags-to-riches story is set forth as incontrovertible proof of her philosophy.

The Month in History
by Sidney Hertzberg
Sidney Hertzberg seeks in this regular department to provide a fair and impartial report of important trends in world affairs in their implications for Jews.

Reader Letters August 1947
by Our Readers
The First Light TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I have known Dr. Leo S. Baeck for many years, although I only met him for the first time a few weeks ago.

September, 1947Back to Top
A Divergence of Opinion
by Our Readers
To the Editor: For many months your sensitive and valuable magazine has been marred by the untiring cynicism of Mr. Sidney Hertzberg.

German Guilt
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I read Samuel J. Hurwitz's article, “Diagnosing the German Malady,” in the August issue of COMMENTARY, with a great deal of interest and pleasure.

Nationalism and the Jews
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his article, “Racism and America's World Position,” in the August issue of COMMENTARY, Carl Dreher takes issue with my article in the August 1946 issue, in which I suggested that Jews are the natural protagonists in the fight against nationalism and that they will have to decide in a not too distant future “to fight political nationalism uncompromisingly and on principle, inside Jewish life as well as outside.” I agree with Mr.

Add: Ehrenberg
by Our Readers
To the Editor: May I add one delayed firecracker to Martin Thomas' wonderful demolition of Ilya Ehrenburg in your August issue? In Bucharest the man who probably deplores Ehrenburg most is one Marius, major-domo of Kapsha's famed restaurant on the Calea Victoriei.

America the Beautiful:
The Humanist in the Bathtub

by Mary McCarthy
The American has for decades been stigmatized in European writing as the materialist par excellence. Mary McCarthy here takes a fresh look at this traditional belief. _____________   A visiting Existentialist wanted recently to be taken to dinner at a really American place.

Improvisations on Themes From My Life:
Chapters from a Musician's Autobiography

by Artur Schnabel
This autobiographical memoir, by the pianist Artur Schnabel, of a career that took him “from the last flowering of individualism to the first unfolding of collectivism,” grew out of an invitation by Chancellor Hutchins of the University of Chicago to lecture there on “whatever comes into your mind.” Hertha Pauli, who made this selection from stenographic notes of Mr.

To Edom
by Heinrich Heine
This poem appears in a letter written by Heine to Moses Moser (October 25, 1824) on the subject of The Rabbi of Bacherach, which Heine was then engaged in writing.

The Liberal's Vote and '48:
What Price Third Party?

by James Wechsler
The perennial dilemma of the liberal—how best to make his vote and his political activity count within the American party system—is here discussed by one of Washington's best-informed journalists. _____________   Third party talk is rising again.

The Myth of the Supra-Human Jew:
The Theological Stigma

by Irving Kristol
Many thinkers have noted that the “historic role of the Jews” as it appears in the Christian tradition, both on a theological and a general cultural level (usually with anti-Semitic overtones), reflects—often in a distorted fashion, it is true—beliefs of the Jews themselves about their own destiny.

First Love
A Story

by Isaak Babel
Isaak Babel was born in Odessa in 1894. His story “The Awakening” (COMMENTARY, February 1947) describes his early revolt against the prevailing ghetto life of the Jews.

A Parent Looks at Jewish Education:
The Younger Generation Is Only Half the Problem

by L. Grunebaum
L. H. Grunebaum's credentials for this parent's view of Jewish education include three children, some years' activity as a member of a religious school board, and a long-time interest in Jewish communal affairs. _____________   As a father I should be pleased with our religious school, and as a member of the Board of Education of our Reform temple I should be proud of it. Every week, from October to May, three hundred children give up their Sunday morning's leisure to a modern program of Jewish activities directed by a modern Jewish educator.

Denmark: Oasis of Decency
A Nordic Answer to the Nazi Myth

by Hans Bendix
Copenhagen The Danes are the most homogeneous national group in Europe. For the most part the Danes of today are descendants of the people who inhabited the Danish islands in the Stone Age.

The Strange Case of Sarah E.:
An Episode of Nazi Europe

by Karl Frucht
Karl Frucht is the scarcely concealed “Sergeant Franck” of this incredible story, which plainly falls into the “stranger than fiction” class.

From the American Scene: The Card Player: His Rise and Fall
by Nathan Halper
My parents had a small basement restaurant. It was on Henry Street, near Jefferson. Right in the middle of the old East Side. A meal cost 22 cents.

Cedars of Lebanon: From the Land of Sheba
by Our Readers
These folk tales and legends from Yemen—the land known in Biblical times as Sheba—are a unique part of Jewish cultural history.

The Study of Man: Is the Depression Inevitable?
by Ben Seligman
Most American economists—60 per cent, if we are to believe a recent Business Week survey—think that a serious economic collapse will take place within the next five years, and a large proportion of these believe the collapse unavoidable. Virtually all statistical data agree that the trend is toward lower production and higher unemployment.

Christ Stopped at Eboli, by Carlo Levi
by Raymond Rosenthal
Humanist in Exile Christ Stopped at Eboli. by Carlo Levi. Translated by Frances Frenaye. New York, Farrar, Straus, 1947. 268 pp. $3.00.   Beyond the penumbra of the great metropolitan centers, though not beyond the long reach of the police, tax collectors, and radios of its omnivorous state, Carlo Levi discovered a cutoff and abandoned culture and, what is much rarer, a community of unstandardized individuals.

My Father's House, by Meyer Levin
by George Becker
The Road Back My Father's House. by Meyer Levin. The Viking Press, 1947. 192 pp. $2.50.   The author of Citizens, from whom one might have expected massive documentation, has here managed to handle a theme of major proportions delicately, almost poetically, in a novel less than two hundred pages.

Ritual: Psychoanalytic Studies, by Theodor Reik
by Milton Himmelfarb
Freud and Judaism Ritual: Psychoanalytic Studies. by Theodor Reik. New York, Farrar, Straus, 1946. 367 pp. $5.00.   In his chapter on “The Shofar” in the present work, Dr.

The Alien and the Asiatic in American Law; and The Constitution and Civil Rights, by Milton R. Konvitz
by Thomas Cowan
The Civil Rights of Aliens The Alien and the Asiatic in American Law. by Milton R. Konvitz. Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1946. 299 pp.

Peretz, edited and translated by Sol Liptzin
by Jacob Sloan
Peretz Sentimentalized Peretz by Sol Liptzin. New York, Yivo, 1947. 379 pp.   Though Isaac Leib Peretz is commonly re-regarded, along with Mendele Mocher Sforim and Sholom Aleichem, as one of the giants of Yiddish literature, he has been sentimentalized to a much greater extent than either Mendele or Sholom Aleichem.

The Steeper Cliff, by David Davidson
by Alison Lurie
The Unwon Victory The Steeper Cliff. by David Davidson. New York, Random House, 1947. 340 pp. $3.00.   Within a few weeks of publication, this first novel about the Military Government in Germany is already on the best-seller lists.

The Month in History
by Sidney Hertzberg
Sidney Hertzberg seeks in this regular department to provide a fair and impartial report of important trends in world affairs in their implications for Jews.

Reader Letters September 1947
by Our Readers
Back-Fire Mr. Dore Schary, producer of the film Cross- fire, is preparing an answer to "Letter to the Movie-Makers" by Elliot E. Cohen (August COMMENTARY), which he has promised for our October issue; and we are postponingpubli- cation of comments from our readers until that issue.-ED. Add: Ehrenberg To THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: May I add one delayed firecracker to Martin Thomas' wonderful demolition of Ilya Ehren- burg in your August issue? In Bucharest the man who probably deplores Ehrenburg most is one Marius, major-domo of Kapsha's famed restaurant on the Calea Vic- toriei.

October, 1947Back to Top
Commentaries
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I consider Maurice Goldbloom's review of James Burnham's book The Struggle for the World, in the July COMMENTARY, a very brilliant appraisal.

Franz Kafka
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I should like a word with Friedrich Torberg, whose letter on the subject of Franz Kafka appeared in the August issue of COMMENTARY.

Metaphysics of the Movies
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Although I welcome David T. Bazelon's review of my book, Magic and Myth of the Movies, in the August COMMENTARY, both for its seriousness and the praise it contained, I feel that I should take up so important an issue as that raised by his emphatically unfavorable observations. A reviewer so well aware of those limitations of Hollywood explored and reprojected by this book and its predecessor should also be aware that it is imprecise and inadequate to assume that I “accept the purposeless dream and invite a cloud of meaninglessness to settle over actuality.” First, Mr.

A Special Field for “Commentary”?
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have read COMMENTARY with some regularity of late, and let me say that it seems to show steady improvement.

We Are Late Starting
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Lewis Corey, in his article “Economic Democracy Without Statism” [in the August COMMENTARY], has presented the issues that underlie the preservation and the extension of democracy in our time.

The Gallant Dutch
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. David Bernstein's article in your August issue [“Europe's Jews: Summer, 1947”] does less than justice to the magnificent role played by the Dutch underground movement.

Emancipation Is Indivisible:
Western Civilization and Its Jews Must Save Themselves Together

by Francois Bondy
To Many Jewish thinkers, the events of the decade leading up to World War II, and the continuing dim perspective of the postwar years, spell the utter collapse of Jewish emancipation, and the hopelessness of any decent future for the Jews in Europe.

Can the Marshall Plan Save Europe?
The Economic Struggle Behind the “Two Worlds”

by Joel Carmichael
Perhaps the most striking thing about the Marshall Plan was the spurt of galvanized enthusiasm with which it was greeted in Western Europe.

A Funeral
by Elchanan Zeitlin
Elchanan Zeitlin, a gifted journalist and a sensitive poet, died in December 1942, at the age of forty, in the Warsaw ghetto.

The World of Saul Steinberg:
A Mirror Reflecting the Forlornness of Modern Man

by Heinz Politzer
This article has been translated from the German by Francis C. Golffing. Saul Steinberg, whose work is the subject of the article, was born in Rumania in 1914, educated in Bucharest and Milan, and came to this country in 1942.

Five Drawings
by Saul Steinberg
Five Drawings by Saul Steinberg _____________   _____________   _____________   _____________   _____________  

Jewish Culture: Renaissance or Ice Age?
A Scholar Discusses the Creative Outlook

by Cecil Roth
In our next issue we will print the first section of a symposium on the problem of creating Jewish culture in America, taking its departure from Elliot E.

Gogol's Ring
A Story

by B. Alquit
B. Alquit is the pen-name of Eliezer Blum, a member of the editorial staff of the Jewish, Morning Journal and the author of a weekly column in that paper.

Palestine's Mood after UNSCOP:
The Yishuv Ponders Partition

by Palestinius
Tel Aviv The news, last February, that Britain would refer the “Palestine question” to the United Nations, came against a background of increasing violence, ineffectively met, in the absence of a policy from London, by political improvisation by the Palestine Administration.

Letter from a Movie-Maker:
“Crossfire” as a Weapon Against Anti-Semitism

by Dore Schary
Amid the chorus of comment, mostly favorable, that greeted the movie Crossfire, Hollywood's first serious attempt to deal with the problem of anti-Semitism, Elliot E.

Berlin Days:
Improvisations on Themes from My Life

by Artur Schnabel
This is the second of three chapters of informal memoirs by the distinguished pianist and composer Artur Schnabel. In the first selection, published in the September COMMENTARY, Mr.

From the American Scene: Mama's Cooking: Minority Report
by Harry Gersh
The editors carefully dissociate themselves from the iconoclastic opinions here expressed by Harry Gersh. _____________   My mother was a bad cook. I realize this is a treasonable statement—treasonable to her memory and to one of our most hallowed traditions.

Cedars of Lebanon: On the Contemplative Life
by Philo
Philo of Alexandria was the outstanding Jewish philosopher of the period during which the Jewish nation came under the influence of Hellenistic culture.

The Study of Man: Liberating the Social Scientist
by John Dewey
In the history of Western thought there is scarcely a single development of more significance than the separation of physical from social inquiry.

The Other Kingdom, by David Rousset; Smoke Over Birkenau, by Seweryna Szmaglewska; and Beyond the Last Path, by Eugene Weinstock
by Irving Kristol
Nightmare Come True The Other Kingdom. by David Rousset. New York, Reynal & Hitchcock, 1947. 173 pp. $2.75. Smoke Over Birkenau. by Seweryna Szmaglewska. New York, Henry Holt, 1947.

An Essay on Morals, by Philip Wylie
by Clement Greenberg
Pessimism For Mass Consumption An Essay on Morals. by Philip Wylie. New York, Rinehart & Co., 1947. 204 pp. $2.50.   It is to the credit of the American way of life that it intends everything and everybody for mass consumption.

Enchanting Rebel: The Secret of Adah Isaacs Menken, by Allen Lesser
by Siegfried Kracauer
A Lady of Valor Enchanting Rebel: The Secret of Adah Isaacs Menken. by Allen Lesser. New York, The Beechhurst Press, 1947. 284 pp.

Moses, by Martin Buber
by Harold Rosenberg
History and Saga Moses by Martin Buber. East and West Library. Oxford and London, 1947. 226 pp. 12/6.   Like Thomas Mann's Ten Commandments, Buber's Moses is an attempt to reconstruct an image of The Lawgiver as a living individual working to unify the “congeries of clans” that had experienced slavery in Egypt until he led them forth to suffer, reluctantly, freedom and hope in the desert.

Austrian Requiem, by Kurt von Schuschnigg
by Kurt List
Statesman's Apologia Austrian Requiem. by Kurt von Schuschnigg. New York, G. P. .Putnam's Sons, 1946. 322 pp. $3.50.   Few apologists are more suspect than retired statesmen explaining their ill-starred political decisions.

The Month in History
by Maurice Goldbloom
Maurice J. Goldbloom has had long experience in news analysis which amply qualifies him for the task he undertakes here: to examine and weigh day-to-day events in the light of verifiable facts and historical trends.

Reader Letters October 1947
by Our Readers
The Gallant Dutch TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Mr. David Bernstein's article in your August issue ["Europe's Jews: Summer, 947"] does less than justice to the magnificent role played by the Dutch underground movement.

November, 1947Back to Top
From Australia
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As a rabbi from “down under” I wish to add my sincere compliments on the high standards which COMMENTARY has maintained ever since its advent.

In Reply
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Rabbi Nathan Wise answers the question, “Should Jews be ‘Like Unto the Nations’?”, with a resounding affirmative. That is his privilege.

“Assimilation in Militant Dress”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I feel urged to thank you with all my heart for the magnificent article by Will Herberg, “Assimilation in Militant Dress,” which you published in the July issue of COMMENTARY.

Framework for the Jewish State:
The New Boundaries of Zionist Aspiration

by Richard Crossman
Mr. Crossman was born in England in 1907. He was graduated from New College, Oxford University, where he later became a fellow and tutor.

Does Social Discrimination Really Matter?
“Exclusiveness” in a Democracy

by Carey McWilliams
In recent years it has become popular to be superior to the problem of social discrimination—”pin-pricks,” “mere snobbery,” so goes the current belief; why give it serious concern, when there are so many “important” phases of anti-Semitism to worry about? Here Carey McWilliams, who has given many years of thinking and writing to minority problems, subjects prevalent notions about social discrimination to a sober analysis, in the light of the facts. _____________   With few exceptions, leaders of American Jewry seem to regard “social discrimination” as an insignificant manifestation of prejudice, hurtful, annoying, vexatious, but not really important.

The Attack on Western Morality:
Can European Ideals Survive?

by Julien Benda
The present essay, translated by George Becker, is the fourteenth in the series “The Crisis of the Individual.” _____________   It would seem to me that what, in their inquiry, the editors of Commentary call the crisis of civilization could be called with fair exactness the crisis of Hellenic-Christian morality, and more exactly still the crisis of Socratic-Christian morality: Socratic in the sense that it obligates men to respect certain values transcending their particular interests of time and place—in other words, and stated in absolute terms: justice, truth, law, fidelity to engagements; Christian, in so far as it requires as its base a respect for the human person, whatever his condition, from the moment that he presents the moral characteristics of the human species.

Jewish Culture in This Time and Place: A Palace for Everybody
by David Baumgardt
Below we publish five of the many responses to our request for comments on Elliot E. Cohen's “Jewish Culture in America,” which appeared in the May 1947 issue of COMMENTARY.

Jewish Culture in This Time and Place: Creating a Cultural Atmosphere
by Hannah Arendt
Culture, as we understand it today, made its appearance rather recently and grew out of the secularization of religion and the dissolution of traditional values.

Jewish Culture in This Time and Place: Judaism vs. Jewishness
by Jacob Agus
Mr. Cohen's article, it seems to me, fails to touch upon the core of the problem. If American Jewish culture be defined as those cultural achievements which are produced by the Jews of America, then there is certainly at present, and there will be in the future, a tremendous Jewish culture on this soil, fairly in line with the massive contributions of our people to the national cultures of Germany, France, Austria, and Hungary.

Jewish Culture in This Time and Place: A Betrayal of Universalism
by Benjamin Ginzburg
I cannot for the life of me see any sense in the idea of promoting a Jewish culture in America, any more than I can see any sense in the idea of promoting a Ginzburg culture or a Cohen culture.

Jewish Culture in This Time and Place: The Old Conditioning
by Erwin Goodenough
I plan to quote a good many of the sentences in “Jewish Culture in America” in what I am writing on Hellenistic Judaism and its art, especially the protest against the isolation of cultures: “People continually ask whether a cultural product is ‘Jewish’ or ‘American,’ seeming to assume that these two traditions are mutually exclusive.” The contrast would have point, perhaps, if we were comparing life in a New England village in 1820 with life in a Polish ghetto at the same time (although New England was so steeped in the Old Testament that it frequently out-Jewed the Jews), but Mr.

Dirty Ralphy
A Story

by Leslie Fiedler
It is easy for me to remember Dirty Ralphy. Like the dog that bit me, the falling tree that knocked me down, the first radishes I ever grew, I do not dream of him; he belongs to the daylight level of recollection.

Taft-Hartley and Labor's Perspective:
Where is the Unions' Constructive Program?

by A. Raskin
Among the songs that enjoyed a great vogue a year ago was a sprightly little number called “Accentuate the Positive.” So unremittingly was it repeated by radio and juke-box that people had to stuff cotton in their ears to elude it.

The Outlook for France's Jews:
The National Crisis Threatens Their Security

by Sherry Mangan
To a sympathetic onlooker, it had seemed the nightmare was over. Patient, molecular, generous effort was reincorporating the Jewish victims of Hitler's terror into normal life—or as normal a life as abnormal contemporary France provides.

Harshber the Coal Heaver
by Moshe Halperin
The fiftieth anniversary of the death of Moshe Leib Halperin is being celebrated this year. One of the earliest Yiddish poets in America, Halperin lived in poverty, working in the needle industry in New York City.

Journey to America:
Improvisations on Themes from My Life

by Artur Schnabel
In this third and final selection from the autobiographical reminiscences of the distinguished pianist and composer, Artur Schnabel, Mr. Schnabel relates his musical experience and political contacts between the two World Wars.

From the American Scene: New Haven: The Jewish Community
by Charles Reznikoff
Charles Reznekoff, poet, novelist, and student of American history, has long wished to try his hand at developing a method for recording Jewish experience in the United States through portraits of some typical Jewish communities.

Cedars of Lebanon: The Ladder from Man to God
by Martin Buber
The sayings and aphorisms published here are selected from Martin Buber's Ten Rungs, which is to be published late this month by Schocken Books.

The Study of Man: Opinion Polling: Science or Business?
by Arnold Rose
The new and growing science of public opinion research carries important implications for the relation of the social scientist to a democratic society—a subject that has preoccupied conscientious social scientists more and more in recent years.

The Language of Faith, ed. by Nahum N. Glatzer
by David Daiches
“Open Unto Us The Gate” The Language of Faith: Selected Jewish Prayers Edited. by Nahum N. Glatzer. New York, Schocken Books, 1947. 128 pp.

The Red Prussian, by Leopold Schwarzschild
by Solomon Bloom
That Devil Marx The Red Prussian: The Life and Legend of Karl Marx. by Leopold Schwarzschild. New York, Scribner's, 1947. 422 pp. $4.00.   This is the case of the prosecution against Karl Marx.

The Eternal Light, by Morton Wishengrad
by Daniel Bell
Parables from Jewish Existence The Eternal Light. by Morton Wishengrad. New York, Crown, 1947. 412 pp. $3.00.   The most extraordinary thing about Morton Wishengrad is that he can still cry, and is not ashamed of the fact.

The Autobiography of William Allen White; and Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive Movement, by George E. Mowry
by Edward Saveth
Where Progressivism is Vulnerable The Autobiography of William Allen White. New York, Macmillan, 1946. 669 pp. $3.75. Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive Movement. by George E.

Communitas, by Percival and Paul Goodman
by Charles Abrams
The City of the Future Communitas: Means of Livelihood and Ways of Life By Percival and Paul Goodman. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1947.

The Month in History
by Maurice Goldbloom
Maurice J. Goldbloom has had long experience in news analysis which amply qualifies him for the task he undertakes here: to examine and weigh day-to-day events in the light of verifiable facts and historical trends. _____________   Town Meeting of the World It was not far from the meeting-place of the United Nations Assembly at Lake Success to the atomic experimentation station at Brookhaven, Long Island.

Reader Letters November 1947
by Our Readers
"Assimilation in Militant Dress" TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I feel urged to thank you with all my heart for the magnificent article by Will Herberg, "Assimilation in Militant Dress," which you published in the July issue of COMMENTARY. It expresses in classical words the attitude of traditional, orthodox Judaism towards the na- tionalistic assimilation raging like an epidemic within the ranks of American Jewry and lead- ing to disastrous consequences for the mind and body of the Jewish people. Against this spiritual disease, spread by po- litical Zionism, including the Mizrachi wing, the Agudas Israel organization, of which I have the honor to be president, has struggled for the past forty years of Jewish history. I think that the logical trend of Mr.

December, 1947Back to Top
On “Commentary”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am a fourth-year student at Antioch College, majoring in political economy. . . . I read Commentary with great interest each month.

Jewish Education
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have read “A Parent Looks at Jewish Education” by L. H. .Grunebaum in your September issue, and have found in it a great deal that is both encouraging and enlightening.

Israel's Election
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Kristol's article (“The Myth of the Supra-Human Jew,” Commentary, September 1947) is an impressive analysis of the ambivalence of Jewish existence incongruously linked with a plea that the Jew rid himself of this ambivalence by proclaiming it a myth.

The American Character
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I want to comment on two extraordinary articles in the September Commentary. I found Mary McCarthy's summary of the American character the best of all the slew of such summaries we have had since the war.

In Defense of Mama
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Harry Gersh's article in your October issue, indicting Jewish cooking, is so obviously based on the flimsy experience of his own mama's cooking that even a tyro in Jewish cookery could easily discern its limitations.

In Explanation
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As a Catholic subscriber to COMMENTARY I was shocked to find the November issue carrying the grossly misleading and insulting reference to Catholicism in the Nation advertisement. I had subscribed to COMMENTARY not only because of my admiration for Jewish scholarship and culture but also because of my conviction that in these disturbed times it is our responsibility as citizens of a democracy to make a positive effort to develop as much insight as possible into the point of view of other groups.

Jewish Destiny as the DP's See It:
The Ideology of the Surviving Remnant

by Samuel Gringauz
To date we have had little reliable information on the ideology of those who survived Hitler—what they think of themselves and their future.

British Labor's Turnabout on Zionism:
The Events Leading up to Withdrawal

by Jon Kimche
With Arthur Creech-Jones' announcement in the UN of Britain's intention to withdraw from Palestine, and with the first steps of this withdrawal reported under way, a bitter and perplexing historical episode is approaching its end.

Is Europe's Culture Finished?
Paths Toward a New Creativity

by Karl Jaspers
One of the founders of modern Existentialism, the philosophic trend that has attracted so much attention of late, KARL JASPERS has since the downfall of Hitler become a spokesman of Germany's highest conscience.

The Renaissance of Jewish Music:
A Report on Progress

by Kurt List
Kurt List's outspoken and scholarly music criticism is considered among the most stimulating being written in this country today, even by those who sometimes challenge his judgments.

Love Under Vichy:
A French Paterfamilias and the Jewish Conspiracy

by Our Readers
For the anti-Semite, there is no escape from the Jewish “problem.” What could be more tragic-comic than the plight of the respectable French father who, in the documents printed here, appeals to the Vichy government of Petain for help against the sinister foreigner who has stolen the affections of his daughter? Could such a villain be anything but a Jew? And yet—how is one to prove it? The above documents are from the archives of the Vichy government, and are translated from Le Monde Juif, publication of the Centre de Documentation Juive Contemporaine in Paris. _____________   Clermont-Ferrand December 21, 1942 Monsieur Darquier de Pellepoix Commissaire général aux Questions Juives Vichy Sir: I find myself in a situation that is more than difficult; it is disastrous. I am a man sixty-four years of age and I have been a widower since July of 1934.

The Legacy of the 30's:
Middle-Class Mass Culture and the Intellectuals' Problem

by Robert Warshow
The Middle of the Journey, the novel by Lionel Trilling just published by Viking, is one of the first to deal with what is possibly the the major experience of the intellectuals of our time—their involvement, stemming from the 30's, in the complex of ideas and activities called variously “the Communist movement,” the “Marxist viewpoint,” “progressivism,” “liberalism,” etc.

The Eternal Values
A Story

by J. Ayalti
This story was translated by Nathan Halper. _____________   “Harry, a bottle of milk an' a quart of sour cream.” “A whitefish, Harry. But fresh.” “A couple of rolls, an' a cream-cheese, an' a .

Proving Ground for Fair Employment:
em>Some Lessons from New York States Experience

by Herbert Northrup
As Malcolm Ross accurately predicted in the April COMMENTARY, the Republican leadership of the eightieth Congress exhibited no greater zeal for fair employment practice legislation than the Democratic leadership in previous sessions.

They Are Saying in the Tavern
by Michael Braude
They are saying in the tavern That the world died yesterday. All the street cars suddenly stopped running With a grind that still echoes. Some motormen fell forward, some backward, Only in Muncie Indiana and in distant Belgrade Did the motormen fall sideways, And even there the conductors fell to the floor Either forward on their faces or backward. And as they fell the transfers scattered in the wind, The coins rolled in all directions on the ground, But no one reached for them. Those nickels and kopeks, Those rupees with Victoria's silhouette On imperial copper, the shekels and the dimes Outlasted in motion and therefore time their pursuers. Business had been good the last day the world lived, The street cars were jammed to the doors With women going to downtown stores. They all died, like their husbands at work And their children in the schools. In P.

From the American Scene: Uncle Julius and the Bronx Hayride
by Ethel Rosenberg
Uncle Julius, unleashed on an unsuspecting public by Ethel Rosenberg in her “Uncle Julius and the BMT” a year or so ago, is here materialized again, indomitable as ever—do him something.

Cedars of Lebanon: The Hebrew and the Greek Ideas of Life
by Edward Baldwin
Edward Chauncey Baldwin (1870-1940) was for years professor of English at the University of Illinois. A New Englander with a traditional love for Hebrew law and literature, he was preoccupied with their influence on Western culture.

The Study of Man: Woman's Place
by Ethel Goldwater
When her article on “The Independent Woman” appeared in Politics, ETHEL GOLDWATER provoked heated discussion with her assertion that the end result of the women's rights movement had been to pile on women the responsibility to make a career as well as a home, and with her recommendation that men assume their full share in the job of caring for children and the home.

Russia's Europe, by Hal Lehrman
by George Shuster
A Liberal Comes to Life Russia's Europe. by Hal Lehrman. New York, D. Appleton-Century, 1947. 340 pp. $3.75.   This is a book by a young American liberal about a topic as grave and sizzling as there is in the world today.

Royte Pomerantzen, edited by Immanuel Olsvanger
by Clement Greenberg
The Jewish Joke Röyte Pomerantzen. Edited by Immanuel Olsvanger. New York, Schocken Books, 1947. 200 pp. $3.00.   Iz antkegen a vits muz men ophitn de töyre mer vi fun jeder anderer zach.

The Gallery, by John Horne Burns
by Raymond Rosenthal
Echoes of the War The Gallery by John Horne Burns. New York, Harper, 1947. 342 pp. $3.75.   What happened to the American's idea of himself, his image and spirit, as a result of the experience of the recent war? Some fine poems, a few novels of real merit have been written, but nothing to put alongside the kind of intensive examination of conscience and ideas undertaken by Europeans like Camus, Malraux, and Rousset.

The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man, by H. and H. A. Frankfort, John A. Wilson, Thorkild Jacobsen, William A. Irwin
by Theodor Gaster
The Archaeology of Ideas The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man: An Essay on Speculative Thought in the Ancient Near East. by H.

The Emergence of the Jewish Problem: 1878-1939, by James Parkes
by Milton Himmelfarb
The Limitations of Fairness The Emergence of the Jewish Problem: 1878-1939. by James Parkes. London and New York, Oxford University Press, 1946. 259 pp.

The Month in History:
The President's Civil Rights Report

by Maurice Goldbloom
The aim of “The Month in History” is to select out of the stream of events the principal developments affecting Jews—in America, Europe, Palestine, and elsewhere throughout the world—and to assess without bias their significance in the light of a long-range historical perspective.

Reader Letters December 1947
by Our Readers
In Explanation TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: As a Catholic subscriber to COMMENTARY I was shocked to find the November issue carry- ing the grossly misleading and insulting refer- ence to Catholicism in the Nation advertise- ment. I had subscribed to COMMENTARY not only because of my admiration for Jewish scholarship and culture but also because of my conviction that in these disturbed times it is our responsi- bility as citizens of a democracy to make a posi- tive effort to develop as much insight as possible into the point of view of other groups.




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