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January, 1948Back to Top
On "Commentary"
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I regard Lewis Corey's article in the August COMMENTARY as an excellent statement of the major issues of liberalism.

The Critic's Task
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Raymond Rosenthal handled the review of John Horne Bums' novel, The Gallery, in the December COMMENTARY, on the plane of ideas alone.

Correction by Mr. Roper
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In my article on “Public Opinion Polling. Science or Business?” in the November COMMENTARY I indicated that there was a solid front of the business men at the Second International Public Opinion Research Conference at Williamstown.

Jewish Music
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I read Dr. Kurt List's article, “The Renaissance of Jewish Music,” in the December COMMENTARY with great interest.

Social Discrimination
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Carey McWilliams' article in your November issue, “Does Social Discrimination Really Matter?” is a fundamental analysis of a primary nature. I am reminded of the public opinion studies which indicate high ratios of prejudice in upper income brackets.

British Labor and Zionism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his article in the December COMMENTARY, Mr. Kimche ascribes the transformation of the Labor party attitude on Palestine to a series of political misunderstandings and to the change in outlook after Labor became the government.

The Judaism of the Remnant
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Dr. Gringauz's “Jewish Destiny as the DP's See It” [December] is to me one of the standout articles in COMMENTARY's distinguished career.

Two Democracies in Crisis:
England: The Citizen on Trial

by George Lichtheim
Against a background of deepening economic crisis and international conflict, the British Labor government doggedly hammers out its socialist program.

Two Democracies in Crisis:
France: Is De Gaulle Fascist?

by Sherry Mangan
Behind the shifting French political scene stands the figure of Charles de Gaulle, wartime leader of the Free French and now a serious contender for national power.

Nietzsche in the Light of Modern Experience
by Thomas Mann
Nietzsche was one of the most, if not the most, influential philosopher since Hegel. Enough history has been made by now to justify an assessment of his thinking by facing it with the consequences it has produced.

How Basic is “Basic Judaism”?
A Comfortable Religion for an Uncomfortable World

by Irving Kristol
Many think they note a current trend toward religious interest both within the universities and outside. Often this takes the form of a search for personal belief, perhaps more often of intellectual interest in the problems of religion, that is, in theology.

Spring 1916
by Isaac Rosenberg
Along with Rupert Brooke and Wilfred Owen, Isaac Rosenberg was one of the British “war poets” of the First World War.

The Climate Shifts on Immigration:
Common Sense to the Fore on the Admission of DP's

by Josephine Ripley
The last session of Congress ended with emergency legislation to admit DP's still in congressional committee. Now those who advocate joining with other countries to give DP's a final haven, are closing ranks to bring the matter to a favorable result.

In the Cellar
A Story

by Isaak Babel
Isaak Babel is a Russian writer, born in Odessa in 894, whom more than one critic considers as among the two or three best short story writers of the 200th century.

William James' Morals and Julien Benda's:
It is Not Pragmatism That is Opportunist

by John Dewey
John Dewey, who here offers a sharp rejoinder to Julien Benda's criticism of pragmatism in “The Attack on Western Morality” (November COMMENTARY), is the leading spokesman of that movement today, as well as America's best-known philosopher.

Mr. Zanuck's “Gentleman's Agreement”:
Reflections on Hollywood's Second Film About Anti-Semitism

by Elliot Cohen
Crossfire was the first, Gentleman's Agreement is the second in Hollywood's film cycle against anti-Semitism to reach the nation's screens.

From the American Scene: The Jewish Paintner
by Harry Gersh
Harry Gersh's best credential as an authority on that formidable tribe, the Jewish paintners, is his own genealogy. Says Mr.

Cedars of Lebanon: A Speech on Jewish Emancipation
by Lord Macaulay
Thomas Babington Macaulay (1800-1859), English statesman, historian, and essayist, was among the most active supporters of Jewish emancipation in England.

The Study of Man: The Complex behind Hitler's Anti-Semitism
by Gertrud Kurth
Psychoanalysis has in recent years greatly influenced thinking in such fields as anthropology and sociology; here is an example of its use in the writing of history.

The Victim, by Saul Bellow
by Martin Greenberg
Modern Man as Jew The Victim by Saul bellow. New York, Vanguard, 1947. 294 pp. $2.75.   In most American fiction concerned with Jews in more than an incidental way, Jewishness has been looked on as constituting a kind of world, and Jews as people who inhabit this world.

Jacob's Dream, by Richard Beer-Hofmann
by Stephen Spender
A Heroic Drama Jacob's Dream by Richard Beer-Hofmann Translated by Ida Bension Wynn. Philadelphia, Jewish Publication Society of America, 1947. 188 pp. $2.50.   Recent years have seen a revival of interest in the poetic drama.

Between Fear and Hope, by S. L. Shneiderman
by Hal Lehrman
The Polish Tragedy Between Fear and Hope by S. L. Shneiderman. New York, Arco, 1947. 316 pp. $3.75.   Mr. Shneiderman should have limited his book to the Jewish agony in Poland, past and present.

From the Land of Sheba, ed. by S. D. Goitein
by G. Della
Folklore of Yemen From the Land of Sheba: Tales of the Jews of Yemen Collected and edited by S. D. Goitein. New York, Schocken Books, 1947 (Schocken Library No.

The American Radio, by Llewellyn White
by James Rorty
Who Owns the Air-Waves? The American Radio: Report form the commission on Freedom of the Press by Llewellyn White. University of Chicago Press, 1947.

American Overture, by Abram Vossen Goodman
by Herbert Ehrmann
The Colonial Scene American Overture by Abram Vossen Goodman. Philadelphia, Jewish Publication Society of America, 1947. 265 pp. $3.00.   This volume is a valuable contribution toward the materials out of which the history of Jews in America will eventually be written.

The Life of Neville Chamberlain, by Keith Feiling
by Samuel Hurwitz
The Man of Munich The Life of Neville Chamberlian by Keith Feiling. New York, Macmillan, 1946. 480 pp. $6.00.   Keith Feiling's Neville Chamberlain forcibly reminds one of Carlyle's observation that a well written life is as rare as a well spent one.

The Month in History:Interregnum in Palestine
by Maurice Goldbloom
The aim of ‘The Month in History” is to select out of the stream of events the principal developments affecting Jews—in America, Europe, Palestine, and elsewhere throughout the world—and to assess without bias their significance in the light of a long-range historical perspective.

Reader Letters January 1948
by Our Readers
The Judaism of the Remnant TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Dr. Gringauz's "Jewish Destiny as the DP's See It" [December] is to me one of the standout articles in COMMENTARY'S distinguished career. It may well become an intellectual landmark in the Jewish history of our time.

February, 1948Back to Top
On “Commentary”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: What I like most about COMMENTARY is its cosmopolitan character. One gets the feeling that its editors and contributors are sensitive to the fact that Jewish culture is integral to American and to world culture.

Poland: Black, Gray, or White?
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Hal Lehrman's review of my book on Poland, Between Fear and Hope, in the January issue of COMMENTARY, represents such a consistent falsification of my views that .

Labor and Taft-Hartlet
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I regret that I have not had earlier opportunity to comment on 'Taft-Hartley and Labor's Perspective,” by A.

Rebecca West on Fascism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Thank you for your courtesy in sending me a copy of the article by George Lichtheim [ “England: The Citizen on Trial” ] in your January issue.

Founding the New State:
An Expert's Estimate of the Tasks Ahead

by David Horowitz
A world of dreams has come true against the background of twenty centuries of martyrdom and a tenacious struggle for survival—this was the first, the emotional reaction to the United Nations decision on Palestine.

Our Unknown American Jewish Ancestors:
Fact and Myth in History

by Oscar Handlin
The damaging influence of mythical historical distinctions between early American settlers and later arriving ethnic groups on our immigration policy is well understood by now.

And So Be Done
by Jacob Sloan
Their resolution at the opened gates Ten days between the writing and the   sealing Changed no crown in their suspended fate. All days were New Year's, all were days of   healing, All days of awe, and of happy kneeling: The shepherd note of the banished son Fell straight into the chariot of the king; Straightway perceived among the barefoot   ones, His dancing shone beyond the peasant ring; Israel's pleasant voice was meant to sing. If we could sing that song, we would be   glad, Or walk a piece with Benjamin the third, Or know the troubles Hananiah had— But we should sing too sweet, and be absurd, Or feel too much, and perish at a word. If Tevye could hear our pleading now, Would he turn his ancient horse aside? We could not call a prophet from his plow— But would Carmel join the countryside, If we should say with Job: Men think, and   gods decide? It is not true that they had certainty Of grace, and we have none. What they could do, and we must learn to   be, Is simply not to know, and so be done. To laugh, and shrug a shoulder at the air: Every therefore poses a new why. Never question the essential one: Samson was defeated by his hair; Let Dagon's pillars stand, and keep your   eye. We are not pieces, they were not entire. We, like them, deny the miracle. They, like us, saw no bush on fire. That was less a vision than a will, And we both agree: We will no more. It were better not to have been made, It were best to be always still. Now that we are, ask not what we are for: Put it off; hope, and be afraid. _____________  

Paul Rosenfeld: Three Phases:
Portrait of a Humanist Man of Letters

by Edmund Wilson
With the death of Paul Rosenfeld in 1946, we lost one of the influential personalities of the cultural renaissance that followed the First World War.

Jewish Insecurity and American Realities:
A Prescription Against Mental Escapism

by David Bernstein
Recently returned from a coast-to-coast tour, David Bernstein here reports on a deep uneasiness he noted among many American Jews as to their position and future in America, in the wake of the terror of Hitler's Germany and of anti-Semitic manifestations during the war period here.

Has Russia Solved the Jewish Problem?
An Inventory of the Postwar Situation

by Harry Schwartz
The obstacles to obtaining reliable information and the prevalence of ideological prejudices, make difficult any clear picture of postwar Jewish life in the Soviet Union.

Newspapers
A Story

by Zalman Shneour
“Newspapers” is taken from The Jews of Shklov, a volume of stories published in 1929. It has been translated from the Yiddish by Nathan Halper.

Existentialism and Father Abraham:
A Colloquy with Kierkegaard on the Yazoo and Mississippi Valley

by Joseph Gumbiner
One of the great religious influences of the 20th century has been the rediscovery of the writings of Soren Kierkegaard.

From the American Scene: The Harlem Ghetto: Winter 1948
by James Baldwin
Whenever one ponders the progress of the American ideals of freedom and equality in the framework of today's realities, one inevitably thinks of the South—and of Harlem.

Cedars of Lebanon: Lament of the Children of Israel in Rome
by Ferdinand Gregorovius
Ferdinand Gregorovius was one of the great German historians of the 19th century, and in addition a poet of no small capacity.

The Study of Man: The Victim's Image of the Anti-Semite
by Bruno Bettelheim
Bruno Bettelheim is perhaps most widely known for his extraordinary study of the adaptation of the human mind and spirit to the stresses of concentration camp life, “Behavior in Extreme Situations,” which appeared originally in the Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology.

The Axe of Wandsbek, by Arnold Zweig
by George Becker
The Case of Axman Teetjens The Axe of Wandsbek. by Arnold Zweig. New York, Viking, 1947. 428 pp. $3.50.   Twenty years ago, when Arnold Zweig began the tetralogy which he brought to completion before the second World War, the evil loose in the world was still of such dimensions that it could be apprehended and encompassed by the novelist's art.

Gedichte aus den Jahren 1908-1945, by Franz Werfel
by Erich Kahler
Franz Werfel's Poetry Gedichte Aus Den Jahren 1908-1945. by Franz Werfel. Privately Printed by the Pacific Press, Los Angeles, 1946. Distributed by Mary S.

Lonely Crusade, by Chester Himes
by Milton Klonsky
The Writing on the Wall Lonely Crusade. by Chester Himes. New York, Knopf, 1947. 398 pp. $3.00.   The terminal moraine of socially conscious novels, comic strips, movies, pulp fiction, etc.

From Dreyfus to Petain, by Wilhelm Herzog
by N. Pelcovits
The Dreyfus Affair From Dreyfus To PÉtain. by Wilhelm Herzog. New York, Creative Age Press, 1947. 313 pp. $3.50.   It Is just fifty years since Emile Zola was convicted by an intimidated French jury of “defaming” the court martial which had railroaded Captain Alfred Dreyfus to Devil's Island on a trumped-up charge of having sold military secrets to the enemy.

The Pharisees, and Other Essays, by Leo Baeck
by R. Herford
The Message of Leo Baeck The Pharisees, and Other Essays. by Leo Baeck. New York, Schocken Books, 1947. 164 pp. $3.00.   The contents of this book are not new, although here collected together for the first time.

Nietzsche in the Light of Modern Experience
by Thomas Mann
In this second part of his essay—which can be read independently of the first—Thomas Mann considers the basic errors of Nietzsche's thought, which were foreshadowings of the anti-rationalism and brutishness of Hitler's fascism.

The Month in History:The London Conference and After
by Maurice Goldbloom
The aim of “The Month in History” is to select out of the stream of events the principal developments that form the framework of Jewish affairs—in America, Europe, Palestine, and throughout the world—and to set down, as objectively as possible, their significance in the light of long-range historical perspective.

Reader Letters February 1948
by Our Readers
Rebecca West on Fascism TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Thank you for your courtesy in sending me a copy of the article by George Lichtheim ["England: The Citizen on Trial"] in your January issue.

March, 1948Back to Top
“Commentary” in Wales
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The article by George Lichtheim, “England: The Citizen on Trial,” in the January issue, is so brilliant a review of the situation in England that I hope you can see your way to issue a few reprints and let me have some.

How Scientific is Freud?
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Gertrude M. Kurth's “The Complex Behind Hitler's Anti-Semitism” in the January COMMENTARY is an excellent example of what psychoanalysis is trying to do under the guise of science.

Religion and “Progressivism”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I found Mr. Kristol's article [ “How Basic Is ‘Basic Judaism’?” in the January COMMENTARY] very sympathetic, especially the paragraph which points out: “The law and the prophets taught the truths of life and not the truths of philosophy; the ‘religious life’ includes all of life, in its full particularity.” Jesus himself stated that he came to bring a more abundant life, which is a very different thing from proclaiming himself God of the philosophers. What Mr.

Thomas Mann's Nietzsche
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The revaluation of Nietzsche is a worthy project for COMMENTARY to initiate. Thomas Mann makes an interesting beginning, interesting because one sees how the incompleteness of his grasp of Nietzsche's importance prevents him from making a very convincing repudiation of Nietzsche's influence.

A Great Jewish Poet
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was immensely gratified to gather from the review of Jacob's Dream in your January issue that at long last some tribute is being paid to the creative personality of Richard Beer-Hofmann. This distinguished Austrian-in-exile, who completed a long and full human existence living and dying in solitary grandeur in this country, is not sufficiently known among Americans.

Our Secular Myths
by Our Readers
To the Editor: No comment on the Dewey-Benda controversy in your November and January issues seems necessary except to say that Professor Dewey, as always, has covered himself with distinction.

Why Democracy Is Better:
The Three Pillars of Our Civic Heritage

by Sidney Hook
In the present struggle of ideas and ideologies which has created so much confusion among Americans of good will, many have felt the lack of a clear statement of those democratic values which the Western democracies seek to preserve and to offer for the emulation of others.

Partition in Washington: An Inquiry
The Factors Guiding Our Government's Policy

by Hal Lehrman
During the war and after, Hal Lehrman's dispatches from many capitals of the world earned him his reputation as one of this country's most informed and reliable political correspondents.

Middle East Moves and Counter-Moves:
Russia, Britain, and the Arabs

by Jon Kimche
In the discussion of the Palestine problem, the conflict between Russian expansionism and British and American interests in the Middle East has been a moot subject.

Psychiatry for Everything and Everybody:
The Present Vogue—and What Is Behind It

by Siegfried Kracauer
For a few years now we have been deep in a flood of Hollywood films and fictional and non-fictional best-sellers built around psychiatry and psychoanalysis; and there have been few days when the press has not featured a pronouncement by some governmental, welfare, educational, or military authority on similar themes.

Let Nothing You Dismay
A Story

by Leslie Fiedler
When Elissa woke, ever so gently, not admitting to herself that she had been asleep, she reached for the box under her pillow and, finding it there as always, was not afraid.

Why I Gave Up My Congregation:
Has the Community Repudiated its Rabbis?

by "Returned Chaplain"
It has been known that quite a few in the rabbinate who took leave of absence from their pulpits to serve as chaplains in the army, have returned with a growing sense of dissatisfaction—perhaps with themselves, perhaps with the rabbinate, perhaps with the Jewish community.

Tailor Boys
by Kalman Heisler
This poem was translated by Jacob Sloan. _____________   Sabbath mornings: When frock-coated Jews with phylactery bags under their arms, fur-hatted heads and shining boots, quickly slipped through the market place on their way to the synagogue— then you, tailor boys, with your fingers in your vests, and Khatzivye, the market-wife's girl under your arm, strolled around the market place, just happening to pass the synagogue every time. When the congregation and their presbyters came out of the synagogue, you stuck red kerchiefs in your lapels, cigarette smoke in your bold mouths, to show everyone: We—we're socialists, free-thinkers.            2. Sabbath after eating the pudding everyone else is lying down: on the grass in the park, on the pull-out bench at home, youngsters cat-napping in the House of Study and at the Belz klaus over a volume. Stores, shops all locked. Valexi's dog roaming the street and the quorum of Gentile pigs round about. But you, tailor boys, in bright coats, a crease in your pants, cuffs pressed, on rubber blocks of Sabbath shoes, quietly weave through the market place.             3. In secret you taught me to nip grapes and currants on the Sabbath. It's all the same to tailor boys! Whom is a tailor boy to be scared of? No householder's daughter will be his bride, anyway. And Khatzivye will stand under the canopy with him any time—right now, Sabbath afternoon.              4. You fellow tailor boys of my home town, you dreamed, you hoped, you talked. The first speeches I ever heard were in the forest, in secret, Sabbath after eating. Revolution. Class struggle. Tailor boy Silberstein with the academic hat— he was the first to awaken my pride at not being a householder's son.            5. You never even dared to dream of not being tailor boys any more, you grand tailor boys of my home town. _____________  

“Grass-Roots” Union With Ideas:
The Auto Workers: Something New in American Labor

by C. Mills
Recent years have been full of disappointments for those who believe that, if we are to have a strong progressive movement in this country, much of the needed fresh thinking, as well as motive power, must come from the ranks of labor.

The Moneylender of Venice:
In Shylock, a Different Play Struggles to be Born

by Jacob Sloan
The Merchant of Venice is one of Shakespeare's poorer plays. It has three of his unique soliloquies, a lyrical love scene, a couple of vehement dramatic situations, and two strong characters in Shylock and Portiabut it never catches fire as a work of art.

Atomic Bomb
by Milton Kaplan
Deep in our fear we think we will escape     Event, for we have wound our days     around Us till we are inviolate: cocooned By time and bandaged fleshly out of shape We are too well disguised to die, though     one By one our brothers topple, meagre prey Gnawed quickly naked to residual bone. We grieve the brother but we shrink intact And separate, refusing to betray Our hiding place, and keeping lonely watch With beady eye and swivel neck to catch The deviation in our tight design That flickers innate danger so we can back Into the fibrous ball we were before. We are afraid: we know: the very core Of our own immortality is fear. Admission saves us from the cultured whine Of conscience, and we wipe an honest tear. We know that death will come to us, we say With philosophic resignation.

From the American Scene: I Remember Tulsa
by Grace Goldin
In America, the story goes, anything can happen. In this case, a devout Jew struck oil and, instead of being satisfied with goldplated telephones or marble bathtubs, decided to build himself a private synagogue.

Cedars of Lebanon: The Testament of Eleazar of Mayence
by Our Readers
The writing of “ethical” wills or, as Israel Abrahams puts it, “testamentary directions for the religious and secular guidance of children,” has been a Jewish practice since at least the 12th century, though it is by no means a practice confined exclusively to Jews. The testament of Eleazar of Mayence—or Mainz—which we publish below, is a fairly typical specimen of its genre.

The Study of Man: Needed: Scientific Study of Religion
by Erwin Goodenough
In the centuries—old debate between science and religion, attention has been devoted almost exclusively to the question of whether or not the statements of religion are in harmony with the statements of science, and one basic fact has tended to be overlooked: that the religious experience is an important and apparently indestructible element in human life, and as such demands serious—and, above all, scientific—study.

Eagle At My Eyes, by Norman Katkov
by Nathan Glazer
The Word is Hysteria Eagle at My Eyes by Norman Katkov. New York, Doubleday, 1948. 252 pp. $2.75.   This book begins with the story of a pogrom and ends with the line, “All right, you bastards [the Gentiles], here I come.” The hero, named Joe, tells his story in the first person, in a series of flashbacks.

The Age of Anxiety, by W. H. Auden
by John Berryman
British Poet in America The Age of Anxiety by W. H. Auden. Random House, 1947. 138 pp. $2.50.   As a large and ambitious production by one of the best living poets, The Age of Anxiety is disappointing.

Teufel und Verdammte, by Benedikt Kautsky; and Der SS-Staat, by Eugen Kogon
by Alfred Werner
The Universe of Terror Teufel und Verdammte. by Benedikt Kautsky. Zurich, Buechergilde Gutenberg, 1946. 328 pp. $4.00. Der SS-Staat. by Eugen Kogon. Stockholm, Bermann-Fischer, 1947. 434 pp.

An Autobiography, by Solomon Maimon; and The Rabbi of Bacherach: A Fragment, by Heinrich Heine
by Heinz Politzer
The Threshold of Emancipation An Autobiography. By Solomon Maimon. Edited, with an epilogue, by Moses Hadas. New York, Schocken Books, 1947. (Schocken Library, No.

American Jewish Year Book
by Oscar Handlin
Vol. 49 American Jewish Year Book. Volume 49 (5708) 1947-1948. Prepared By The American Jewish Committee: Harry Schneiderman, Morris Fine, Maurice Spector, Maurice Basseches.

The Month in History:Violence And Overturn
by Maurice Goldbloom
In times when the month—by—month march of events is of such a character as to give little comfort to the hopes of men in general, and perhaps of Jews in particular, it is the thankless but necessary task of the writer of this department to winnow out the facts from the welter of belief, propaganda, actuality, and emotion that constitutes present—day public information and opinion. _____________   Death of a Man Mohandas Gandhi lay dead, and the world was a poorer place.

Reader Letters March 1948
by Our Readers
Our Secular Myths TO THE EDITOR O COMMENTARY: No comment on the Dewey-Benda contro- versy in your November and January issues seems necessary except to say that Professor Dewey, as always, has covered himself with distinction.

April, 1948Back to Top
A Point of Law
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I suppose I am too young—I am ten years old—to be interested in the articles in your magazine, but I do like to read your poems. In your March issue, I read “Tailor Boys” and I noticed something wrong.

For Free Migration
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Josephine Ripley's excellent article on the displaced persons in the January COMMENTARY (“The Climate Shifts on Immigration”) prompts the thought that civic bodies have now the chance to go beyond simple endorsement of the Stratton bill, which limits itself to the admission into the United States of 400,000 DPs, a figure representing that part of immigration quotas unused during the war.

The Threat to Europe's Liberty: Prague: I Saw It Happen Twice
by G. R.
G. E. R. Gedye has several times had the unhappy experience of being on the spot when democracy went down before totalitarianism.

The Threat to Europe's Liberty: Is Italy Next?
by Hal Lehrman
On April 18, the Italian people are to vote in a fateful election which many believe will be the turning point in the struggle between West and East for Europe, and which may go far to determine the great question of peace or war.

The Situation of the Jew:
Reflections on the Jewish Question—I

by Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre's book Réflexions sur la Question Juive, published in Paris in 1946, has already come to be regarded by those who have read it in French as one of the most profound modem statements on the Jewish problem—a problem which Sartre sees as of central importance to modern culture and civilization.

How Deal With Arab Nationalism?
Enforcement of Partition Will Strengthen Progressive Forces

by John Marlowe
At the very hub of the intricate Palestine question is the rising Arab nationalism of the Near and Middle East.

Above All, Avert War!
Without Political Relations, Zionism Is Lost

by Robert Weltsch
Robert Weltsch is perhaps the most highly regarded independent journalist in Palestine, and a respected voice of the so-called “moderate” Zionist viewpoint.

Books About Everyday Jews:
The Jewish Part in the “Great American Inventory”

by George Becker
In the midst of the current flood of problem novels dealing with Jewish life in terms of frustration, hatred, and alienation, there have been a few books which seem to represent a different—and perhaps healthier—approach to Jewish experience in America.

A Letter
by Kalman Heisler
This poem was translated by Jacob Sloan. _____________ My Countryman, Sidney Hauser, 1920 Harrison Avenue, Bronx 55, N. Y. Writes me a letter: A postal came from Komarno, From our home; Censored by the Soviets. The writing is dated the 27th, September 1945. But the writer, a former neighbor, A peasant, an old gentleman; One of the better ones— Writes openly and to the point. On the 24th of October, 1942 One lone machine gun slaughtered 430 Jewish males of Komarno; And they are buried on Karachufka Hill. In that grave (writes Sidney Hauser), Lies my younger brother, Monish. Again, in the month of November, 1942, The women and children were taken From their homes, saturated with naphtha And put to fire. Oh, Lord!

Tonight We Eat Leaning
A Story

by Hamlen Hunt
Rose Greenhill, who usually loved to give a party, felt doubt and apprehension as she looked at the long table, made up of several different tables united under a white damask cloth.

The New Jews of San Nicandro:
Some Latter-Day Recruits to the Covenant

by Fritz Becker
There have been fragmentary reports of a group of peasants in a remote comer of Italy who, after examining the various Western religious traditions, elected to embrace Judaism.

From the American Scene: A Citizen of Syracuse
by Florence Lowe
Here we find but another example of the way in which learning has been a constant comfort and solace to Jews under the buffetings of fate: Grandfather Lowe read the Encyclopaedia Britannica from cover to cover in order to keep from brooding on the tragedy of being possessed of (and possibly by) four unmarried daughters. _____________   Along with other depressing phenomena of middle age I have developed what is known as “trombone eyesight,” an affliction that necessitates sliding a letter out to arm's length before being able to read it.

Cedars of Lebanon: Jewish and Christian Ethics
by Ahad Ha'am
Ahad Ha'am (“One of the People”) was the pen name of Asher Ginzberg (1856-1927), who was born in Kiev, the son of a Hasid, and grew up to become one of the greatest essayists of modem Hebrew and leader of that aspect of Zionism which looks to Palestine as a center of cultural inspiration rather than as a focus of Jewish political power. The translation of the present essay is taken, by the publisher's permission, from the Ahad Ha'am volume of the “Philosophia Judaica” series published by The East and West Library of the Phaidon Press in Oxford, England.

The Study of Man: “Screening” Leaders in a Democracy
by Daniel Bell
In “Adjusting Men to Machines,” published in the January 1947 COMMENTARY—an article that continues to attract wide attention among social scientists—Daniel Bell analyzed the growing tendency toward close cooperation and interaction between social scientists and big business.

Five Problem Novels
by James Baldwin
The Image Of The Negro Albert Sears. by Millen Brand. New York, Simon and Schuster, 1947. 273 pp. $2.75. Kingsblood Royal. by Sinclair Lewis. New York, Random House, 1947.

Modern Nationalism and Religion, by Salo Wittmayer Baron
by George Shuster
The Puzzle Of Nationalism Modern Nationalism and Religion. by Salo Wittmayer Baron. New York, Harper, 1947. 363 pp. $5.00.   Nationalism, like evolution, is one of those elements of the human social scene that are as intractable in fact as they are malleable in theory.

The Meaning of Treason, by Rebecca West
by R. Flint
What Is a Traitor? The Meaning of Treason. by Rebecca West. New York, Viking, 1947. 307 pp. $3.50.   Miss West's Black Lamb and Grey Falcon was an exciting book; its journalistic qualities were offset by a kind of sympathetic passion for substance and character.

Trial of a Poet, and other Poems, by Karl Shapiro
by Heinz Politzer
Sepia For Sadness Trial of a Poet, and Other Poems. by Karl Shapiro. New York, Reynal and Hitchcock, 1947. 81 pp. $2.00.   Basically an extrovert, Karl Shapiro would have society bear the brunt of his aggressiveness, which is, however, conditioned by his own insecurity.

Christianity and the Children of Israel, by A. Roy Eckardt
by Irving Kristol
Christian Theology and the Jews Christianity and the Children of Israel. by A. Roy Eckardt. New York, King's Crown Press, 1948. 223 pp.

The Month in History: The Battlefronts in the Cold War
by Maurice Goldbloom
In times when the month-by-month march of events is of such a character as to give little comfort to the hopes of men in general, and perhaps of Jews in particular, it is the thankless but necessary task of the writer of this department to winnow out the facts from the welter of belief, propaganda, actuality, and emotion that constitutes present-day public information and opinion.

Reader Letters April 1948
by Our Readers
For Free Migration TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Josephine Ripley's excellent article on the displaced persons in the January COMMEN- TARY ("The Climate Shifts on Immigration") prompts the thought that civic bodies have now the chance to go beyond simple endorse- ment of the Stratton bill, which limits itself to the admission into the United States of 400,000 DPs, a figure representing that part of immigration quotas unused during the war.

May, 1948Back to Top
The Jew as Immigrant
by Our Readers
To The Editor: Only today did I finally succeed in getting around to reading Mr. Handlin's excellent article “Our Unknown American Jewish Ancestors” in the February COMMENTARY.

A Science of Religion
by Our Readers
To The Editor: Anyone aspiring to distinguish meticulously between fact and fancy cannot but endorse Professor Goodenough's proposal in his article, “Needed: Scientific Study of Religion,” in the March COMMENTARY.

Returned Chaplain: Pro and Con
by Our Readers
To The Editor: In the March COMMENTARY, I have read carefully, and with great interest, the article on “Why I Gave Up My Congregation” by a returned Jewish chaplain. I was a Navy chaplain, of the Protestant faith, in the recent war and I did not return to my parish.

In Reply
by Our Readers
To the Editor: To believe that Lonely Crusade is a poor novel is not evidence of prejudice against Negroes and/or Chester Himes.

Author's Protest
by Our Readers
To The Editor: My first impulse upon reading Milton Klonsky's review of Lonely Crusade in the February COMMENTARY was to ignore it.

Praise for Sartre
by Our Readers
To The Editor: I have just read the first article in the series by Sartre which you are currently publishing in COMMENTARY.

Leaders and Followers
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Once again, COMMENTARY'S regular section, “The Study of Man,” provides your readers with a comprehensive and provocative review of the scholarly literature in a field of the social sciences.

Portrait of the Inauthentic Jew
by Jean-Paul Sartre
“The Situation of the Jew,” in last month's COMMENTARY, presented Jean-Paul Sartre's analysis of the social framework within which the Jew must live in Western society.

To Save the Jewish Homeland:
There is Still Time

by Hannah Arendt
Less than six months after the Assembly's recommendation looking to the declaration of a Jewish state in Palestine on May 15, the Jewish homeland stands at the brink of large-scale war, with the leadership of the Yishuv pledged to the perspective of an armed struggle to the death, at the cost of every man and every settlement, if need be.

Equality or Fraternities?
The Role of Secret Societies in Democratic Education

by Carey McWilliams
The fraternity system, alternately praised and condemned by American educators, has been a source of conflict and difficulty in our colleges and universities for almost three quarters of a century.

The Two Great Traditions:
The Sephardim and the Ashkenazim

by Abraham Heschel
In our endeavor to shape a cultural pattern for American Jewish life, we might do well to look for some orientation that will help us determine our position in the stream of Jewish history.

Civil Liberties and the Communists:
Checking Subversion Without Harm to Democratic Rights

by Robert Bendiner
Is There a witch hunt in America? Recent efforts to eliminate Communists from government activities, along with the proposed anti-Communist legislation now before Congress, present a problem of extraordinary complexity to those concerned with the preservation of civil liberties in this country.

Conversions
A Story

by Claudia Marck
For weeks after I came to France—I arrived just before my tenth birthday—I would, walking on a street, lift my arm to my forehead and, after a second of contraction, drop it again.

Break of Day in the Trenches
by Isaac Rosenberg
The darkness crumbles away—     It is the same old druid Time as ever. Only a live thing leaps my hand— A queer sardonic rat— As I pull the parapet's poppy To stick behind my ear. Droll rat, they would shoot you if they knew Your cosmopolitan sympathies. Now you have touched this English hand You will do the same to a German— Soon, no doubt, if it be your pleasure To cross the sleepy green between. It seems you inwardly grin as you pass Strong eyes, fine limbs, haughty athletes Less chanced than you for life, Bonds to the whims of murder, Sprawled in the bowels of the earth, The tom fields of France. What do you see in our eyes At the shrieking iron and flame Hurled through still heavens? What quaver—what heart aghast? Poppies whose roots are in man's veins Drop, and are ever dropping; But mine in my ear is safe, Just a little white with dust. _____________  

Soutine: “Dedicated Traditionalist”:
1894-1943
by Alfred Werner
When the painter Chaim Soutine failed to turn up after the liberation of France, many of us believed that he had shared the fate of another artist of Jewish origin, the sculptor Moise Kogan, who had been deported from France and killed by the Nazis.

Munich University: Class of '50
A Case Study in German Re-Education

by J. Gray
The core of the future of Germany lies with the minds of the Germans; and it is being increasingly recognized that the question of democratic re-education in that country is a crucial one.

Aden After the Riots:
Report on a Middle East Portent

by Norman Bentwich
The charred shells of the burnt-out buildings of the Jewish boys' school and girls' school along the main street of Crater (oldest part of the colony of Aden and in fact the crater of an extinct volcano) are a symbol of the destruction which last December befell one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world.

From the American Scene: In Promised Dixieland
by Earl Raab
Except for being mildly affronted by its logical perversity, we accepted Saturday morning attendance at what was called “Sunday school,” like everything else, as part of the inscrutable pattern of our days.

Cedars of Lebanon: Death with a Kiss
by Meier Dizengoff
This last testament of the famous Mayor of Tel Aviv might be thought of as in the tradition of a centuries-old form of Jewish national expression—the ethical will, as typified by such other writers as Judah ibn Tibbon, Nahmanides, and the Eleazar of Mayence.

The Study of Man: The Golden Land
by Moses Kligsberg
The image of the Jewish immigrant as reflected in the mirror of literature—and in much Jewish ideological writing—has tended to be one of frustration, disillusionment, and tragedy: the Golden Land turned out to be a hoax.

Race and Nationality as Factors in American Life, by Henry Pratt Fairchild
by Oscar Handlin
A Prisoner of Democracy Race And Nationality As Factors In American Life. by Henry Pratt Fairchild. New York, The Ronald Press, 1947. 216 pp.

The Time is Noon, by Hiram Haydn
by Elizabeth Hardwick
The Progressive Jew as Hero The Time is Noon. by Hiram Haydn. New York, Crown, 1948. 561 pp. $3.50.   The time is noon is a weary novel whose earnest mediocrity makes one weak with melancholy.

Galut, by Yitzhak F. Baer
by Milton Himmelfarb
The Jewish Exile Galut. by Yitzhak F. Baer. Translated by Robert Warshow. New York, Schocken Books, 1947. 123 pp. $1.50. (Schocken Library, Number 2.)   In this little work, only 123 pages long, Fritz Baer, professor in the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and perhaps the most eminent contemporary historian of medieval Jewry, discusses the interpretations of the Jewish exile advanced by Jews from the Hellenistic age to the French Revolution. The old chroniclers saw Jewish history as an enduringly edifying narrative of gesta Dei per Judaeos—God's exploits by means of the Jews—and their latter-day disciples have continued to preach the same sermon.

Inside Kasrilevke, by Sholom Aleichem
by Stephen Seley
Sholom Aleichem and the Emancipated Inside Kasrilevke. by Sholom Aleichem. Translated by Isidore Goldstick. New York, Schocken Books, 1948. 127 pp. $1.50. (Schocken Library, Number 11.)   The reviewer must state that he came to Sholom Aleichem feeling himself to be an entirely emancipated Jew (the word “emancipated” is useds advisedly) and that it was with a severe sense of shock modified by some sorrow, an outraged fastidiousness only slightly alleviated by guilt, that he began to read Inside Kasrilevke.

Between Man and Man, by Martin Buber
by Joseph Gumbiner
God and Man Between Man and Man. by Martin Buber. Translated by Ronald Gregor Smith. New York, Macmillan, 1948. 309 pp. $3.50.   The five essays comprising Between Man and Man were written during the decade 1929-1939.

The Month in History:Disorders Foreign and Domestic
by Maurice Goldbloom
In times when the month-by-month march of events is of such a character as to give little comfort to the hopes of men in general, and perhaps of Jews in particular, it is the thankless but necessary task of the writer of this department to winnow out the facts from the welter of belief, propaganda, actuality, and emotion that constitutes present-day public information and opinion.

Reader Letters May 1948
by Our Readers
Leaders and Followers TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Once again, COMMENTARY'S regular section, "The Study of Man," provides your readers with a comprehensive and provocative review of the scholarly literature in a field of the so- cial sciences....

June, 1948Back to Top
“Protest Novels”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I find myself very much in sympathy with James Baldwin's approach to the five “protest novels” reviewed in the April issue of COMMENTARY. His formulation of the problem in terms of two questions—Are these novels satisfying as art? or, failing that, Do they represent accurate sociology?—is valid, and, one would suppose, obvious enough.

The Other Cheek
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I greatly appreciate seeing the review of Albert Sears in the April issue, and in terms of the high standards Mr.

German Re-Education
by Our Readers
To the Editor: J. Glenn Gray's article, “Munich University: Class of '50” in the May issue is one of the most informing and realistic that has come to my attention. It should teach Americans two great lessons: first, the utter inadequacy of any military government to cope with the complicated social issues consequent on a devastating war, and second, the need of a more humane and rational policy in dealing with the situation.

Civil Liberties and the Communists
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was interested to read that excellent article on “Civil Liberties and the Communists” by Robert Bendiner in the May number of COMMENTARY.

Barbs from the Greeks
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am writing you in reference to the recent article entitled “Equality or Fraternities?” in the May COMMENTARY.

Palestine Legalities
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In Hannah Arendt's article in the May COMMENTARY, “To Save the Jewish Homeland,” the statement which is the basic one on the attitudes of the two parties reads as follows: “ .

The Great Powers and Israel: What U.S. Support Means
by Hal Lehrman
When President Truman recognized the new state of Israel, observers of American policy on Palestine—as well as American delegates to the United Nations—had reason to feel somewhat bewildered.

The Great Powers and Israel: The Role Britain Hopes to Play
by Richard Crossman
On May 15 Britain ended its twenty-five-year mandate over Palestine in an atmosphere of bitterness and mutual recrimination. The Empire had “washed its hands” of the Jewish homeland—though obviously not of the Middle East.

Who Can Translate Yiddish?
The “Hidden Policy” of the Language

by Maurice Samuel
A gifted writer in his own right, Maurice Samuel is also one of the finest practitioners of that most tricky and difficult art—the art of translation.

Our New German Policy and the DP's:
Why Immediate Resettlement is Imperative

by Samuel Gringauz
Samuel Gringauz's article “Jewish Destiny As the DP's See It,” published in the December 1947 COMMENTARY, evoked wide and continuing discussion both in this country and Europe.

Martin Buber and Christian Thought:
His Threefold Contribution to Protestantism

by Paul Tillich
This year marks the seventieth anniversary of the birth of Martin Buber. His pioneer work in collecting and preserving the Hasidic legends is known to Jews the world over, but it is perhaps not so fully realized that this work was—and is—part of a general philosophic system that has left a sharp impress upon 20th-century religious thought.

Gentile and Jew
by Jean-Paul Sartre
In the April and May issues of COMMENTARY, Jean-Paul Sartre wrote on “The Situation of the Jew,” and drew a “Portrait of the Inauthentic Jew.” In these two articles, M.

All-Out War on the Production Front?
Labor Looks to Political Weapons

by A. Raskin
Current labor-management struggles and tensions seem to most observers to mark a critical stage in postwar industrial relations, with serious implications, not only for the strength and stability of our domestic economy, but for American efforts to intervene effectively for the reconstruction of Europe.

By the River
by Jacob Sloan
Warm Sundays, the excursion ships Pass our watching bench, en route To Hellgate and the other bridge. Silently we sit and look Underneath our Sunday paper At their waves' end.

The Male-Forest of Tarnopol
A Story

by J. Teller
How can one forget one's dread of the forest of Tarnopol, although removed in time by a quarter of a century? It wasn't a forest of trees, for these were chopped down to the last one by the Germans and Russians and all the various hordes that ravaged Galicia in the years 1914-20.

From the American Scene: Spruceton Jewry Adjusts Itself
by Irving Howe
In “New Haven: The Jewish Community” (COMMENTARY, November 947) Charles Reznikoff drew a portrait of the Jewry of a middle-sized New England city.

Cedars of Lebanon: Grandfather Sails to Odessa
by Saul Tschernichowsky
Saul Tschernichowsky was born in 1875 in the village of Michailovka, in the Russian Crimea, a birthplace that set him apart from most Hebrew writers of his generation, who grew up in the towns and larger cities of the Pale, in an atmosphere saturated with urbanism and pious orthodoxy.

The Study of Man: Destiny in the Nursery
by Harold Orlansky
Not long ago, the tendency was to explain the individual as completely the product of society. More recently, this tendency has been reversed: the individual is seen as creating society in his own image, and many social scientists have been led to explain both the individual and his society on the basis of specific infant disciplines—in particular, methods of feeding and toilet training.

Our Partnership, by Beatrice Webb
by George Lichtheim
The World of Fabianism Our Partnership. by Beatrice Webb. New York-London-Toronto, Longmans Green, 1948. 491 pp. $6.00.   Beatrice Webb died in 1943 without having completed the record of her historic partnership with her husband.

The Maccabees, by Elias Bickerman
by Milton Himmelfarb
The Maccabees as Moderates The Maccabees. by Elias Bickerman. Translated by Moses Hadas. New York, Schocken Books, 1947. (Schocken Library, No. 6.) 125 pp.

Soviet Literature Today, by George Reavey
by Martin Thomas
“Socialist Realism” Soviet Literature Today. by George Reavey. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1947. 187 pp. $3.50.   George Reavey, an Englishman born in Russia, was for three years a deputy press attaché at the British Embassy in Moscow; he knows the Russian language, he had excellent contacts with the Soviet writers, and he certainly had a golden opportunity to write a genuinely informative book about Soviet literature.

The Circus in the Attic and Other Stories, by Robert Penn Warren
by Nathan Glick
The Southern Temper The Circus in the Attic and other Stories. by Robert Penn Warren. New York, Harcourt, Brace, 1948. 276 pp. $3.00.   If, as one critic of his poetry would have it, “Warren's big distinctions, terms, and point of view .

Man and Temple in Ancient Jewish Myth and Ritual, by Raphael Patai
by Theodor Gaster
Ritual and Nature Man and Temple in Ancient Jewish Myth and Ritual. by Raphael Patai. London, Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1947. 227 pp.

Abram Son of Terah, by Florence Marvyne Bauer
by Isa Kapp
An Emasculated Abram Abram Son of Terah. by Florence Marvyne Bauer. New York, Bobbs-Merrill, 1948. 406 pp. $3.00.   Miss Bauer's housewifely archaeology has somehow concealed the fact that the story of Abram is a Jewish story.

Community of the Free, by Yves Simon
by Gertrude Himmelfarb
Truth, Freedom, and Authority Community of the Free. by Yves Simon. New York, Henry Holt, 1947. 172 pp. $3.00.   Presented with John Dewey's A Common Faith—a faith independent of sect, class, or creed—Santayana is supposed to have remarked, “a very common faith indeed.” Yves Simon's Community of the Free may be described as a very exclusive faith—one that requires rigid unanimity in dogma and philosophy to be persuasive or even intelligible. Mr.

The Month in History:The Birth of Israel
by Maurice Goldbloom
In times when the month-by-month march of events is of such a character as to give little comfort to the hopes of men in general, and perhaps of Jews in particular, it is the thankless but necessary task of the writer of this department to winnow out the facts from the welter of belief, propaganda, actuality, and emotion that constitutes present-day public information and opinion.

Reader Letters June 1948
by Our Readers
Palestine Legalities TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: In Hannah Arendt's article in the May COM- MENTARY, "To Save the Jewish Homeland," the statement which is the basic one on the attitudes of the two parties reads as follows: "...

July, 1948Back to Top
Fraternities: Two Views
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Carey McWilliams' article “Equality or Fraternities?” in the May COMMENTARY seems to me to deserve comment. I was very much amazed and perturbed by Mr.

The Communist Problem
by Our Readers
To the Editor: My interest in Mr. Bendiner's “Civil Liberties and the Communists” (in the May COMMENTARY) was not entirely objective, since I myself wrote along Bendiner-Ernst lines almost ten years ago.

Germans and Jews
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I cannot let Samuel Gringauz's article on “Our New German Policy and the DP's” in the June COMMENTARY pass without protest.

A New Sabbatianism?
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I read with great interest the excellent article by Hannah Arendt in the May issue of COMMENTARY, with its clear warning against the new Sabbatian intoxication which seems to have seized Jewry and which will lead, psychologically and politically, to more tragic consequences than the first Sabbatian movement did.

The Immigrant Type
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In the May issue of COMMENTARY, I read with great interest Mr. Moses Kligsberg's comments on the autobiographies collected by the Yivo in its contest in 1942.

The Two Traditions
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In your May issue, Abraham Joshua Heschel offers us a choice between “The Two Great Traditions,” the Ashkenazic and the Sephardic, as possible models for a cultural pattern of American Jewish life.

Sartre and the Jews
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I sincerely hope that with the current installment of Sartre's articles, the outrage has come to an end.

Tomorrow's Jew in the Making:
New Forces Reshape a Centuries-Old Ideal

by Ernst Simon
For centuries the personality type which Jewish teaching held up as an ideal was that of the life-long student (and practitioner) of the Torah, Israel's code for moral living.

What Chance for Arab-Jewish Accord?
The Basic Issues That Must Be Resolved

by Robert Weltsch
Will Palestine's anxious weeks of truce lead to a lasting political settlement or will they prove to be only a short wait between two periods of bloodshed? ROBERT WELTSCH is considered by many the best informed and most penetrating analyst of the political forces, both in Palestine and on the world scene, which are today struggling for mastery of that country's future.

Who Will Solace?
by H. Leivick
Who will solace the bucket     That hangs above the dark well, Now that the thirsty sheep No longer are seen at the well? In the desert beds Of sand lie shepherd and flock, Forever covered over. In vain the bucket rocks White.

Why Americans Feel Insecure:
The Sense of Alienation is Not Exclusively Jewish

by Arnold Green
Through a long succession of literary protrayals of Jewish life, reinforced in recent years by sociologists and political ideologists (Jewish as well as non-Jewish), there has grown up an image of the Jew as a prototype of alienation and rootlessness.

Daniel Fuchs: Escape from Williamsburg:
The Fate of Talent in America

by Irving Howe
In the life and work of Daniel Fuchs, who in the 1930's published three brilliant novels about Jewish life in New York's Williamsburg, IRVING HOWE sees a parable of the fate of talent in present-day America.

A “Liberal Gentile” Looks at Himself:
One Man's Nuremberg Trial

by George Weltner
In the midst of an unprecedented flood of propaganda against anti-Semitism, there has been little serious effort to examine its impact on its chosen object—the well-intentioned Gentile.

Troubled Iraq: Keystone of the Middle East:
Disorder and Discontent Threaten Anglo-American Aims

by Jon Kimche
On the political chess-board that is the Middle East, with Arab nationalism, Zionism, and the great powers struggling for advantage, Iraq is a key piece.

The Rope
by Jacob Sloan
You cannot hold the rope by both ends, Having both the world and justice. —Midrash _____________   He Held both ends in his careful hands, Then, looping one around his neck, Flung the other to the firmament; And, kicking away the righteous keg, Hung and swung in neat content, Strangled between world and justice. _____________  

Democratic Education for New York:
Equal Opportunity Through a State University System

by Edward Saveth
Edward N. Saveth, who was active in the campaign that led to passage of the law for a New York state university, here appraises the significance of this achievement for democratic education.

Isaac Rahabi Makes Good:
A Story

by Harry Wedeck
It had been hard to find the synagogue. For all his sixteen years, Isaac Rahabi felt tired. Humbly he slid into a corner pew near the emblazoned door. There was plenty of room that early cool morning, in the Mogen-David Synagogue, before the sizzling heat poured down on Calcutta; but Isaac Rahabi, being a Bene-Israel Jew, still retained that timid humility which accompanies poverty. He gave a slight sigh.

Salzburg: Seminar in the Ruins:
A Report on the European State of Mind

by Alfred Kazin
At the School for American Studies in Salzburg, Austria, organized by the Harvard student council, American teachers and European students were able to meet and compare their respective philosophies and experiences for the first time since the end of the war.

From the American Scene: The Way It Is in Bogota
by Jacob Glatstein
South America is also America; and “From the American Scene” this month takes us to Bogotá, Colombia. How does a Jew live in such an odd, faraway place? The poet Jacob Glatstein found out from a fellow-traveler on an ocean voyage, and the account appears in his book Ven Yash is Geforen (1938), the first volume of a prose trilogy based on a trip to Poland before the war.

Cedars of Lebanon: The Laws of Martyrdom
by Maimonides
In all religions, as well as in many non-religious movements, martyrdom is regarded as the supreme act of devotion. A doctrine that claims ultimate truth must also be able to claim the ultimate sacrifice.

The Study of Man: Prejudice and Capitalist Exploitation
by Oscar Handlin
It is a natural tendency to try to find some single key for the understanding of complex problems, and this tendency is perhaps especially understandable when the problem is the urgent and ugly one of anti-Semitism and racial prejudice.

Ashes and Fire, by Jacob Pat
by Hal Lehrman
The Quick and the Dead Ashes And Fire by Jacob Pat Translated by Leo Steinberg New York, International Universities Press, 1947.254 pp. $3.25.   Anyone who has visited a DP camp or a salvaged Jewish community in Eastern Europe will recall the macabre eagerness of its inhabitants to talk about their escape from butchery—as if the constant retelling of their story could somehow mellow the anguish through remembrance or, by sharing it with others, reduce the horrible to the normal.

The Naked and the Dead, by Norman Mailer
by Raymond Rosenthal
Underside of the War The Naked and the Dead by Norman Mailer New York, Rinehart, 1948. 721 pp. $4.00.   Norman Mailer's novel about the war in the South Pacific can be regarded as the inevitable reaction to the pallid, neatly trimmed literary commodities turned out by the graduates of Yank, Stars and Stripes, and the OWL It is the explosion of the army's underside, the sewer of hostility and fear and petty annoyance and boredom that until now has been either covered up by banalities or avoided altogether.

Land and Poverty in the Middle East, by Doreen Warriner
by George Lichtheim
The Arab Economy Land and Poverty in the Middle East by Doreen Warriner London, Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1948. 148 pp. 7/6.   “Near starvation, pestilence, high death rates, soil erosion, economic exploitation—this is the pattern of life for the mass of the rural population in the Middle East.

Conspirator, by Humphrey Slater; and The Black Laurel, by Storm Jameson
by Heinz Politzer
The Liberal Novel Conspirator. by Humphrey Slater. New York; Harcourt, Brace, 1948. 184 pp. $2.50. The Black Laurel. by Storm Jameson. New York, Macmillan, 1948. 338 pp.

Four Books on Church, State, and Education
by Milton Konvitz
Church and State Religion in Public Education. by V. T. Thayer. New York, Viking Press, 1947. 212 pp. $2.75. The Church As Educator. by Conrad H.

The Month in History
by Maurice Goldbloom
In times when month-by-month events give little comfort to the hopes of men in general, and perhaps of Jews in particular, it is the task of the writer of this department to winnow out the facts from the welter of belief, propaganda, actuality, and emotion that constitutes present-day public information and opinion.

Reader Letters July 1948
by Our Readers
Sartre and the Jews To THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I sincerely hope that with the current in- stallment of Sartre's articles, the outrage has come to an end.

August, 1948Back to Top
Trouble of a Translator
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In explaining the large percentage of Hebrew words in Yiddish, Maurice Samuel says in his article (in the June COMMENTARY) that “one of the functions of Yiddish, therefore one of the sources of its beauty, is—or was—precisely this teaching of Hebrew.” He may be right insofar as he has in mind the authors of works written in “classic” Yiddish, who probably overloaded their language with Hebrew as part of their “hidden policy” (to borrow a phrase from Mr.

Is Europe's Middle Class Finished?
The Political Future of the “Third Force”

by Sherry Mangan
The development of parliamentary democracy and individual liberty was made possible above all by the vigor, intelligence, and prosperity of the middle class.

A Practical Scheme to Settle the DP's:
With Malice to None, with Profit to All

by Pinchas Goldfeder
Readers will have to decide for themselves whether this arresting proposal comes from the imprisoned emotion of one of the world's displaced or from the bad conscience of an American. _____________   I was born in Riga in the year 1907 of respectable parents, and my father, a small merchant ambitious for his children, early directed me towards study that I might make some name for myself in one of the professions.

American Judaism: ZOA Blueprint:
Are We to be Israel's Colony Culturally?

by Israel Knox
Now that the primary aim of American Zionism—the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine—has been achieved, it is generally recognized that we enter a new period in the relationship between the Jews of America and the Jews of Israel.

The Voice of the Blood
A Story

by Ralph Manheim
The doorbell rang and Frau Griesgram padded out in her prewar felt slippers. In the old days, she recalled, a ring of the bell would bring the doors of four roomers ajar and she would have to race to get there first.

Horses
by J. deMoreland
There is the hour when Meat has left the bone, and Simple folk are rotting in a Greater time. All death is great Save that endured in life. The weed is dry, the grasses Wet with dew; the lily waves And drops a bitter draught Upon the ground.                                   The curving hill Is rich with running horses, Nut brown in the gift of sun, and Wild-eyed with the joyous fear of Life.

Alaska's Nuremberg Laws:
Congress Sanctions Racial Discrimination

by Felix Cohen
The gap between American ideals and American practice has nowhere been more poignantly evident than in the unsavory history of our treatment of the Indians.

God, Job, and Evil:
The Eternal Tension Between Man and God

by Paul Weiss
With this article, Paul Weiss continues the analysis of basic religious issues in the light of modern thought that he began with his “The True, the Good, and the Jew” [COMMENTARY, October 1946].  _____________   Great literature is a universe framed in words.

Habimah in New York:
A Great Theater Enters a New Period

by Heinz Politzer
Probably no theatrical group of our times has had so exciting and intimate a relationship with the cultures of Europe and Palestine as the famous Habimah players.

The First Glimmer of Extermination:
Plate-Glass Pogrom—and Aftermath

by Melvin Lasky
The Nazis left many a mystery behind them—history has still to fathom the motivations of that strange compound of savagery and sophistication, cold calculation and blind irrationality, bureaucratic routinization and sheer mad impulse, that was the Hitlerian mentality.

From the American Scene: Chaplains on Land and Sea
by Harry Gersh
In the March 1948 COMMENTARY, a “returned chaplain” had some candid words to say about his congregations, both civil and military.

Cedars of Lebanon: Seek the Peace of Jerusalem
by Gedaliah Siemiatycze
According to the sages, if a man's wife did not wish to accompany him on the pilgrimage to Jerusalem it was sufficient grounds for divorce—so holy was the road to Zion.

The Study of Man: The Human Element in History
by Edward Saveth
It is by now a truism that each age writes its own history: and conversely trends in history writing may reflect—even foreshadow—changes in cultural attitudes and political thinking.

The American People, by Geoffrey Gorer
by David Bazelon
Portrait of the American The American People: A Study in National Character. by Geoffrey Gorer. New York, Norton, 1948. 246 pp. $3.00.   Geoffrey Gorer, a young British cultural anthropologist, has lived in the United States for seven years, has studied with Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, and John Dollard, has worked on projects of the Rockefeller Foundation and the Yale Institute of Human Relations, and has served as liaison in Washington for one of his country's wartime missions.

King Solomon, by Frederic Thieberger
by Theodor Gaster
The Real King Solomon King Solomon. by Frederic Thieberger. London, East and West Library, 1947. 313 pp. 12s. 6d.   Thanks to the progress of archaeology, it is becoming increasingly possible to fit the narratives of the Bible into their true historical context and to read the scriptural sagas against the background of events.

Writings and Speeches of Eugene V. Debs
by James Rorty
The Great Prisoner Writings and Speeches of Eugene V. Debs. With an introduction by Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. New York, Hermitage Press, 1948. 484 pp.

Hart Crane, by Brom Weber
by Maurice English
The Poet in America Hart Crane: A Biographical and Critical Study. by Brom Weber. New York, The Bodley Press, 1948. 424 pp. $4.50.   The best reason for being interested in Hart Crane is that he was a superb lyric poet, one of the most gifted America has produced.

Small Victory, by Zelda Popkin; and Straw to Make Brick, by Alan Marcus
by Ruth Boorstin
The Conquerors Small Victory. by Zelda Popkin. New York, Lippincott, 1947. 280 pp. $2.75. Straw to Make Brick. by Alan Marcus. New York; Little, Brown, 1947.

The Glory of Thy People, by Father M. Raphael Simon
by Sholom Kahn
Journey from Home The Glory of thy People: The Story of a Conversion. by Father M. Raphael Simon. New York, Macmillan, 1948. 139 pp.

The Month in History: Two Parties--Two Worlds--Two Peoples
by Maurice Goldbloom
In times when month-by-month events give little comfort to the hopes of men in general, and perhaps of Jews in particular, it is the task of the writer of this department to winnow out the facts from the welter of belief, propaganda, actuality, and emotion that constitutes present-day public information and opinion.

Reader Letters August 1948
by Our Readers
Troubles of a Translator To THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: In explaining the large percentage of He- brew words in Yiddish, Maurice Samuel says in his article (in the June COMMENTARY) that "one of the functions of Yiddish, there- fore one of the sources of its beauty, is-or was-precisely this teaching of Hebrew." He may be right insofar as he has in mind the authors of works written in "classic" Yiddish, who probably overloaded their language with Hebrew as part of their "hidden policy" (to borrow a phrase from Mr.

September, 1948Back to Top
On Commentary
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have read your magazine with great interest. I was especially pleased to find among your authors Professor Karl Jaspers, who has been a close friend of mine for many years.

Why Americans Feel Insecure
by Our Readers
To the Editor: With regard to the article by Arnold W. Green on “Why Americans Feel Insecure,” in the July issue, we must agree that the Jew is not alone in being rootless and “alienated” in the modem world and that we are all more or less in the same situation.

German Anti-Semitism Today
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. J. Glenn Gray, in his letter in the July COMMENTARY on my article “Our New German Policy and the DP's,” accuses me of lack of objectivity.

The Potential of Democratic Socialism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Mangan's interesting article on the future of the European middle class (in COMMENTARY's August issue) has occasioned some surprise among readers here in England, where we are under the impression that the Labor government rests upon working-class support and is carrying out socialist measures, however limited in scope, which go considerably beyond “the Western European liberal-radical tradition.” It may be that, as Mr.

The Future of Arab-Jewish Relations:
The Key is the Cooperation of Equal and Separate States

by Aubrey Eban
Aubrey S. Eban, the representative of the Israeli government at the UN, has won respect in all quarters for his intellectual ability, the cogency and precision of his advocacy, and his rather unique blend of forthrightness and reasonableness of statement.

A Refugee Looks at Anti-Semitism Here:
The Difference between European and American Patterns

by Robert Pick
Could it happen here? Is America as susceptible to violent anti-Semitism as Central Europe? Or are there certain factors in American life that serve as a bulwark against this particular irrationality? Robert Pick here looks at these perennial questions through the eyes of the refugees who came here fleeing Hitler, and offers some tentative generalizations winnowed from ' the hopes, fears, and observations of these newcomers.  _____________   One day in the late 1930's, so the story goes, a newly-arrived refugee couple entered the grocery store of a small New England town and asked for oranges. “For juice?” inquired the clerk. “Did you hear what he said?” the woman whispered to her husband in German, hustling him out of the store.

The U.S.-British Entente on Palestine:
The Two Powers Join to Safeguard Israel

by Hal Lehrman
In this article Hal Lehrman once again offers a prognosis of American and British policy in regard to Palestine, drawing upon the same high sources which enabled him to predict the course of big-power diplomacy with such accuracy.

Peretz: The Heart's Secret Places:
A Great Yiddish Writer on the Mystery of Evil

by Maurice Samuel
Isaac Leib Peretz (1851-1915) is, after Sholom Aleichem, the outstanding figure of Yiddish literature. A prolific author of poems, stories, essays, dramas, allegories, and satiric sketches, he is the realistic artist of Jewish poverty, the lyrical poet of Hasidism, a writer of social protest, a critic of institutional religion, a devout believer in the ethical-religious message of Judaism, and, above all, the great Yiddish folk-educator.

The Economic Crisis Behind Soviet Expansion:
Does Russia's “Business Cycle” Compel Foreign Aggression?

by Guenter Reimann
What is the moving force behind Soviet expansion? Is it a policy based on the whims of Soviet leaders, is it part of a dream of world revolution and socialization, or is it the effort to resolve by external means certain basic maladjustments in the Soviet political and economic system? The discovery of the correct answer to this question is perhaps the key problem facing international politics today.

Memo from the Thirty-Six
A Story

by J. Ayalti
This story is based on an old legend that there are always thirty-six just men (The Thirty-Six) by virtue of whom the world exists and without whom the world could not continue. When all the Jews of the town of Sapetkin were exterminated, one of them was left alive.

Night, Stars, Glow-Worms
by H. Leivick
I told my little boy a story, And he fell asleep. Everyone knows the stories one tells For little boys to fall asleep. Once there was a little lamb, and the little lamb went astray, in the dense forest. (Poor, poor little lamb.) Then there came a wolf, A ravenous wolf— The little lamb must go astray, The ravenous wolf must raven. (Poor, poor wolf.) Night, stars, glow-worms. What is there left for me To do—the father, Among stars and glow-worms and little boy? (Poor, poor wolf.) Son— It is good that you are asleep and cannot see My face, among stars and glow-worms. (Poor, poor little lamb.) How far you have gone astray, How far into the forest. (Poor, poor little boy.) Wolf, go away, from the bed of my son. Wolf, look not at the throat of my son. (Poor, poor wolf.) _____________  

The Judaism of a Man of Letters:
The Use of Tradition and Community

by Paul Goodman
It is no longer news that we are in the midst of something like a revival, if not of religion, then of interest in religion among intellectuals here and abroad, especially of the younger generation.

The Herd of Independent Minds:
Has the Avant-Garde Its Own Mass Culture?

by Harold Rosenberg
In Shakespeare's England, a man waiting his turn in a barber shop would take a violin from the wall and entertain himself and his neighbors; in Louis B.

From the American Scene: Gold Rush Days
by Israel Naamani
Among the 49'ers of the California gold rush there were naturally Jews—some of them plain, hard-working citizens whose names are lost to fame, others as colorful personalities as appear in the annals of Mark Twain and Bret Harte.

Cedars of Lebanon: Days of Awe
by S. Agnon
These sayings and legends pertaining to the High Holidays are taken from a large and representative collection to be published this month by Schocken Books under the title Days of Awe, edited by Nahum N.

The Study of Man: What the Nazi Autopsies Show
by Irving Kristol
The experience of Nazism did not end on May 8, 1945; it has remained with us, both as burning memory and an appalling possibility.

Five “Anti-Fascist” Novels
by Irving Howe
The “Anti-Fascist” Novel The Condemned. by Jo Pagano. New York, Prentice Hall, 1947. 215 pp. $2.75. Seneca, U.S.A. by John Roeburt. New York, Curl, 1947. 255 pp.

Peony, by Pearl Buck
by Isa Kapp
Chinese Melting Pot Peony By Pearl Buck. New York, John Day, 1940. 312 pp. $3.00.   Liberalism's kindliest error is its overanxious leap from the concrete to the general.

Selected Writings of Benjamin Nathan Cardozo, Edited by Margaret E. Hall
by Daniel Boorstin
Liberal Justice Selected Writings Of Benjamin Nathan Cardozo. by Margaret E. Hall. New York, Fallon Publications, 1947. 456 pp. $5.00.   During the last several decades this country has witnessed the growth of a worship of great judges that has, at times, taken on the proportions of a cult.

I Never Saw An Arab Like Him, by James Maxwell
by Anatole Broyard
Arab vs. Jew: Homogenized I Never Saw An Arab Like Him by James Maxwell. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1948. 207 pp. $2.50.   As the land of technical genius, America has perfected millions of pleasure-giving, work-saving devices—smooth-riding cars, static-free radios, automatic washing machines, and so on indefinitely.

Charles Péguy, by Daniel Halévy
by Oskar Seidlin
The Prophetic Élan Charles Péguy. By Daniel Halévy. New York; Longmans, Green, 1947. 304 pp. $3.50.   In France's darkest hours during the recent war, the memory of Charles Péguy, one of the earliest casualties of World War I, was revived as a rallying symbol.

I Lift My Lamp, by Hertha Pauli and E. B. Ashton
by James Rorty
Carrying the Torch for Liberty I Lift My Lamp by Hertha Pauli And E. B. Ashton. New York, Appleton-Century Crofts, 1948. 360 pp.

The Month in History:Counter-Offensive Against Communism
by Maurice Goldbloom
In times when month-by-month events give little comfort to the hopes of men in general, and perhaps of Jews in particular, it is the task of the writer of this department to winnow out the facts from the welter of belief, propaganda, actuality, and emotion that constitutes present-day public information and opinion.

Reader Letters September 1948
by Our Readers
The Potential of Democratic Socialism TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Mr. Mangan's interesting article on the fu- ture of the European middle class (in COM- MENTARY's August issue) has occasioned some surprise among readers here in England, where we are under the impression that the Labor government rests upon working-class support and is carrying out socialist measures, how- ever limited in scope, which go considerably beyond "the Western European liberal-radical tradition." It may be that, as Mr.

October, 1948Back to Top
On the Plus Side
by Our Readers
To the Editor: To this non-intellectual mind, “The Voice of the Blood” by Ralph Manheim, in your August issue, is the most absorbing bit of fiction that has appeared for some time.

Sephardim And Ashkenazim
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I read with the greatest interest Professor Heschel's illuminating and discriminating remarks on “The Two Great Traditions,” that of the Ashkenazim and that of the Sephardim, in his fine article in the May COMMENTARY, and I do not intend now to take issue with his main thesis.

The Question of Mass Culture
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The only real point in Harold Rosenberg's article “The Herd of Independent Minds” (in the September COMMENTARY) is a truism: that all men are different, and that therefore any general statement about human beings necessarily misses the essential truth about any individual.

For a Jewish-Arab Confederation
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Major Eban's important article, “The Future of Arab-Jewish Relations,” in the September COMMENTARY, seems to me to be the best reasoned and in many ways most hopeful statement on this question which I have seen from an official Zionist source.

The Road Ahead for Civil Rights:
The President's Report: One Year Later

by James Wechsler
Whatever their party, men and women concerned with the protection of civil rights and the development of good inter-group relations in this country hailed the President's Report on Civil Rights as, by common consent, the most thorough and honest analysis of the problem of civil rights that any American government has been willing to present to the public.

What Next for the Arab League?
No Further War in Palestine, If . . .

by John Marlowe
Will the Arab states choose the path of war in Palestine—or will they move toward a settlement? There is hardly a question of international politics about which there is more speculation—and less reliable first-hand information.

The Liberalism of Louis D. Brandeis:
The Father of the New Deal

by Solomon Bloom
Reformer, corporation lawyer, Zionist, Justice of the Supreme Court, and one of the most outstanding liberals of his generation, Louis D.

The Passing of Dutch Jewry:
An Elegy

by Siegfried Van
When the Nazi flood receded from the Netherlands, it was seen that the centuries-old Jewish life of that country was all but destroyed.

The Man of Today and the Jewish Bible:
How the Modern Can Recapture Faith

by Martin Buber
Martin Buber here deals with ideas that have been his life-long concern: the relation of modem man to the religious insights of the past and thus to God; and the special relation of the Jew to the Divine, as adumbrated in the biblical covenant.

Previous Condition:
A Story

by James Baldwin
James Baldwin's article “The Harlem Ghetto: Winter 1948,” published in the February COMMENTARY, won national comment. “Previous Condition,” his first published short story, is a sensitive and powerful study of the life of a young Negro artist in present-day American society.

Britain's Struggle for Survival: The Labor Government After Three Years
by George Orwell
For many of the democratic peoples throughout the world, Great Britain's socialist experiment represents a crucial hope for the development of a workable alternative to both capitalism and Communism; and from any point of view, the success or failure of Britain's Labor government must be recognized as immensely important to the final outcome of the present struggle between East and West.

Epilogue to the Book of Job
by Ralph Toledano
The poem published here is part of an extended episodic work in verse, another section of which, “Prologue to the Book of Jesse,” appeared in the Standard. _____________   fac eas Domine de morte transire ad vitam quam olim Abrahæ promisisti, et semini ejus.

The Poetry of Samuel Greenberg:
“Neither the Time nor the Poet Was Ripe”

by Milton Klonsky
Samuel Greenberg, the poet whose life and creative work Milton Klonsky writes about here, was previously considered of interest only for his influence on the poetry of Hart Crane.

From the American Scene: Utopia on Columbia Street
by S. Blumenson
In the long history of human efforts to improve the various “systems” by which men have distributed the wealth of the world, the establishment of the curious project on Columbia Street in New York City, described here, may be no more than a footnote.

Cedars of Lebanon: Hasidic Tales: Second Period
by Martin Buber
The “second period” of Hasidism, whose zaddikim (literally, “righteous ones”) came in the fourth and succeeding generations of the line that began with the Baal Shem Tov, produced the legends, tales, anecdotes, and sayings collected and edited by Martin Buber in the second volume of his Tales of the Hasidim, subtitled “The Later Masters.” A selection from the previous volume, containing similar material from the first three generations of the zaddik line, was presented in our pages in January and February 1947.

On the Horizon: The Flight from Europe
by Robert Warshow
This new department will represent, we hope, house-room for short pieces on a wide variety of subjects—reflections on and reactions to ideas and events; reports on occasions and happenings; comment on plays, films, music, and art; or just notions, sudden insights, and fancies.

On the Horizon: A Little Bit Prejudiced
by Myron Kaufmann
This new department will represent, we hope, house-room for short pieces on a wide variety of subjects—reflections on and reactions to ideas and events; reports on occasions and happenings; comment on plays, films, music, and art; or just notions, sudden insights, and fancies.

The Study of Man: Anti-Semitism's Root in City-Hatred
by Arnold Rose
This article analyzes the ways in which the object of prejudice—the Jew, the Negro, or any other chosen as victim—serves as the symbolic embodiment of certain psychological fears and hates which the prejudiced person is able to cope with only through the use of an external scapegoat.

The Sleepwalkers, by Hermann Broch
by Stephen Spender
Nightmare and Redemption The Sleepwalkers. by Hermann Broch. Translated by Willa and Edwin Muir. New York, Pantheon, 1948. 648 pp. $5.00   I first read The Sleepwalkers when it appeared in this magnificent translation of Edwin and Willa Muir, in 932.

Pathways Through the Bible, by Mortimer J. Cohen; and A History of the Jews, by Solomon Grayzel
by David Baumgardt
A Dissent on “Popularization” Pathways Through the Bible. by Mortimer J. Cohen. Philadelphia, The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1946. 548 pp. $3.00. A History of The Jews from the Babylonian Exile to the End of World War II. by Solomon Grayzel. Philadelphia, The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1947.

Farewell to Salonika, by Leon Sciaky; and The Mediterranean, by William Reitzel
by Hal Lehrman
Bridge to the Near East Farewell To Salonika: Portrait of An Era. by Leon Sciaky. New York, A. A. Wyn, 1946. 241 Pp.

The House of Nasi: Dona Gracia, by Cecil Roth
by Maurice Samuel
A Princess of the Diaspora The House of Nasi: Dona Gracia. by Cecil Roth. Philadelphia, The Jewish Publication Society Of America, 1947. 208 Pp.

Four Books on Occupied France
by Norbert Guterman
The Ordeal in France La Presse, La Propagande Et L'opinion Publique Sous L'occupation. by Jacques Polonski. Paris, Editions du Centre, 1946. 157 Pp.

Reader Letters October 1948
by Our Readers
For a Jewish-Arab Confederation To THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Major Eban's important article, "The Future of Arab-Jewish Relations," in the September COMMENTARY, seems to me to be the best reasoned and in many ways most hopeful statement on this question which I have seen from an official Zionist source.

November, 1948Back to Top
“Commentary” and Liberalism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am glad as a non-Jewish reader to express to you the great satisfaction I take in reading the pages of COMMENTARY.

In Defense of Readability
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The belated review of Mortimer J. Cohen's Pathways Through the Bible and Solomon Grayzel's A History of the Jews, in your October issue, by David Baumgardt, a consultant in philosophy at the Library of Congress, warrants challenge.

President Truman and Civil Rights
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I find myself in complete accord with James and Nancy Wechsler in their excellent and sound sociological discussion (in the October COMMENTARY) Of the problem of civil rights. This article appears at a most appropriate time and should be of great service.

Public Higher Education
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I want to compliment Dr. Saveth and COMMENTARY for their extremely useful contribution to the history of higher education in New York State.

The Statue of Liberty
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In the review by James Rorty of I Lift My Lamp, in the September issue, he calls the Statue of Liberty the “ugly, bronze colossus.” Two out of three words are incorrect—the statue is of copper and, to those with an appreciation of the monumental arts, it is a great work.

Inter-Group Contacts
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have read Robert Pick's article, “A Refugee Looks at Anti-Semitism Here,” in the September COMMENTARY, with great interest. It is reassuring to have pointed out, as Mr.

Our Oldest “Minority”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have read with much interest, satisfaction, and enjoyment the article entitled “Alaska's Nuremberg Laws” by Felix S.

Washington: Tarnished Symbol:
Our Capital's Treason Against America

by David
Our nation's capital still prides itself on a certain graciousness of architecture and manners which is said to be its heritage from the Old South.

Bernadotte's Testament:
An Analysis of the Mediator's Recommendations

by Robert Weltsch
Robert Weltsch, life-long Zionist and one of Palestine's most distinguished journalists, here analyzes the recommendations of the Bernadotte Plan, which are now being debated in the United Nations Security Council, and the issues they pose for the settlement of the Arab-Jewish conflict, and the future of Israel.

A Philosophy for “Minority” Living:
The Jewish Situation and the “Nerve of Failure”

by David Riesman
The fact of being a “minority” group often entails certain inconveniences and burdens. This the Jews have always known well and at firsthand.

Racism Comes to Power in South Africa:
The Threat of White Nationalism

by T. Robertson
The recent victory of the Nationalist party in South Africa came as a shock to a world which had almost persuaded itself that the defeat of Nazism meant the end of racist nationalism as a political force in our times.

The Axial Age of Human History:
A Base for the Unity of Mankind

by Karl Jaspers
In this time of exacerbated nationalisms, the notion of the unity of mankind seems almost an anachronism. Yet if we are to dispel the shadows of barbarism, we must regain some sense of this profound reality.

Grandfather Mendele as I Remember Him:
The Founder of Modern Yiddish Literature

by Chaim Tchernowitz
Chaim Tchmrnowitz, perhaps better known among Hebrew readers under the pen name Rav Tzair (“The Young Rabbi”), is one of the leading figures in Jewish scholarship and Hebrew literature.

Can Oil and Israel Mix?
An Economic Opportunity for the New State

by Ernest Aschner
Does a doctrinaire suspicion of “oil imperialism” stand in the way of Israel's economic development and a favorable settlement of territorial claims? Ernest Aschner here suggests that the new state of Israel would do well to reexamine its attitude towards the British and American oil interests that have played, and continue to play, so important a role in the Palestine problem. _____________   Typical of the official Israeli attitude toward oil are two recent statements dealing with the questions of the Negev and the internationalization of Haifa.

Summon the Serpents
by Hayim Bialik
Hayim Nahman Bialik (1873-1934) is recognized as one of the greatest of modern Hebrew poets. “Summon the Serpents,” written in 1906, belongs with a series known as “Poems of Wrath,” which grew out of Bialik's reaction to the Kishinev pogrom of 1903.

Blood of Reunion
A Story

by Irving Weiss
My father and mother, my aunt and grandfather made up our household, with me at the bottom and all of us under the wing of my grandmother.

From the American Scene: Greenwich Village: Decline and Fall
by Milton Klonsky
Since the early years of this century, Greenwich Village in New York has been a mecca—not quite a refuge—for those who for one reason or another have chosen to live on the periphery (sometimes, but not always, the forefront) of American culture.

Cedars of Lebanon: Not Meant for Angels
by Our Readers
There is the written law—in Judaism it is the Bible—which is supposed to govern all of life: the rule and the exception, the common and the extraordinary, all times and places.

On the Horizon: Schoenberg's New Cantata
by Kurt List
For its second appearance, this new department devoted to “occasional” and more or less informal comment on events and cultural developments offers: a report by KURT LIST on the latest work (not yet publicly performed) of Arnold Schoenberg, perhaps our greatest living composer, and regarded by many critics as the creator of a unique synthesis of the specifically Jewish in form and feeling with the most fruitful tendencies in modem music; and a sceptical note by Irving Kristol on a recent attempt to translate anthropological findings into inter-group understanding via modem advertising techniques.

On the Horizon: Who's Superstitious?
by Irving Kristol
For its second appearance, this new department devoted to “occasional” and more or less informal comment on events and cultural developments offers: a report by KURT LIST on the latest work (not yet publicly performed) of Arnold Schoenberg, perhaps our greatest living composer, and regarded by many critics as the creator of a unique synthesis of the specifically Jewish in form and feeling with the most fruitful tendencies in modem music; and a sceptical note by Irving Kristol on a recent attempt to translate anthropological findings into inter-group understanding via modem advertising techniques.

The Study of Man: Opinion Polls and Public Policy
by Robert Myers
How scientific are public-opinion polls when they report, not how the people are going to vote—where the polls are generally right—but how people think: about labor, war, divorce, and so on? ROBERT COBB MYERS here examines the ambition of the pollsters to establish themselves as an accepted, accurate gauge of the public mind, so that they might serve as a guide to decision and action in the broad fields of public policy.

The World is a Wedding, by Delmore Schwartz
by Martin Greenberg
The Artist and the Family The World is a Wedding By Delmore Schwartz. Norfolk, Connecticut, New Directions. 196 pp. $2.75.   The literary graces are progressively renounced in this collection.

A Treasury of Jewish Folklore, edited by Nathan Ausubel
by Isaac Rosenfeld
Kreplach A Treasury of Jewish Folklore. Edited by Nathan Ausubel. New York, Crown. 741 pp. $4.00.   Mr. Ausubel's anthology contains some excellent items of folklore, but much of it-with the unquestionable exception of some sixty-five songs, music included, and stories such as the one I shall paraphrase first—is not folklore at all, which by his own definition is “a vivid record of a people, palpitating with life itself.

The Book of Books, by Solomon Goldman
by David Daiches
Introducing the Bible The Book of Books: an Introduction. By Solomon Goldman. New York, Harper and Brothers. 459 pp. $3.75.   This is the first of an ambitiously conceived series of thirteen volumes planned by Rabbi Goldman to deal with the origins, development, influence, and interpretation of the Hebrew Bible.

The Pisan Cantos, by Ezra Pound
by William Poster
Lost Poet The Pisan Cantos. By Ezra Pound. New York, New Directions. 118 pp. $2.75.   To get at what Ezra Pound is and was, we have to see him as one of the leaders of a revolution in aesthetic sensibility, his talent geared to it and even created by it.

The City Boy, by Herman Wouk
by Nathan Glick
Herbie The City Boy. By Herman Wouk. New York, Simon and Schuster. 306 pp. $2.95. Books like Tom Sawyer and Penrod contain a partially authentic mythology which serves to link the adult to his past and to ritualize for the young reader his fantastic real world.

From the Heart of Europe, by F. O. Matthiessen
by Benjamin Engel
Innocent Abroad: 1948 Model From the Heart of Europe. by F. O. Matthiessen. New York, Oxford University Press. 194 pp. $3.00.   During the latter half of 1947, F.

Reader Letters November 1948
by Our Readers
Our Oldest "Minority" TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I have read with much interest, satisfaction, and enjoyment the article entitled "Alaska's Nuremberg Laws" by Felix S.

December, 1948Back to Top
Congratulations
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Having had occasion recently to extend for a three-year stretch my charter subscription to COMMENTARY, I wish to follow that practical approval with my congratulations to you and your editorial board upon the continued excellence of the magazine.

Oil and Israel
by Our Readers
To the Editor: We should like to comment on three statements in Ernest Aschner's article “Can Oil and Israel Mix?” in your November issue. 1.

Against Popularizing
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I take Mr. Cushman's letter in the November COMMENTARY criticizing my review of Dr. Cohen's and Dr. Grayzel's books as an explicit, if indirect, confirmation of what I tried to say. I had only implied that the aim inspiring the two authors was obviously nothing more than the attraction of as many easygoing readers as possible, and not that revelation of the “sublimity” of our Jewish heritage which is promised in Dr.

When Bookmen Disagree
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Your reviewer, Mr. David Daiches, declares, regarding Solomon Goldman's remarkable The Book of Books, that “the extraordinary hodgepodge of quotations referring to the Bible in the ‘Echoes and Allusions’ section is absolutely baffling.

Racism in South Africa
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It may seem strange to complain that an article entitled “Racism Comes to Power in South Africa” [by T.

The Mindless Young Militants:
The Hero-Victims of the American War Novels

by Alfred Kazin
What do the postwar novels—those brightjacketed best-sellers that have been so enthusiastically received and yet do not quite constitute the “literary renaissance” the publishers have hoped for—reveal of the relation of the American younger generation to its war experience? Alred Kazin here contributes a suggestive analysis of the deeper meaning of these books, with particular attention to the latest and perhaps most widely hailed of the group, Irwin Shaw's The Young Lions.  _____________   Ever since the war ended, a great many literary GI's, all of them haunted by the example of Hemingway and Dos Passos, have been trying to turn their war experience into novels that would be distinguishable from each other and yet not betray the fact that their authors learned nothing new about the war, since they could not see it for their countrymen. This has been an unexpected and even humiliating discovery for some realistic novelists; it has played havoc with their first literary images of war and their natural hopes of finding in it an epic subject.

The Road Back for the DP's:
Healing the Psychological Scars of Nazism

by Paul Friedman
In the efforts to reintegrate Europe's DP's into the world's society, it must not be forgotten that the return to normal involves much more for them than a place to live and work: the scars of the concentration-camp experience run deep, and their final rehabilitation requires a full understanding of the effects of the Nazi terror upon the minds and spirits of its victims.

Citizen's Victory: Defeat of the “Common Man”
The American People and Its Opinion-Molders

by Elliot Cohen
The author of this article on the 1948 presidential election is hardly a political expert—but, at least at this particular time, this is not likely to be considered a disqualification by most.

Can We Believe in Judaism Religiously?An Ethical Faith Is Not Enough
by Emil Fackenheim
Like many others in this sceptical era, Jewish theological writers have had some difficulty in accepting their Judaism, or advocating it, on truly religious grounds.

Tel Aviv: Messiah in a Business Suit:
Israel's New Leadership Emerges

by Jon Kimche
The first half-year of Israel's national existence is already history—a history which, obscured by the more sensational news stories of war and diplomacy, has yet to be recorded.

Two Artists and the Hills of Judea:
The Tension between Modern and Archaic Judaism

by Heinz Politzer
 The painter Mordecai Ardon-Bronstein, whose work is discussed in the present article, was born in Tuchov, Poland, in 1896. He went to Palestine in 1933.

Britain's Third Empire:
The Southward Course to Africa

by George Lichtheim
The Labor government of England, coming to power in a world of naked international rivalry, has had to face the difficult and bitter problem of being at once a Socialist government and the administrator of an empire.

The True Life of Max Bobber:
A Story

by Irving Sanes
Mr. Bobber had not caused the scene but everyone blamed him for it. He was an innocuous man with light, moist brown eyes and an indecisive smile.

From the American Scene: The Good Life in Fayetteville
by Hortense Perell
In September when the autumnal haze descends on the cliff dwellings of the Bronx, and the temple seats go on sale for Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, I get the urge to buy a round-trip ticket to Fayetteville, North Carolina, seat of Cumberland County.

Cedars of Lebanon: From the Songs to Zion
by Jehuda Halevi
Jehuda Halevi, probably the foremost Hebrew poet since Biblical days, has enriched the Jewish tradition with its most beautiful expressions of the religious Jew's impassioned longing for Zion.

On the Horizon: Rumblings on the Pastoral Left
by Nathan Glazer
In its third appearance, this new department, devoted to informal comment on cultural and social events and trends, presents a report by Nathan Glazer on a mass meeting recently run by one of the lesser-known, though significant, Zionist parties; and a discussion by Alfred Werner of The Trial, a film recently made by the famous director G.

On the Horizon: Austria's Anti-Bigotry Film
by Alfred Werner
In its third appearance, this new department, devoted to informal comment on cultural and social events and trends, presents a report by Nathan Glazer on a mass meeting recently run by one of the lesser-known, though significant, Zionist parties; and a discussion by Alfred Werner of The Trial, a film recently made by the famous director G.

Sometimes I Dream
by Nuchim Bomse
Sometimes I dream: I am a child My white shirt is flapping wild And all the grownups laugh. I run ashamed through streets I do not know, The wind picks my shirt up from below And all the grownups laugh. They lead me all around the town, The shouting inside me dies down And all the grownups laugh. They strip the shirt off my back, My bareness burns on their eyes' rack And all the grownups laugh. And suddenly see: a wondrous sight— I am old—my beard is white— And all the children laugh. They lead me through a tangled maze, My dead parents come to meet me on the        way And all the children laugh. I stand alone in the blue night With my tears and my cry And all the children laugh. _____________  

The Study of Man: The Rediscovery of Civilizations
by William Albright
In recent decades, a series of archaeological discoveries in the Near East has gradually been uncovering a picture of the ancient history of that area which holds important implications for our conceptions of world history and of the roles of various ancient peoples, among them the Jews, in the development of civilization.

Prince of the Ghetto, by Maurice Samuel
by Leslie Fiedler
Mediator Between Past and Future Prince of the Ghetito. by Maurice Samuel. New York, Knopf. 294 pp. $3.00.   It is ten years now since I first read Peretz, and before that for perhaps another ten years I had been aware of him dimly as a name, an institution, a folk-hero belonging to the darkness of Europe, the double-darkness of the ghetto from which my grandparents had fled to a sunlit America.

My Glorious Brothers, by Howard Fast
by Milton Himmelfarb
Fast and Loose My Glorious Brothers. by Howard Fast. New York; Little, Brown. 280 pp. $2.75.   A historical novel can have two kinds of merit.

American Historians and European Immigrants, by Edward N. Saveth
by Eric Goldman
Writing Immigrant History American Historians and European Immigrants. by Edward N. Saveth. New York, Columbia University Press. 244 pp. $3.00.   The domestic interests of American intellectals seem to be focusing again.

The Whole of Their Lives, by Benjamin Gitlow
by Raymond Rosenthal
The Iron Tradition The Whole Of Them Lives. by Benjamin Gitlow. New York, Scribner's. 387 pp. $3.50.   In 1934 I attended a meeting of the striking Hotel Workers Union in New York City and heard Benjamin Gitlow, already a “renegade” from the Communist party and the leader of a tiny splinter group on the extreme Left, deliver an agitational speech.

The Only Way, by Karl Barth; The Question of German Guilt, by Karl Jaspers; Hitler in Ourselves, by Max Picard
by James Adams
Guilt in Our Times The Only Way. by Karl Barth. New York, Philosophical Library. 122 pp. $2.00. The Question of German Guilt. By Karl Jaspers. New York, Dial.

Reader Letters December 1948
by Our Readers
Racism in South Africa To THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: It may seem strange to complain that an article entitled "Racism Comes to Power in South Africa" [by T.




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