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January, 1953Back to Top
Church and State
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am most grateful to COMMENTARY for the printing of Will Herberg's clear, impartial, and authoritative article. As the son and grandson of Protestant clergymen, this problem is one that has long worried me.

Mr. Berg Replies
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. McNamara has written courteously to protest my references to Red Channels, for the publication of which he assumes responsibility though, as he says, he had nothing to do with its preparation. My article was written in review of Mr.

On “Red Channels”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As editor of Counterattack, which published Red Channels and is in the center of the controversy over “blacklisting” in radio and TV, I want to congratulate COMMENTARY for publishing Louis Berg's article, “How End the Panic in Radio-TV?” (October 1952). In contrast with most articles written on the subject to date, Mr.

Stalin Follows in Hitler's Footsteps
by Peter Meyer
On November 20, 1952, a shudder of horror and apprehension ran through the civilized world such as it had not felt since the night of another November, in 1938, when the synagogues of Germany were put to the torch. On that day fourteen leading Communists of Czechoslovakia, eleven of whom were “of Jewish origin”—as the official indictment puts it—were openly charged in a Prague courtroom with participating in a worldwide “Jewish nationalist-Zionist-imperialist” conspiracy to overthrow the “People's Democracy” of Czechoslovakia.

The First Step Toward “One Europe”:
The Politics of Steel and Coal

by Herbert Luethy
One of the few rays of light in this dark postwar period is the “European Idea.” If the nations of the Old Continent's rump, under the pressure of Stalin's new strength and their own new weakness, do begin to resolve their discords and strive toward a higher nationalism—that of Europe, and eventually, perhaps, that of humanity—then the recent war will not have been an unmitigated calamity, and Stalin's postwar policies will in some measure have brought benefit to humanity.

Medical School Quotas and National Health:
Discrimination that Hurts Us All

by Lawrence Bloomgarden
America's single most important welfare problem—most authorities have long agreed—is the endangering of the nation's health by a shortage of medical care and particularly of doctors; and this supposedly organizationally ingenious nation has not yet found a way of improving this situation.

How Live by Jewish Law Today?
A Proposal for Those Who Have Fallen Away

by Hans Schoeps
The most difficult question in contemporary Jewish religion, of whatever variety, is what shall be done with the Law, that elaborate code of ritual and action which, in the course of centuries, came to define Jewish religion almost completely.

Doing Business the Iraqi Way:
A Wall Street Man in Bagdad

by C. Cooke
C. Berkeley Cooks, Jr., has been in Wall Street, handling various posts for banking and investment houses, for twenty-five years.

The Proposition
A Story

by Ashur Baizer
We were sitting around the dining-room table in Reb Kiva's house; Reb Kiva, my father, and I. My mother, Reb Kiva's oldest daughter, had gone out to visit a friend in the neighborhood, and the Aunt (this was the family's name for Reb Kiva's second wife) was spending the week with her son.

Does the Smith Act Threaten Our Liberties?
American Law and the Communist Conspiracy

by Sidney Hook
Every attempt to use legal sanctions against the American Communist party has met with a storm of protest against the outlawing of “dissent.” But where does dissent end and conspiracy begin? And what actions may a democracy take against conspiracy, and still remain a democracy? Sidney Hook has in many writings argued that Stalin's Communism is in no legitimate sense “dissent” but in reality conspiracy.

Manhattan's Oldest Jewish Settlers:
The Sephardi Grandees Suffer a Sea Change

by Charles Reznikoff
Commenting here on David de Sola Pool's erudite parish history, Portraits Etched in Stone, recently published by Columbia University Press (543 pp., $10.00), Mr.

Thunderstorm, Riverside Drive
by Babette Deutsch
Who, above, prepares an austere fiesta? None. It is carpets of cloud unrolling prove The heavens desire dancing. Clearly they also Require grey, for all wear grey.

From the American Scene: My Father Was a Doctor
by Helen Plotz
As the daughter of a doctor in the thriving and MD-respecting Jewish community of Brooklyn, Helen Ratnoff Plotz grew up in the chambers of royalty, and, like little princesses everywhere, she found that what with prescribed music lessons, symphony concerts, and visits to European cathedrals, the undeniable blessings of her exalted station were not unmixed.

Cedars of Lebanon: Discovery of the East European Jew
by Franz Rosenzweig
In the fall of 1913, Franz Rosenzweig gave up his plan to embrace Christianity and decided to remain a Jew.

On the Horizon: A Citizen of France
by A. Davidson
Whiskey? No, don't try the whiskey here. This is just a small place, there is seldom anyone comes here who would want a good whiskey.

The Study of Man: How to Be a Parent-and Stay Sane
by J. Gray
A certain calm seems to have descended recently on one of the most agitated frontiers of the social and psychological sciences—that of child-raising.

The Magic Carpet, by Shlomo Barer
by Hal Lehrman
Saga of the Yemenites The Magic Carpet. by Shlomo Barer. Harper. 243 pp. $3.50.   Shlomo Barer's account of the fabulous transplantation by air of 50,000 Yemenite Jews to Israel in 1949 and 1950—the now famous “Operation Magic Carpet”—has authority and dignity, and is excellently written.

The Complete American-Jewish Cookbook, by Anne London and Bertha Kahn Bishov
by Ruth Glazer
Where's the Pyetroushka? The Complete American-Jewish Cookbook. by Anne London and Bertha Kahn Bishov. World. 623 pp. $4.95.   In 1941 the Jewish Cook Book was first published and for nearly a decade it monopolized the American market as the only complete volume of its kind.

The Build-Up, by William Carlos Williams
by Oliver Snyder
Image without Idea The Build-Up. by William Carlos Williams. Random House. 335 pp. $3.50.   Dr. Williams' novels are rarely mentioned in either private or public discussions of American writing; after an ephemeral appearance in the book reviews at the time of their publication, they have usually dropped into that graveyard of silence which is the fate of failures.

Pioneer's Progress: An Autobiography, by Alvin Johnson
by Everett Hughes
On a Hazardous Frontier Pioneer's Progress: An Autobiography. by Alvin Johnson. Viking. 413 pp. $5.00.   “I am no prophet but an American extrovert addicted to the notion that an idea is fertile only when married to action.” It is a good thing it was COMMENTARY, and not one of the academic journals, that asked me to comment on this lively story which the more-or-less-retired president of the New School has written about his activities up to now.

The Devil's Chemists, by Josiah E. Dubois, Jr.
by R. Tannenbaum
Nazi Business—and American The Devil's Chemists. by Josiah E. DuBois, Jr. In collaboration with Edward Johnson. Beacon Press. 369 pp. $3.75.   Normally, business is business, but in Hitler's abnormal Reich, business was murder.

Reader Letters January 1953
by Our Readers
On "Red Channels" TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: As editor of Counterattack, which published Red Channels and is in the center of the con- troversy over "blacklisting" in radio and TV, I want to congratulate COMMENTARY for publish- ing Louis Berg's article, "How End the Panic in Radio-TV?" (October 1952). In contrast with most articles written on the subject to date, Mr.

February, 1953Back to Top
The Prague Trial
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Thanks and congratulations on “Stalin Follows in Hitler's Footsteps” in the January COMMENTARY. The documentation through the publication of copious excerpts from the officially broadcast text of the Prague trial is the perfect background for the critical and convincing analysis.

Mistake
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In her charming article “My Father Was a Doctor” (January) Helen Ratnoff Plotz makes a slight mistake. The flag of the Weimar Republic (and now again of the West German Bundesrepublik) was not, as she writes, Black-White-Red but rather Black-Red-Gold.

The Meaning of the Maccabees
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Theodor Gaster (“The True Glory of the Maccabean Revolt,” December 1952) maintains that the Maccabean revolt was not a people's uprising but a minority movement because “official spokesman of the Jewish community were hostile to it” and “the bulk of the Jewish population was already so far gone in the process of assimilation that the champion of Israel's distinctive identity meant nothing to it.” While it is true that the leaders of the Jewish community had succumbed to Hellenism, this hardly signifies that the uprising was a minority movement.

Keynes and Schumpeter
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Daniel Bell's review article in the December COMMENTARY on Galbraith's recent book, American Capitalism, traverses a great deal of controversial economic territory, and no discerning reader could be expected to accept his judgment and analysis of all the writers and schools of thought which he covers.

“Children of Two Houses”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: To a reader who always held COMMENTARY in highest esteem it came as a shock and disappointment to find in your December issue the story “Children of Two Houses” by Elaine Gottlieb.

The “Little” Jews
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mine is doubtless only one of many comments on Nathan Asch's provocative “Only So Big?” (November 1952) [in which Mr.

Mr. Handlin Replies
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I can quite understand Mr. Lurie's discomfiture at the tone of my article. He was, after all, one of the central actors in the events described. It is interesting to learn, from the letter, that Mr.

“Freedom or Authority?”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to express my views on Oscar Handlin's article, “Freedom or Authority in Group Life?” which appears in the December 1952 issue. I recognize that history dramatized or baked over in a moral sauce is entertaining and stimulating, while an objective historical analysis usually ends up as dull reading.

Soviet Anti-Semitism in High Gear:
What Can the Kremlin Hope to Gain?

by Peter Meyer
The Prague trial of fourteen leaders of the Communist party of Czechoslovakia, eleven of whom were Jewish, was, as every newspaper reader knows, almost immediately followed by accusations against six Jewish doctors in Moscow, by the flight of a good part of the Jewish community remaining in East Germany, and by hints in all the satellite countries that “Zionists,” “Jewish bourgeois nationalists,” and persons having connections with the Joint Distribution Committee—which includes just about every Jew behind the Iron Curtain—were to be considered “imperialist” agents.

German Anti-Americanism: East & West Zones:
Clinical Notes for a Diagnosis—and Remedy

by Norbert Muhlen
The emergence and spread in Western Europe of a kind of anti-American feeling more virulent than anything known before has been one of the most disquieting—and puzzling—factors in postwar transatlantic relations.

What Manner of Man Was Hitler?
Messiah of the Ice Age

by Francis Golffing
What manner of man Haman or Pharaoh or Ghengis Khan was, we shall never know, but we would seem at least to have the chance to understand Hitler before that dreadful figure passes over the horizon into history and myth.

Making the American Shabbos:
The Value of Doing the Impossible

by Grace Goldin
For Jews west of the Hudson River, it appears, keeping holy the Sabbath can come to seem more like an embattled defense of a besieged fortress—with councils on strategy, tactics, and even logistics—than a day of rest and contemplation.

Palace Politics in the Damascus Oasis:
Syria's Equilibrium, as of This Writing

by Ray Alan
Syria was the first of the Arab nations to come under the rule of a military man ostensibly acting in the interest of the oppressed masses; more recently, Egypt has followed in its path.

Words Having Holiness
by Eli Siegel
May His great name Be mighty and holy In the world His will has made. May this be with speed, And in a near time. Amen. May His kingdom Come to be In your life, your days, And in the life Of the House of Israel: May this be with speed, And in a near time. Amen. May His great name be blessed For ever, for ever. Blessed, praised, made glorious; Extolled, heightened, and honored, Made mighty and lifted up— Be the name of the Holy and One, Whom we bless; Even though He is high Above all blessings and hymns, Extollings and comfortings: All that are uttered In the world. And say ye, Amen. May peace come from on high, Opulently; And life for , us, And for all Israel. And say ye, Amen. May He who makes peace In His high places, Make peace for us, And for all Israel. And say ye, Amen. _____________  

The Heart of a Chauffeur
A Story

by I. Berkowitz
One warm spring day, on my first visit to Jerusalem, I decided to make an automobile trip to the Dead Sea.

The King, the Bishop, and the Jew:
A 6th-Century Disputation; Scene: A Hunting Lodge Near Paris

by Allan Temko
Jews lived in France before any Frank set foot there, and not they, but the Merovingian monarchs were the interlopers during the Dark Ages.

The American Scene in Commentary's Mirror:
Introduction to an Anthology from our Pages

by David Riesman
On February 16, Alfred A. Knopf will bring out COMMENTARY on the American Scene, a selection of about twenty from more than a hundred articles in which COMMENTARY, in its seven years of publication, has explored the complex patterns of Jewish experience in this country.

From the American Scene: In Tails, Tallis, and Tachrichim
by S. Hecht
When a rich Jew chooses to die in the middle of the summer with the rabbi away on vacation, when this final discourtesy crowns a whole career of estrangement from the Jewish community, and when the local church, to which the dead man had vaguely assimilated himself, suggests delicately that his bones might rest more easily in the Jewish cemetery—then you've got problems.

Cedars of Lebanon: Sayings of the Fathers: Chapter I
by Our Readers
On the long Sabbath afternoons of summer, it is customary to read in the synagogue a chapter of the Mishnah tractate popularly called The Sayings of the Fathers (Pirke Aboth).

On the Horizon: The Highbrow Know-Nothings
by Steven Marcus
Steven Marcus, discussing Wyndham Lewis's novel The Revenge for Love (Regnery; 341 pp., $3.50), considers the predicament of those writers who in their revolt against provinciality and “barbarousness” in modern culture have themselves been led to embrace the worst elements of the culture they excoriate. _____________     Wyndham Lewis's The Revenge for Love, written in 1937 and now published in this country for the first time, is a satirical exposure of Stalinist society in England at the time of the Spanish Civil War.

On the Horizon: Israelis Singing in Chorus
by Chemjo Vinaver
Chemjo Vinaver reports on the choral music of Israel, telling how Israel's intensely self-conscious desire to create a high culture has led in many ways to a disregard for the slow processes of growth which alone can produce sweet fruit.   _____________     Though it has lately become fashionable to find fault with things in Israel, in the field of music it is still the accepted thing for the visitor to come, to listen, and—to praise.

The Study of Man: The Interviewer at Work
by I. Peretz
Popular images are rarely entirely wrong; and if the mass media and the popular mind today see the social scientist as a man with pencil and pad in hand, buttonholing hapless citizens on the street, the error is not in the observation—it is only in seeing the social scientist as the interviewer himself rather than as the man who sits in an office poring over columns of figures, the end product for which the interviews provide the raw materials. Today, no matter what the question put to the social scientist, he begins his answer by composing a questionnaire, which he then gets filled out by having an appropriate number of respondents interviewed.

Rendezvous with Destiny, by Eric F. Goldman
by Granville Hicks
The Course of American Reform Rendezvous with Destiny: a History of Modern American Reform. by Eric F. Goldman. Knopf. 503 pp. $5.00.   Professor Goldman has given us a full-scale account of what has been variously known as reformism and liberalism and progressivism in America, from the gentlemanly revolt of the Liberal Republicans in 1872 to the triumph of Harry Truman in 1948 and the Korean crisis of 1950.

The Ill-Tempered Clavichord, by S. J. Perelman
by Morris Freedman
The Peeve as Humor The Ill-Tempered Clavichord. by S. J. Perelman. Simon and Schuster. 244 pp. $2.95.   This most recent collection of S. J.

Lord Acton, by Gertrude Himmelfarb
by George Shuster
A Liberal Pessimist Lord Acton. by Gertrude Himmelfarb. University of Chicago Press. 260 pp. $3.75.   Why should anybody wish to read about a scholarly but relatively obscure member of the Dalberg family who is known as Lord Acton? His reputation rests primarily on his editorship of a voluminous compendium of historical knowledge, the Cambridge Modern History, and on a maxim, “.

Report on the American Communist, by Morris L. Ernst and David Loth
by Oliver Snyder
The Communists on the Couch Report on the American Communist. by Morris L. Ernst and David Loth. Holt. 240 pp. $3.00.   The publication of this book by Morris Ernst and David Loth probably marks a new phase in the fight against Communism: the full-length—if somewhat belated—attempt by liberals themselves to understand the personality of American Communists.

Israel: The Establishment of a State, by Harry Sacher; Israel, by Norman Bentwich; and The New State of Israel, by Gerald de Gau
by Robert Weltsch
Three Views of Israel Israel: The Establishment of a State. by Harry Sacher. London, George Weidenfeld & Nicolson. 332 pp. 25 sh. Israel. by Norman Bentwich. McGraw-Hill.

Reader Letters February 1953
by Our Readers
"Freedom or Authority?" TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I would like to express my views on Oscar Handlin's article, "Freedom or Authority in Group Life?" which appears in the December 1952 issue. I recognize that history dramatized or baked over in a moral sauce is entertaining and stim- ulating, while an objective historical analysis usually ends up as dull reading.

March, 1953Back to Top
Mr. Hook Replies
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Nothing I have ever written or done warrants Mr. and Mrs. Walker's referring to me as one who “wants the Communists behind bars and doesn't care how he gets them there.

The Smith Act
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As readers who usually admire Sidney Hook's clear thinking and lucid writing, particularly on the Communist issue, we find ourselves deeply disturbed by his article in the January COMMENTARY on the Smith Act.

Will Soviet Anti-Semitism Teach the Lesson?
For Most Britishers, It Has

by George Lichtheim
The anti-Semitic campaign now going on in the Communist world has created in the West one of those periodic crises of educated thought which are so often called forth by the internal convulsions of the “workers' fatherland.” So far as England is concerned, George Lichtheim reports, the crisis may be bringing some incidental but not unimportant benefits, especially in clearing away that sentimental fuzziness towards Communism which has afflicted various strata of society, including some sections of the Jewish community, and, consequently, in removing that last thin basis for the reactionary identification of Communism with “the liberals” and “the Jews.”  _____________   London It is now three months since the anti-Jewish campaign in the Soviet orbit got under way with the Prague “trial,” and a month since it spread from the circumference to the center of Stalin's empire, with the Moscow radio's revelations about the “doctors' plot.” Three months is long enough for journalists, writers, teachers, and other professional generalizers to make up their minds on any current topic, let alone one that is as familiar as anti-Semitism.

Roxborough, Post-Truman:
The New Small-Town Community in the Making

by Granville Hicks
In his book Small Town, published by Macmillan in 1946, Granville Hicks drew the portrait of a small community in upstate New York, not unrepresentative of thousands of others in the country, as it responded to the rapid technological, social, and political changes of the 30's and 40's.

Yizkor: The Living and the Dead:
The Community as Woven by Memory

by Theodor Gaster
Theodor H. Gaster has, in recent years, contributed a series of articles to COMMENTARY contrasting the ancient and contemporary significance of the great Jewish festivals.

How the Rich Move Softly
by Marcia Nardi
How the rich move softly through their injustices Softly as the uncut grasses on summer noons They move— That tinkle? It's their cocktail glasses, That sound of hatchet blows? I do not know For all is interstices And open meadowland and willow laces To their very gentle wickednesses That knuckleless as summer breezes go. So softly move the rich through their in-     justices, Not softer is the breathing of a rose That tinkle's not the sound of glasses? It's the bells then that the poor Must sprout like antlers when too near They venture to a rich man's loaves— Those other sounds? That thump and     clatter As of a crutch on rugless stairs, and     wooden shoes? Those are the sins of the poor Against the poorer still— The rich's tread on moss with velvet soles, And when the rich stretch out their arms To grab and stab and kill You need not leave the tenement walls Nor the asphalt walks to know How easefully the purple hounds That the delicate cream-puff clouds unloose Do their dark hunting of the hillside's green— So softly move The rich through their injustices, To Cairo from Tuckahoe The jostling of daisies they carry And the drift on the white fields of snow That cover up and make so beautiful     the cruelty Of life from destruction deep below. _____________  

The Method of Senator McCarthy:
Its Origins, Its Uses, and Its Prospects

by Nathan Glazer
In all the furor about “McCarthyism”—a term which is used in some quarters to smear any and every effort to expose and root out the Communist conspiracy—few have troubled to examine concretely the political methods of the man McCarthy himself.

Kibbutz Ain Harod Faces Up to Prague:
Report from the Israeli Grass Roots

by Aleph Sherman
The Israeli reaction to Soviet anti-Semitism and Russia's breaking of diplomatic relations has been aired most openly in the Knesset and the press, but the deeper tremors of public opinion under the impact of these events have had to be listened for elsewhere.

The Liberal Conscience in “the Crucible”:
Arthur Miller and His Audience

by Robert Warshow
The reception of Arthur Miller's new play, The Crucible, offers an opportunity to analyze Mr. Miller's remarkable power to fascinate the educated audience.

Children of Two Inheritances:
How It Worked Itself Out

by Emanuel Litvinoff
The problem of the offspring of the Jewish-Gentile marriage is not so different in England from what it is here, as we can see by this account of EMANUEL LITVESTOFF'S.

The Game
A Story

by Nathan Asch
The game by now was about three years old, and they all loved it. All of them were veterans of the last war, except the butcher, who was a veteran of the first war; and they had started the game when they were fitting themselves to the life of the single family again, while missing the looser, more casual life of the barracks or on shipboard.

From the American Scene: My Father Was a Hero
by Shlomo Katz
From Shlomo Katz's fiction and autobiographical reminiscences the perceptive reader may draw, as from few other writers, a representative picture of the inner and outer life of a thoughtful American Jew with roots both in East Europe and Israel.

Cedars of Lebanon: Commentary on The Song of Songs
by Shlomo Yitzhaki
In the spring a young man's fancy turns to thoughts of love. Even the Rabbis understood this and they prescribed the Song of Songs for public reading on Passover.

On the Horizon: Chaplin's Film Romance
by Nathan Glick
In Chaplin's Limelight Nathan Glick finds a work of art that looks back in fond memory to the past of the movies-that past which is so dominated by the figure of Chaplin himself—and draws from it a depth and a sweetness that is seldom present today.  _____________     Chaplin's Limelight celebrates old fashions.

The Study of Man: Biblical Criticism and Judaism
by Moshe Greenberg
The reader of the Bible in translation is rarely aware of the enormous problems presented by the text of this (or any other) ancient work.

Franz Rosenzweig: His Life and Thought, presented by Nahum N. Glatzer
by Reinhold Niebuhr
Rosenzweig's Message Franz Rosenzweig: His Life and Thought. Presented by Nahum N. Glatzer. Farrar, Straus and Young. 400 pp. $6.00.   This book is a belated and therefore doubly welcome introduction to American readers of the thought and life of one of the two Jewish religious thinkers who have profoundly affected the thought of both Jewish and Christian thinkers.

Sidney Hillman: Statesman of Labor, by Matthew Josephson
by Philip Taft
Hillman's Statesmanship Sidney Hillman: Statesman of Labor. By Matthew Josephson. Doubleday. 701 pp. $5.00.   Labor leaders are not the best biographical material. Lacking the intellectual vices of self-questioning doubt or excessive introspection, their lives can usually be read in the bitter struggles and achievements of their unions.

The Oldest Stories in the World, translated and retold with comments, by Theodor H. Gaster
by Joseph Krutch
Basic Human Nature The Oldest Stories in the World. Translated and Retold with Comments. By Theodor H. Gaster. Viking. 238 pp. $5.00.   According to the translator and editor, these thirteen stories are literally the oldest in the world.

Bolshevism: An Introduction to Soviet Communism, by Waldemar Gurian
by Will Herberg
The Power of Communist Ideology Bolshevism: An Introduction to Soviet Communism. By Waldemar Gurian. University of Notre Dame Press. 189 pp. $3.25.   In less than a hundred pages, supplemented with seventy pages of notes, documents, and sources, Waldemar Gurian, professor of political science at the University of Notre Dame and editor of the Review of Politics, presents us with one of the most instructive and authoritative studies of Soviet Communism we possess in English. Professor Gurian declares it his purpose to “reveal the basic features, the ‘essence,’ of that modern Communism which achieved power in Russia through the October revolution of 1917 and since has developed into a movement of world importance.” But he realizes that this “essence” is not something abstract to be presented in terms of unchanging concepts or “principles”; it is, on the contrary, a historical entity and can be adequately understood only in terms of its historical context at every stage of its development.

The Natural, by Bernard Malamud
by Norman Podhoretz
Achilles in Left Field The Natural. By Bernard Malamud. Harcourt, Brace. 237 pp. $3.00.   The fact that a book touches something deep in us is no guarantee that it will be a good book; but the trouble with serious contemporary fiction in general is its neglect of the ordinary nerves which continue to be the most sensitive ones.

Reader Letters March 1953
by Our Readers
The Smith Act TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: As readers who usually admire Sidney Hook's clear thinking and lucid writing, parti- cularly on the Communist issue, we find our- selves deeply disturbed by his article in the January COMMENTARY on the Smith Act.... Let us start with two premises on which most Americans today can agree: that the Communists do constitute a dangerous con- spiracy, and that something, drastic and ef- fective, should be done about it.

April, 1953Back to Top
Cummington School of the Arts
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I think the following information will be of interest to your readers: Cummington School of the Arts, Cummington, Mass., offers a few scholarships for writers as well as musicians and painters, of college age or over, to attend the 1953 session, July 6 to August 16.

I. D. Berkowitz
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In the author's note to Mr. I. D. Berkowitz's story in your February issue, “The Chauffeur” (I insist on calling it by its classic title), you have given a wrong impression of his present work.

Inverted Criticism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I should like to inquire what is the clue necessary to understanding Steven Marcus' criticism (“The Highbrow Know-Nothings,” February 1953)? He quotes some brilliant prose by Wyndham Lewis and then condemns it.

Yizkor and Sitting Shiva
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In Theodor H. Gaster's interesting article on the significance of Yizkor (“Tizkor: the Living and the Dead,” March 1953) he remarks that it has nothing in common with the custom of “sitting shiva”; the latter is a “quarantine” with an emphasis on death rather than the “ultimate triumph of the larger life.” .

Biblical Criticism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It may be mere captiousness to mention that Moshe Greenberg (“Biblical Criticism and Judaism,” March 1953) has not written the article described by the title and subtitle of his piece, but it is not captiousness to point out that the article he has written is a scattered and confused exposition of the problems and findings of Biblical textual exegesis.

Israel's Choir Festival
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As Executive Director of the Zimriah I am deeply disturbed by the misinformation contained in Mr. Chemjo Vinaver's article, “Israelis Singing in Chorus” (February 1952), and the lack of objectivity which permeates it. The purpose of the first assembly of Jewish choirs was primarily national and not musical.

The Smith Act
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Despite the cogency of much of his analysis of the Smith Act (January), Professor Sidney Hook fails to grapple with the two major difficulties of the anti-Communist campaign, to wit: (1) The vaporousness of the “clear and present danger” concept, which has left to arbitrary judicial decision what should be clear legislative mandate.

Letting Children Alone
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As one of the contributors to the book Our Children Today, I was much interested by Professor J.

British Anti-Americanism
by Our Readers
To the editor: There seem to be seriously confusing opinions in Mr. Fyvel's article, “Realities Behind British Anti-Americanism,” in your December 1952 issue.

In Tails, Tallis, Etc.
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I always enjoy S. T. Hecht's stories about North Jersey Jewish life, but—let's face it— those translations from the Yiddish leave something to be desired.

Jewish Existentialism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: For some time now I have been wondering about the preponderance of writers on religious existentialism in COMMENTARY's pages.

Bowery Days
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Samuel S. Cohen's account of his “Recreational Enterprise on the Bowery” (November 1952) with his select clientele of pickpockets, pimps, and petty-larceny grafters, was delightful reading for its piquant mixture of innocence and realism.

Our Unspoken National Faith:
Why Americans Need No Ideology

by Daniel Boorstin
It Is considerably easier to say that we should spread knowledge of American ideals abroad than to define precisely just what “American ideals” are.

The Cold War Perspective Without Stalin:
Why Soviet Expansion May Now Accelerate

by George Lichtheim
On March 5, 1953 there passed away one of the cruelest of all tyrants: “genius” of world Communism, and chief designer and engineer of the most efficient terror system mankind has ever suffered under, Joseph Stalin was consigned to the immortality of the party embalmers, chemical and historical.

March 1953
by Barbara Guest
The world of my youth is ending. Famous people are dying every day. Gertrude Lawrence, And now it is Stalin. The last one will be Winston Churchill, And after that probably, My father-in-law. There will be no one left, Except those who remember The old days, And young people Entering college Who will read about it. That's why I'm telephoning You today, Alexander Nevsky, To make an appointment with you To ride out by the lake Before they dredge it, Or next winter's skies refuse     to fill it, Or by some miracle The mountain waters won't     feed it. I thought we might ride Out there today And look at all those Dead bodies again. _____________  

Point Fourism Is Not Enough:
Power Politics and the Economic Fallacy

by G. Hudson
Liberals are becoming uneasily aware that the dictum that poverty equals Communism states only half the truth, and that there may be even less truth in its so widely accepted corollary—namely that all America has to do to win the “cold war” is pour enough money into backward Asia, Africa, and South America.

Tokyo's Nipponese-Jewish Friendship League:
The Emperor's Brother Testifies to Israel's Chosenness

by Arnold Wolf
Surely never was a stranger “interfaith” gathering held than the one here described by Arnold Jacob Wolf. _____________     Achanukah party in the Allied forces' Tokyo Chapel Center is pretty .

Are We Israelis Still Jews?
The Search for Judaism in the New Society

by Ernst Simon
Orthodox tradition, shaped by and for a people living apart, did not envisage the practical as distinct from the moral responsibility of Jews for the entire fabric of a society.

The Outlook for Labor Under Eisenhower:
The Organized Need to Be Reorganized

by A. Raskin
For organized labor, the election of Eisenhower marked the end of an era—more so perhaps than for any other section of the population.

Black and White Unite
A Story

by Marvin Elkoff
A moment before, her chirping, scurrying voice had called the meeting to order with: “All right, Comrades and kiddies, to work we must go!” And now she was reading the agenda, noting that the “educational” for the evening would be on “Negro Revolts” with an intensity of tone more appropriate to the announcement that a Negro revolt would, in fact, occur that night.

Israel's Left Reels to the Shock of “Prague”:
Chronicle of a Disillusionment

by Mark Alexander
In last month's COMMENTARY it was reported how the grass-roots Israelis of the Ain Harod collective colony, most of whose members had strong ideological or sentimental ties with the “great Russian experiment,” took the news of the Prague trial and the arrest of the Moscow physicians.

From the American Scene: Madame Vishnak and the Victrola
by Morris Freedman
Subject for a Ph.D. thesis: why did operatic music monopolize the cultural horizons of the Jewish immigrant from East Europe up to about twenty years ago? In this genre sketch Morris Freedman draws detail from the mysterious world about him in his boyhood, and offers us a freehand composite of a not often recorded side of Jewish life on the American scene.

Cedars of Lebanon: Letter to His Translator
by Maimonides
Moses son of Maimon, called Maimonides or Maimuni and also Rambam, born in Cordova, Spain, in 1135, was the greatest Jewish philosopher of the Middle Ages and a renowned physician.

On the Horizon: Passover on the Mountain
by M. Wankowicz
Twenty-Five hundred years ago the Samaritans embraced Judaism and at the same time cut themselves off from the Jews. Today the surviving remnant of this people, numbering only a few hundred, still maintain the religion and the rites which for them have remained unchanged, and which justify to them their right to consider themselves the true chosen of God.

The Study of Man: America's Ethnic Pattern
by Nathan Glazer
The fact that Americans are also— and in many cases, primarily—Germans, Italians, Poles, Jews, etc. is taken with deadly seriousness by the general mass of Americans, but tends rather to be ignored by contemporary writers on social problems, and perhaps more ignored by academic writers than by popular ones.

Socialism and American Life, edited by Donald Drew Egbert and Stow Persons
by Paul Kecskemeti
The Essence Of Socialism Socialism and American life. Edited by Donald Drew Egbert and Stow Persons. Princeton University Press. 2 vols., 790 pp.

Three Books on Germany
by Hal Lehrman
The German Problem Our Love Affair with Germany. by Hans Habe. Putnam. 247 pp. $3.00. The Return of Germany: A Tale of two Countries. by Norbert Muh-Len. Regnery.

A Group of Lincoln Books
by Edward Saveth
Aspects of Lincoln Abraham Lincoln: A Biography. by Benjamin P. Thomas. Knopf. 548 PP. #5.75. Impressions of Lincoln and the Civil War: A Foreigner”s Account. by Marquis Adolphe De Chambrun. Random House.

Meine Kinder, by Lena Kuechler
by Marcia Allentuck
Children of Poland Meine Kinder (“My Children”). by Lena Kuechler. Editions U.P.J., Paris. 336 pp.   The modern parallel to Aycha, the Book of Lamentations, has come to be known by the Yiddish term Churh'n-Literatur.

Always the Young Strangers, by Carl Sandburg
by Isa Kapp
Midwest American Always The Young Strangers. by Carl Sandburg. Harcourt, Brace. 445 pp. $5.00.   If we look back at Henry James's ironic and affectionate portrait of The American, we find a hero surprisingly like Carl Sandburg: a restless man who covered a great deal of ground, had few personal aversions, was fond of statistics, and eyed the world steadily but without sophistication.

Reader Letters April 1953
by Our Readers
Bowery Days To THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Samuel S. Cohen's account of his "Recre- ational Enterprise on the Bowery" (November 1952) with his select clientele of pickpockets, pimps, and petty-larceny grafters, was delight- ful reading for its piquant mixture of inno- cence and realism.

May, 1953Back to Top
Community
by Our Readers
To the Editor All I can say after reading your magazine for the first time is splendid. It is unique, refreshing, and above all, necessary. If every succeeding issue is anything like your February 1953 number, you will never lose this reader.

Errata
by Our Readers
To the Editor I would like to call attention to several instances of errata in Mr. Steven Marcus's article, “Terrors of Yoknapatawpha and Fairfield,” in the December 1952 issue of COMMENTARY.

Rejoinder by Professor Handlin
by Our Readers
To the Editor I regret the necessity that has compelled Professor MacIver to write in response to my recent article. Yet he is, in part, responsible for events that have had the most disruptive consequences in Jewish communal life.

Professor Maclver Demurs
by Our Readers
To the Editor In the issue of Commentary for December 1952, Professor Handlin reflects on a subject of great significance, the place of authority in voluntary groups, and, as we would expect, his reflections on the general theme are well-considered and salutary.

The Liberals' Political Road Back:
The Days of Reform From Above Are Over

by Robert Bendiner
What are the prospects of liberalism in the present era and under the present administration? What are the chances for a remobilization of the forces of social reform, which most observers agree are at the moment at low ebb? Robert Bendiner reports here on the state of mind of the liberals, and on program and strategy that he finds crystallizing in Washington, New York, and other centers of reformist politics; he writes as one who believes that the fate and achievements of liberalism have been perforce—and will in all likelihood remain—identified with the Democratic party.  _____________     Speculation about the political future of American liberalism in the next few years realistically begins, if it does not end, with the outlook for the Democratic party.

Was Malenkov Behind the Anti-Semitic Plot?
The Doctors' Frame-up and Its Reversal

by Franz Borkenau
From its inception, many of the keenest political writers on Soviet affairs were convinced that the new official anti-Semitism was connected with some power intrigue within the regime, as well as with a turn in relations with the world outside.

“The Pleasure of the Fishes”
by Marvin Solomon
I am suspicious of snap decisions. So, I can never make up my mind. Unfortunately, I always see the two sides to Every question—and both at once.

Jewish Education Must Be Religious Education:
How to Begin in This Age of Doubt

by Arthur Hertzberg
The education of young American Jews is one of the most perplexing problems the American Jewish community has to face.

A White Liberal Trapped by His Prejudices:
Riot Draws the Lines in Kimberley

by Dan Jacobson
DAN JACOBSON here evokes for us the painful inner distress of the man of good will, brought up among the fires of race hatred, who cannot purge himself entirely of his prejudices, and indeed can find no practical way to take a stand independent of prejudice once violence has drawn the line.

Has Tito's Regime Gone Democratic?
A First-hand Observer Appraises the Changes

by Maurice Goldbloom
Only a few short years ago (in 1946, to be exact) Tito was shooting down American planes and outshouting all the Soviet satellites in his denunciation of “Anglo-American imperialism.” Then came the break with Stalin in 1948 and Yugoslavia's running jump over the Iron Curtain.

Professor Toynbee Surrenders the West:
Do the Facts Justify This Defeatism?

by G. Hudson
Since Bertrand Russell in 1948 gave the first Reith Lectures over the BBC under the title “Authority and the Individual,” these broadcast lectures have become almost a national institution in Great Britain.

The Life and Art of Modigliani
Behind His Unique Vision

by Alfred Werner
The mixture of fact and fancy that makes up the standard biography of Amedeo Modigliani, the Italian Jewish painter and sculptor who was one of the shining lights of the school of Paris in its halcyon days and whose reputation today looks greater than ever, here receives a thorough sifting.

The Beginning of the Journey
An Autobiographical Story

by Jacob Twersky
I was four years old when I came down with scarlet fever and complications. For a long time I lay dazed, and then my mind began to clear and I was afraid I had the measles again.

From the American Scene: Boston's Jewish Community: Earlier Days
by Charles Reznikoff
Charles Reznikoff here adds the Jewish community of Boston to COMMENTARY's gallery of American Jewish community “portraits”—which has so far included the communities of Richmond, San Francisco, Montreal, New Haven, and various other cities.

Cedars of Lebanon: The Wisdom of Koheleth
by Robert Gordis
If Renan is to be believed, the Book of Ecclesiastes is the most charming book ever written by a Jew.

On the Horizon: Ramadan Sundown with Modern Improvements
by Ray Alan
Modern science and technology meet with ancient Islamic tradition in this little tale of the Mysterious Near East, where all confusions resolve themselves at last in the Ultimate Unity.

Exodus in Spring
by Pamela Melnikoff
Death came to Pharaoh's Egypt with the spring. Years afterwards, the first warm, lingering day Still made his people mourn, remembering How April snatched their first-born sons away. Death came to Egypt with the early showers— Unheralded—and like a beggar crept Along the highways, through the opening flowers, Plundering serfs and princes as they slept. And watchful Israel, saddled to await The dawn departure, heard a dreadful cry Borne on the winds, and paused beside the gate That opened to the East, and wondered why.

Study of Man: The Colonial System of the USSR
by Hugh Seton-Watson
Perhaps no theme of Communist propaganda, as Hugh Seton-Watson here points out, has withstood so well the disillusionment of Communist practice as the claim that in Soviet Russia a great number of national groups are encouraged to pursue an independent cultural life.

Containment or Liberation? by James Burnham
by Norman Thomas
Liberation—but How? Containment Or Liberation? By James Burnham John Day. 254 pp. $3.50   The sum total of James Burnham's philosophy puzzles me.

The Old Testament: Keystone of Human Culture, by William A. Irwin
by Theodor Gaster
Jewish Bible and Civilization The Old Testament: Keystone of Human Culture By William A. Irwin. Schuman. 293 pp. $4.00   Most people take it for granted that the teachings of the Old Testament are one of the prime foundations of Western religion and ethics; yet there are few who would be able to set down on paper just what the Old Testament teaches about God, man, and the world, or in what way its teachings are distinctive and unique.

Arrow in the Blue, by Arthur Koestler
by Martin Greenberg
Hot Head, Cold Heart Arrow In The Blue By Arthur Koestler. Macmillan. 353 pp. $5.00   In setting out to write his autobiography, of which this is the first volume, Arthur Koestler first retrospectively cast his “secular horoscope”—i.e., he looked up the issue of the London Times of the morning following his birth, which took place in Budapest on September 5, 1905, to see what constellation of events was then in the ascendant.

Ex-Prodigy: My Childhood and Youth, by Norbert Wiener
by Gertrude Himmelfarb
The Making of Prodigies Ex-Prodigy: My Childhood And Youth By Norbert Wiener Simon and Schuster. 309 pp. $3.95   One of the famous exhibits in the 19th century's showcase of infant prodigies is the four-year-old Macaulay who, when asked how he was feeling after having been scalded, replied: “Thank you, madam, the agony is abated.” The average modern reader is probably more appalled than amused by this remark, torn between sentiments of incredulity and pity: incredulity that the boy did in fact speak in the well-rounded sentences of the cultivated gentleman, and pity for any child unhappy enough to speak in such sentences.

America and the Intellectuals. A Symposium
by Oscar Handlin
Intellectuals' Homecoming America And The Intellectuals. A Symposium. Partisan Review Series, Number Four. 118 pp. $1.00. This collection of essays evokes immediate surprise.

In the Nazi Era, by Sir Lewis Namier; and Dramatische Tage in Hitlers Reich, by Erwin Wickert
by H. Trefousse
Germany: A New Myth? In The Nazi Era By Sir Lewis Namier New York, St. Martin's Press. 204 pp. $2.50 Dramatische Tage In Hitlers Reich By Erwin Wickert Stuttgart, Steingrüben Verlag.

Reader Letters May 1953
by Our Readers
Professor MacIver Demurs TO THE EDITOR o COMMENTARY: In the issue of COMMENTARY for December 1952, Professor Handlin reflects on a subject of great significance, the place of authority in voluntary groups, and, as we would expect, his reflections on the general theme are well- considered and salutary.

June, 1953Back to Top
Mr. Cooke Answers
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Below please find a copy of the reply that I sent directly to Archdeacon Cyril V. Roberts of St.

The Archdeacon Objects
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am grateful to you for sending me the January 1953 edition of your COMMENTARY if only for the fact that it gives me the opportunity of wholly disclaiming the statement attributed to me in C.

Mr. Lehrman Replies
by Our Readers
To the Editor: One recent convivial afternoon Miss Freda Utley, who finds Mr. Muhlen's book flawless and, as is well known, writes, speaks, and testifies with passionate restraint, said about this reviewer: “Oh, him!

Is There a West German Menace?
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I think that Hal Lehrman has misread my book, The Return of Germany: A Tale of Two Countries, which he reviewed in COMMENTARY (April 1953).

Do Silent Witnesses Defend Civil Liberties?
The Course of “Profoundest Wisdom”

by Alan Westin
Alan F. Westin, a graduate of the Harvard Law School and a member of the bar in the District of Columbia, here takes up the knotty question of the silent witnesses—those persons summoned before Congressional committees investigating Communism who have refused to testify, on constitutional grounds, and who have thus posed a ticklish problem for defenders of civil liberties.

St. Helena
by Sol Stein
In the beginning God, in seven days The earth and such Then nothing. A giant wombed In the South Atlantic Thrust his face Through surface glass Howled defiant Words at water Water water Died.

The Affair of the Finaly Children:
France Debates a Drama of Faith and the Family

by Nicolas Baudy
Not since the Dreyfus case has an issue affecting Jews stirred France as has the Finaly “Affaire,” which, after incubating for eight years, burst suddenly upon the world with the disappearance of two little Jewish boys in the southwestern corner of France this past winter.

The Plight of Our Culture:
Industrialism and Class Mobility

by Clement Greenberg
One of the “big” issues today is the direction in which machine-age culture is headed—the heights or the depths? Clement Greenberg, in this two-part article, which takes off from an analysis of T.

A Young Frenchman Discovers America:
Some Notes After a Year in New York

by Michel Fougeres
Reporting to their compatriots on the state of our nation and national character, recent intellectual visitors from overseas have for the most part repainted in darker hues the traditional negative stereotypes.

Religious Modernism Stirs in Israel:
Orthodoxy Faces a Challenge of Faith

by Judd Teller
The pressing mundane troubles that beset the State of Israel have naturally monopolized the attention of most observers of the Israeli scene, both in that country and elsewhere.

Germany, Center of The “Peace Offensive”:
Is an East-West Settlement Possible?

by George Lichtheim
With the Russian “peace offensive” in full swing, sowing the usual mixed crop of hope, skepticism, and confusion, George Lichtheim here surveys the international scene with a view to the possibilities of an East-West settlement of at least some of the chief issues of the cold war.

Israeli Painting: After Twenty-Five Years
A Report on Progress

by William Schack
American interest in Israeli painting has been stimulated recently by a succession of one-man shows by Israeli artists in New York, and now by a large group exhibition opening at the Metropolitan Museum of Art on June 14 after a tour of other cities.

The Box
A Story

by Dan Jacobson
My brother and I kept homing pigeons for many years. We had a hok at the bottom of the back yard, and were members of the Lyndhurst Junior Homing Pigeon Society.

From the American Scene: We Advance, Singing
by Ruth Iglehart
The Jewish passion for education struck out in many directions once the traditional cheder pattern found itself exposed to the free air of America.

Cedars of Lebanon: The Banquet of God
by Theodor Gaster
The Aramaic poem Akdamuth is one of the most famous elements of the traditional morning service on the first day of the Feast of Weeks.

On the Horizon: The Juggler: Hollywood in Israel
by Nathan Glick
Although Hollywood has not entirely ignored the existence of the State of Israel, Stanley Kramer's production The Juggler, now going the rounds of American theaters, represents the first really ambitious effort in American films to make cinematic use of the landscape and social problems of the young country.

The Study of Man: How Discriminatory Are College Admissions?
by Morton Clurman
Morton Clurman here reports on a recent large-scale study of prejudice which was undertaken by the Roper organization to determine whether colleges discriminate against Jewish applicants.

Shame and Glory of the Intellectuals, by Peter Viereck
by Robert Davis
Ideologue in the Middle Shame and Glory of the Intellectuals. by Peter Viereck. Beacon Press. 320 pp. $4.00.   Mr. Viereck's indispensable book might also be subtitled: “The Cold War Debater's Manual,” or “Guide to Correct Thinking on All Fundamental Questions.” It takes its pattern from the polarities, the recurrent contraries of contemporary intellectual debate, wherever this debate is influenced by, or exacerbated by, the all-embracing polarity of West against East.

In the Morning Light, by Charles Angoff
by Sylvia Rothchild
Freedom's Deadly Fruit In The Morning Light. by Charles Angoff. Beechhurst. 736 pp. $4.50.   In The Morning Light is the second of Charles Angoff's books about the Polansky family, immigrants from a small village in Russia who settled in Boston.

Ancient Judaism, by Max Weber
by Ralph Marcus
The Ancients Ancient Judaism. by Max Weber. Translated and edited by Hans H. Gerth and Don Martindale. The Free Press. 484 pp. $4.00.   One of my donnish professors used to say that when good German theories die they go to Oxford.

The American Temper: Patterns of Our Intellectual Heritage, by Richard D. Mosier
by Daniel Boorstin
What Is American Thought? The American Temper: Patterns of Our Intellectual Heritage. by Richard D. Mosier. University of California Press. 306 pp. $5.00.   At least since the 18th century, when Crèvecoeur came here from France and asked, What is an American? students of our culture have looked for the characteristically American.

Such, Such Were the Joys, by George Orwell
by Irving Howe
The Integrity of George Orwell Such, Such Were The Joys. by George Orwell. Harcourt, Brace. 230 pp. $3.50.   Each time another posthumous book by Orwell appears one is depressed at remembering that it has been stitched together from stray remnants; and then, impressed at how well those remnants keep.

Reader Letters June 1953
by Our Readers
TO THE EDITOR oF COMMENTARY: I think that Hal Lehrman has misread my book, The Return of Germany: A Tale of Two Countries, which he reviewed in COMMENTARY (April 1953).

July, 1953Back to Top
Jewish Education
by Our Readers
To the Editor: “Jewish Education Must Be Religious Education” is the title of the interesting article in the May 1953 issue of COMMENTARY by Arthur Hertzberg.

Nippon and the Jews
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As a survivor of three years of Japanese occupation of the Philippines, the psychological warfare of the “charming and able” (no doubt) Captain Inuzuka, and the naval warfare of Admiral Yamamoto, I feel that the article published in COMMENTARY entitled “Nipponese-Jewish Friendship League” (April 1953) calls for some comment.

The American Faith
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Professor Boorstin's provocative article in your April issue (“Our Unspoken National Faith”) needs a good deal of clarification. The American nation is of course very young, but the American people are as old as any other people on this planet.

Rosenzweig and Original Sin
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his letter on “Jewish Existentialism” (April 1953) Rabbi Milton H. Elefant finds it “amazing” that Franz Rosenzweig accepted “the thoroughly Christian and, from the Jewish point of view, utterly untenable theological position of the fallen state” of man, i.e., Original Sin. May I point out quite categorically that Rosenzweig's concept of Judaism does not include the doctrine of Original Sin.

Hitler
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I found it very painful to read Francis Golffing's article on Hitler (“What Manner of Man Was Hitler?” February 1953).

Mr. Warshow Replies
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Rothman's letter seems to me another example of the confused and unsubstantial “liberalism” that I attempted to analyze in my article.

“The Crucible”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: “Bravo” for Mr. Miller. Mr. Warshow's review of The Crucible in the March issue of COMMENTARY has quite convinced me of the excellence of the play.

Mr. Lichtheim Replies
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Ian Mikardo seems to take himself unwarrantably seriously. Having watched his antics from fairly close quarters for the last seven years, I have reached the conclusion that they are worth reporting only in connection with something else.

The “Bevanites” and Russia
by Our Readers
To the Editor Mr. George Lichtheim, writing in your March issue on “Will Soviet Anti-Semitism Teach the Lesson?” refers to my friend Aneurin Bevan and to myself in grossly inaccurate terms. He mentions Mr.

Is the Free West in Decline?
History's Verdict” in Perspective

by Hans Kohn
“The decline of the West” is a theme so harped upon in late years that it is on the way to becoming considered an established truth, indeed almost an axiom for all enlightened people, together with the parallel motif that democracy is losing its grip.

Can Eisenhower Form a Government?
He's Learning, and He Keeps His Popular Support

by Harold Lavine
Who likes Ike? Well, nobody, really, Harold Lavine suggests here—except only the voters, with whom Eisenhower is still at least as popular as he was last November.

Jewish Giving Is Coming of Age:
1953 Trends Show a New Stability and Constructiveness

by Hal Lehrman
At this middle point in the Jewish fund-raising year, Hal Lehrman reports that earlier forebodings of a drying up of the wells of philanthropy, now that the shocks and emergencies of the Hitler period have abated, have proved illusory, and that this year is likely to be the first since 1948 to show an over-all increase as compared with the preceding year.

A French Lady on the Dark Continent:
Simone de Beauvoir's Impressions of America

by William Phillips
Simone De Beauvoir, whose The Second Sex is now offering us in all the bookstores a compendious highbrow low-down on women, wrote an earlier book, not yet published in this country, into which she distilled the existential facts of American life as she was able to observe them in a four months' tour of this country in 1948.

Chaim Soutine, A Painter
by Thomas Brumbaugh
Bought from a butcher, a carcass of beef Which he hanged in his room. He waited for, watched, And then painted the pulsing nacre of decay, Recorded the blue and green-brown and purple bubbles, The hissing iridescent pools of bottle flies, Modulating the torn-red-into-raw-brown flesh, The oozing banks of ashy fat, bordering the thick black lakes. Dangling strings and tubes, like an obscene fin de siècle fringe, Hanging on the heart, trembled slightly when the wind Washed the room and carried to the neighbors in Montmartre, Warm and suffocating news of the condition humaine. “And the thing stinks, Chaim,” they said smiling, thinking: He could not understand because they thought him mad. One suggested a shot of some preservative.

Growing Up Between Two Worlds:
Reflections of the Child of a Mixed Marriage

by Richard Goldhurst
In The March 1953 issue of COMMENTARY, the British writer Emanuel Litvinoff told us of the problems he faced as the Jewish husband of a Gentile wife with two offspring to bring up.

Can Stalin Have a Successor?
Why the Dictator's Shoes Cannot Be Filled

by Paul Willen
A totalitarian regime without a totalitarian leader is unprecedented in modern history. But as yet Stalin has had no heir, as the events of the four months following his death have made clear; to date, we have the triumvirate of Malenkov, Beria, and Molotov, with the single successor to the dictator still to emerge.

Best-Dressed Kid on the Block
A Story

by Eliot Wagner
“I'm a flower,” said Marcie Jane Klonsky, “and rain is falling on me.” She gazed up at her fingers waggling overhead: the raindrops.

Work and Leisure Under Industrialism:
The Plight of Our Culture: Part II

by Clement Greenberg
The first half of this two-part article, taking off from an examination of T. S. Eliot's Notes Towards the Definition of Culture, argued that the problems of culture in our time had been vastly complicated by the Industrial Revolution.

The Businessman
by David Ignatow
I said to her, Please make your bands tighter; and she smiled at me. I could have spoken more gently, upset as I was about business, but still she could smile; and I was angry at myself for having forgotten that she too went home and spoke to her family of the day's work and would have harsh things to say about it, if she permitted herself; but she could smile only to preserve her balance and to recall me to my own; she did not want to go home angry. _____________  

From the American Scene: McCaffrey's Bar and Grill
by Donald Paneth
Donald Paneth draws a portrait of “McCaffrey's,” one of New York's hundreds of bars and grills where a large section of the citizenry repairs any evening for a short beer or a few beers or something stronger, a conversation or an argument, happily unaware that they have lately become objects of solicitude to the sociologists and critics of culture who worry about how we are spending our “new” leisure.

Cedars of Lebanon: The Revelation of Neilah
by Aime Palliere
A convert to Judaism, and yet no apostate from his native Catholicism—it is in some such paradoxical terms that one is forced to describe Aimé Pallière, one of the most singular figures in modern religious history.

On the Horizon: Goldstein on Bullheads, Larshi on Pike
by Lucy Dawidowicz
In the sport of fishing, as everyone knows, there is a worm at one end of the line and a fool at the other.

The Study of Man: The Cave Scrolls and the Jewish Sects
by H. Ginsberg
The ancient scrolls found six years ago at Khirbet Qumran near the Dead Sea—three examples of which are at present on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in the current exhibition of Biblical archaeology—and similar finds made subsequently in the same area, constitute discoveries of incalculable value for the history and archaeology of Palestine.

Heresy, Yes-Conspiracy, No, by Sidney Hook
by Robert Fitch
Freedom and Responsibility Heresy, Yes—Conspiracy, No. By Sidney Hook. John Day. 283 pp. $3.75.   For the thoughtful person, reading something by Sidney Hook means an encounter with a mind informed by the social sciences, well disciplined in philosophy, sensitive to the best values in democracy, and intelligently alert to the contemporary issues which define the problems of the day.

The Guilt Makers, by David Weiss
by Midge Decter
Orphans of Guilt The Guilt Makers. by David Weiss. Rinehart. 315 pp. $3.50.   David Weiss has chosen in this first novel to do battle for mankind.

Harold Laski, by Kingsley Martin
by George Lichtheim
Labour's Bright Comet Harold Laski. By Kingsley Martin. Viking. 278 pp. $4.00.   During the election campaign of 1945 there was a moment when both sides seriously imagined that the Conservatives might come back to power by exploiting the “Laski bogey,” i.e., the alleged power of Harold Laski, as chairman of the Labor party executive in that year, to dominate the policies of a Socialist government.

Blanket Boy, by Peter Lanham and A. S. Mopeli-Paulus
by Dan Jacobson
White Men and Cheetahs Blanket Boy. By Peter Lanham and A. S. Mopeli-Paulus. Thomas Y. Crowell. 309 pp. $3.50.   Blanket Boy is quite an enjoyable book to read, but it can hardly be considered a serious contribution either to the art of the novel or to the study of race relations in South Africa.

Four Anthologies of Avant-Garde Writing
by Seymour Krim
“New” Writing, Old and New The Little Review Anthology. Edited by Margaret Anderson. Hermitage House. 383 pp. $3.95. New Directions 14. New Directions. 408 pp.

Reader Letters July 1953
by Our Readers
The "Bevanites" and Russia TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Mr. George Lichtheim, writing in your March issue on "Will Soviet Anti-Semitism Teach the Lesson?" refers to my friend Aneurin Bevan and to myself in grossly inaccurate terms. He mentions Mr.

August, 1953Back to Top
“The Juggler”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Nathan Glick's perceptive review of The Juggler (“Hollywood in Israel,” June 1953) mentions several similarities to My Father s House, naming me as the producer of the latter.

Jewish Education
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Rabbi Arthur Hertzberg's recent contribution to Commentary (“Jewish Education Must Be Religious Education,” May 1953) on the subject of Jewish religious education .

Eisenhower and the Conservative Revolution:
The Dream That Is Not to Be

by J. Galbraith
Through twenty long years of big government, “interference” with business, and lopsided budgets, the Republican opposition—or at least its most vocal spokesmen—dreamt longingly of a return to a laissez-faire, small-government, low-tax economy.

The Berlin Events: Cold War Turning Point?
A First-Hand Report of the Uprising

by John McCormick
When that dream which has haunted Marxists for a hundred years, of a spontaneous popular uprising with workers massed in the forefront, again took on actuality in the form that had been classically envisaged by Marx himself, in East Berlin this past June—it was ironically against a regime that claims to be Marx's proletarian government in the flesh.

Our Jewish Community Pattern and Its Critics:
Why Single, Central Authority Is Not For Us

by Milton Himmelfarb
Most intellectualizing about the American Jewish community continues to be cast in terms of severe self-criticism, blueprints for wholesale reconstruction, and invidious comparisons with other times and other lands, as seems to be the ingrained habit with Jews—and Americans generally—when they examine the modes and structure of their informal social organization.

The Anti-Communism of Senator McCarthy:
It Slays More Friends Than Foes

by James Rorty
Few members of Congress have within living memory engrossed so large a portion of the daily press as has Senator McCarthy of Wisconsin over the past two and a half years.

Jonas, My Old Friend
A Story

by Mark Raven
This reminiscence of his youth by an English economist and civil servant who writes under a pseudonym evokes the tragedy of all those who try to stand alone in life without other support than the powers of their own minds.

The Hasidim
by Chayym Zeldis
On instruments not of this world the Hasidim are playing in temporal eternity ai the dust trembles in time to stars           ai              ai                ai the pyramids are melting, achim the sunbeams streaming           out              of                Egypt Hah! “We would ye dance with us, brothers— “the soul is as an orb “the heart a far and splendid field— “ai     brothers, “come out “from silence:                     dance!” _____________  

The Hard Road to Israeli Self-Dependence:
Facing Up to the Grim Economic Realities

by Schlomo Riemer
If the prime essential of a sound democracy is free, candid, and untrammeled public discussion and criticism of official policies—political, economic, or social—the Israelis surely qualify.

Literature and the “Spiritual Crisis”:
Must the Creative Artist Have Religion?

by Norman Podhoretz
In the recent publication of a 298-page symposium entitled Spiritual Problems in Contemporary Literature (Harper, $3.00), Norman Podhoretz finds occasion to examine our growing tendency to regard religion or a religious context as a sine qua non for literature, and he tries here to recall to us what he believes to be the true functions of literature and literary criticism.

The Vienna of the Departed:
The Tale the Old Cemetery Tells

by Robert Pick
Negotiations for Austrian restitution to the victims of Nazi persecutions are now under way, and this account of a native son's return to the ruins of the once proud Jewish community of Vienna underlines the tragedy involved.

From the American Scene: My Debut with Madame Vishnak
by Morris Freedman
Morris Freedman introduced Madame Vishnak to us in the April 1953 COMMENTARY (“Madame Vishnak and the Victrola”). Here that lady appears once more, still embodying in her every gesture the idea of culture—and her young admirer finds himself still intoxicated.

Cedars of Lebanon: Prayers of Penitence
by Theodor Gaster
On each of the Jewish festivals and Holy Days —and likewise on many Sabbaths—the traditional services of the synagogue are embellished or tricked out by special poetic compositions known as piyyutim. In the Sephardic liturgy, these are drawn mainly from the work of the Hebrew poets who flourished in Spain during the 11th and 12th centuries, and whose most famous representatives are Solomon ibn Gabirol of Malaga (1021-1069), Moses ibn Ezra of Granada (1070-1138) and Judah Halevi of Toledo (1085-1145).

On the Horizon: Bible-Age Relics and Jewish Art
by Leo Steinberg
In our June issue William Schack reviewed the exhibition of a group of leading Israeli painters now being held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, under the sponsorship of the American Fund for Israel Institutions.

The Study of Man: The Role of Brains in the Total State
by Daniel Lerner
Readers of this column are already acquainted with the Hoover Institute's Studies in the Revolution of Our Time, some of the first of which were reviewed here in July 1952 by Richard Crossman.

The Genius of American Politics, by Daniel J. Boorstin
by Robert Davis
How Unique Is America? The Genius of American Politics. by Daniel J. Boorstin. University of Chicago Press. 202 pp. $3.25.   The chapters of this short, pertinent, and upsetting hook were first presented as lectures at the University of Chicago under the Walgreen Foundation.

Where Peoples Meet: Ethnic and Racial Frontiers, by Everett C. Hughes and Helen M. Hughes
by Arthur Mann
Peoples Meeting Everywhere Where Peoples Meet: Ethnic And Racial Frontiers. by Everett C. Hughes and Helen M. Hughes. The Free Press. 204 pp.

Israel Between East and West: A Study in Human Relations, by Raphael Patai
by Aleph Sherman
Israeli Culture Israel Between East And West: A Study In Human Relations. by Raphael Patai. The Jewish Publication Society of America. 340 pp.

Early American Jewry, by Jacob R. Marcus
by Oscar Handlin
Jews In The Colonial Era Early American Jewry. by Jacob R. Marcus. Jewish Publication Society of America. Vol. I, 301 pp, $3-50. Vol.

A Treasury of Jewish Letters, edited by Franz Kobler
by Jacob Sloan
The Beard is Not the Jew A Treasury of Jewish Letters. Edited by Franz Kobler. Farrar, Straus and Young. 2 vols., 750 pp.

Reader Letters August 1953
by Our Readers
Jewish Education TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Rabbi Arthur HIertzberg's recent contribu- tion to COMMENTARY ("Jewish Education Must Be Religious Education," May 1953) on the subject of Jewish religious education .

September, 1953Back to Top
Youth of all Nations
by Our Readers
To the Editor: One appeal from an Ohio member of Youth of All Nations, and one from a “YOAN-er” in Kiriat Borocov, Israel, prompt, in turn, this appeal to readers of COMMENTARY to extend the value of that excellent magazine. Linda of Ohio (age fifteen) writes how happy she was at seeing, after quite a wait, an envelope from a letter-pal in Israel.

Ancient Jewish Art
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In Leo Steinberg's “Bible Age Relics and Jewish Art” (August) are drawn startling conclusions about the art of the ancient Jews.

The Vienna Cemetery
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Robert Pick in “The Vienna of the Departed” (August) refers to the custom of Jewish expellees “in the Middle Ages” of trying to protect their cemeteries from destruction.

Silent Witnesses
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Alan F. Westin believes that “complete responsiveness” to the prying of Congressional inquisitors—even to the naming of names of former acquaintances whose loyalty has not hitherto been placed under suspicion—is the course of “profoundest wisdom” (“Do Silent Witnesses Defend Civil Liberties,” June 1953).

Prospects at the Far Eastern Peace Table:
The Thorny Problem of Red China and Formosa

by G. Hudson
The United States, G. F. Hudson here points out, is about to enter for the first time a peace conference following upon a war it has not won.

The Sundering of Israel and American Jewry:
Has the New State Rejected Its Jewish Past?

by Maurice Samuel
Even in a world where misunderstanding and recrimination between peoples, even the most friendly and allied, are only too familiar, rifts in sympathy and mutual respect between—of all peoples!—the Israelis and the Jews outside Israel have been peculiarly distressing.

What is the “Right” Up to?:
A Look at Their Record in Congress

by Maurice Goldbloom
The first session of a Republican-organized Congress under a Republican Administration in twenty-two years has come and gone, and the Republic still stands more or less as it stood in the days of Roosevelt and Truman, despite the fears of many liberals that the right would rapidly refashion the country closer to its heart's desire.

Flight From God--and Return:
A Modern Commentary on the Book of Jonah

by Ernst Simon
This modern commentary on the book of Jonah was given as a sermon for the Day of Atonement by Ernst Simon a year ago to the congregation of Emeth V'Emunah in Jerusalem.

Dutchman, Jew, Piccanin
A Story

by Dan Jacobson
We had spent the day on the farm, as we usually did, every Sunday. Rather a dull day it had been, I remember, in April, too cold to go swimming in the river, and there had been nothing much else to do except sit in the car and watch my father as he helped the boys round up the cattle driven down from the veld, and then walk through them, stick in hand, prodding their sides, stopping to discuss at length what to do about the heifer going blind in one eye, or what a pity it was that this miserable beast should be in calf again when what it needed was a long rest.

Possessions
by David Ignatow
All day in a circle around you they stand waiting: car, house, wife, child, job. Your back turned on one, it jumps you; you fall flat to the ground, it on top.

The “Great Books” and a Liberal Education:
Must All Free Men Read Them—Or Be Slaves?

by F. Leavis
Part of the American faith is that all men must have the opportunity to develop their fullest potentialities, and as a natural outgrowth of that faith it has been felt by many that the values of liberal education, instead of being confined to a limited and selected group, as in European countries, should belong to all citizens of a democracy.

Can We Stay Jews Outside “the Land”?:
An Exchange

by David Gurion
No problem concerns the thinking Jew today more than that of the nature of the new State of Israel—and as a corollary, its relation to himself as the citizen of another state; and there is, besides, Israel's relation to him as an adherent of a common faith and a member of a world community over both of which, he notes with some concern, some Israeli spokesmen tend to make claims of primacy and authority.

Broadway Takes Refuge in Childhood:
No Adult Drama in Sight

by Henry Popkin
The American theater, Henry Popkin tells us, perhaps never outstandingly notable for the maturity of its values, has lately been engaged in wholesale and headlong flight from reality into the world of childish fantasy.

From the American Scene: The Story of Josef Neuberger
by Sylvia Rothchild
Sylvia Rothchild's grandfather was one of the millions who left the hard life of 19th-century Europe to find a new life, by no means easy, in America.

Cedars of Lebanon: Poems of the Festivals
by Theodor Gaster
Yom Kippur is more than a Day of Atonement on which individuals purge their sins by the threefold process of introspection, confession, and regeneration.

On the Horizon: Sholom Aleichem: Jewishness Is Jews
by Norman Podhoretz
Last month Norman Podhoretz discussed in our pages (“Literature and the ‘Spiritual Crisis’”) the current tendency to regard religion and literature as comrades-in-arms in a common struggle against that “loss of values” which seems to so many people to lie at the root of all our troubles.

Study of Man: German Historians' Verdict on Hitler
by H. Trefousse
H. L. Trefousse here reviews a collection of books on the Second World War recently published in Germany, with a view to discovering whether fears of the rise of a new “stab-in-the-back” myth in which Hitler and his Nazi gang might be absolved of responsibility for Germany's cataclysmic defeat are justified.  _____________   One of the gravest dangers faced by democratic elements in Germany in 1945 was the possible revival of a Hitler myth.

Du, Meine Welt
(Schubert)

by Dachine Rainer
And you my nightingale world, sing In the green gardens: live in Persian paintings Lush, minute, intense. O you world, frolicking Down the huge galleries of eternity When the seas rise and the drowning moon swims toward shore On your feasting lips rock and couple with the burning stars How I do praise thee, Lord, for thy slow fires and my long dying. The stars are radiant and the pursuing heaven their shining Continent.

America First: The Battle Against Intervention; 1940-41, by Wayne S. Cole
by Nathan Glazer
The Geography of Isolationism America First: The Battle Against Intervention; 1940-41. by Wayne S. Cole. University of Wisconsin, 305 pp., $3.50.   This book, the first full-length study of the America First Committee, describes events that took place only a dozen years ago, and in the full blaze of publicity.

The Captive Mind, by Czeslaw Milosz
by Paul Kecskemeti
Coercion From Within The Captive Mind. by Czeslaw Milosz. Knopf. 288 pp. $3.50.   One of the basic ideas put forward in Czeslaw Milosz' extraordinary, noble, and frightening book is that even the best-informed Westerners in reality know nothing about what goes on behind the Iron Curtain.

Pan Slavism: Its History and Ideology, by Hans Kohn
by Bogdan Raditsa
From Japan to the Adriatic Pan-Slavism: Its History and Ideology. by Hans Kohn. University of Notre Dame Press. 356 pp. $6.25.   The Pan-Slavist idea goes back, not so much to Russia, as to Prague during the heyday of German Romanticism in the second quarter of the 19th century.

A Group of Recent Novels
by Stanley Hyman
Pseudo-Fictions The Hate Merchant. by Niven Busch. Simon and Schuster. 338 pp. $3.95. Simple Takes A Wife. by Langston Hughes. Simon and Schuster. 240 pp. $1.95. The Human Kind.

Maurice Ravel, by Victor I. Seroff; and Notes Without Music: An Autobiography, by Darius Milhaud
by Joseph Kerman
Two Post-Wagnerians Maurice Ravel. by Victor I. Seroff. Holt. 310 pp. $3.75. Notes Without Music: An Autobiography. by Darius Milhaud. Knopf. 355 pp. $5.00.   No other figure in the history of the arts has had a traumatic effect like that of Richard Wagner.

Make Me an Offer, by Wolf Mankowitz
by Morris Freedman
The Art of Business Make Me An Offer. by Wolf Mankowitz. Dutton. 94 pp. $2.00.   Essentially Wolf Mankowitz's quaint little book is a tough-guy detective story chase.

Reader Letters September 1953
by Our Readers
Silent Witnesses TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Alan F. Westin believes that "complete re- sponsiveness" to the prying of Congressional in- quisitors-even to the naming of names of former acquaintances whose loyalty has not hitherto been placed under suspicion-is the course of "profoundest wisdom" ("Do Silent Witnesses Defend Civil Liberties," June 1953).

October, 1953Back to Top
Appeal
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am very interested in keeping abreast of current events in Jewish life in America and in Israel. Before I was drafted, one of my main sources of information was COMMENTARY, which gave me a complete account of Jewish affairs in an interesting and unbiased manner. I am now stationed with the army in Iceland, and am completely detached from all happenings of current interest in Jewish affairs.

Writing and Intermarriage
by Our Readers
To the Editor: After reading my son's article “Growing Up Between Two Worlds” (July 1953)—and bearing in mind the writings of my other sons—I am tempted to add one thought to his conclusions on the problem of intermarriage (between Catholic and Jew): at least the union produces sons who can write for Commentary. H.

Labor and Laski
by Our Readers
To the Editor: May I comment briefly on George Lichtheim's statement in his review of Kingsley Martin's book on Harold Laski (July 1953): “Perhaps the fact that ‘power’ had irrevocably shifted to the other side of the Atlantic had something to do with the timidity [the British Labor Government] .

Gender
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Your description of Dachine Rainer as a “poetess” (September) makes me suspect that one of your editors has not overly concerned himself with the work of female poets after the Age of Victoria.

Who Is a Rightist?
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I enjoy reading Commentary, and compliment you on your broad-mindedness in publishing the article “What Is the Right Up To?” (September) by M.

Israel and God
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Is it not ironic that the people who belong among the elder statesmen of the old nations, who alone among the peoples have for centuries preached the doctrine of the unity of God and the brotherhood of man, should now be obsessed with an almost fetishistic concern with the State of Israel? The Canaanite cults described by Maurice Samuel (September) are horrifying illustrations of a morbid neo-tribalism.

Can We Save the Bill of Human Rights?
Opportunity for a New Start

by Max Beer
The United Nations was created to establish international solidarity against aggression, and to protect human rights internationally. People are prone to forget that the latter aim was once considered the primary one.

Why Israel Misunderstands American Jewry:
Some Ways of Closing the Rift

by Maurice Samuel
American Jewry by Israelis would create a real rift between the two leading Jewish communities of the world. Mr. Samuel here criticizes the Israeli view that denies the possibility of the survival of a decent Jewish life in the United States—and that indeed sees the only alternative to doom their wholesale migration to “the Jewish homeland.” He holds this to be in contradiction to Jewish history and tradition, and to the plain facts.    _____________   Two sets of forces play upon American and Israeli Jewries, one driving them apart, the other pulling them together.

The Bible and a Liberal Education:
Its Benefits, as Seen by an Unbeliever

by Spencer Brown
“The Bible as literature” has become virtually a term of abuse among those who deplore the absence of true, “hard” religious faith in the modern world.

Do We Leave the Russian Jews to Their Fate?
They Face Extinction, Unless

by Julius Margolin
More than 2,000,000 Jews live behind the Iron Curtain; of these some 1,800,000 are Russian Jews. Of late, the world has become aware that in addition to the “normal” regimentation and oppression that the Soviet regime visits on the life and culture of all minorities the Jewish group has been the victim of a special campaign or persecution, elimination from official posts, and deportation to slave labor camps.

“Bar Mitzvah”: A Story From the Soviet Index:
Published in Moscow, 1948

by Alexander Isbakh
Alexander Isbakh is (perhaps was) a Jewish fiction writer, critic, and journalist whose language is Russian, and who lives in Soviet Russia.

The East Side Gangsters of the Paper-Backs:
The “Jewish” Novels That Millions Buy

by Meyer Levin
In the July 1952 issue of COMMENTARY Henry Popkin took exception to the treatment of Jewish characters in the twenty-five cent editions of popular novels, pointing out that by some kind of unspoken agreement every effort was made to “de-Judaize” our mass entertainment.

The “Nouveau Riche” and Culture:
The Patron Through the Ages

by Alvin Johnson
Everybody knows that “new money” vulgarizes culture—and civilization is dependent on aristocratic wealth for the advancement of creative thought, art, and literature.

Glory Be to God for Dappled Things:
An Autobiographical Story

by Dannie Abse
June the first was our day of peace. It came in that year with all sunshine and the windows open and the neighbor's radio.

From the American Scene: Gittleson, Defender of the Faith
by S. Hecht
S. T. Hecht, our correspondent from Reedville, N. J., which lies west of the Hudson and not far from Hackensack, reports once again on the life of that far from tranquil community, where young and old struggle over which symbols and practices of the ancient faith should be observed on New Jersey soil.

Cedars of Lebanon: Philosophy in Hebrew Culture
by Simon Dubnow
Simon Dubnow was one of the leading intellectual figures of East European Jewry from the last decade of the 19th century until his death, at the age of eighty-one, at the hands of the Nazis in Riga in December 1941.

On the Horizon: The New Faith of the Saturday Evening Post
by Robert Brustein
The short stories in “America's best-loved magazine,” Robert S. Brustein finds, have displayed lately a new—or, rather, renewed— preoccupation with religion, and a religion of a peculiarly American quality.

Attempted Dialogue With My Grandfather
by Mortimer Slaiman
He Speaks first:         “I am sweet and careless with rosewater pomades slick the thick waves of my           widow's peak I love the gusto of my mustache, My stance is not meek. “In my pocket is a Nevada dollar a studded stickpin specks my vest and at my arm's crook levels a beaver's best.” So he spoke to me, this daguerreotype typical of his day, in a self-righteous bumbling, frightening, coarsifying way; and I anxiously hurried him out of focus, held the album off at arm's length, and asked him before he faded wherein lay his strength? I asked him as a forebear I asked that man that him who had journeyed far from Bucharest how to become Diamond Jim. He replied: “I am sweet and careless with rosewater.

The Study of Man: Jewish-Gentile Intermarriage: Facts and Trends
by Hershel Shanks
A recent study by the author as well as a collation of obscure and sometimes unpublished material enables Hershel Shanks to establish what is perhaps the most reliable estimate that has yet been published of Jewish intermarriage in America.

The Adventures of Augie March, by Saul Bellow
by Norman Podhoretz
The Language of Life The Adventures of Augie March. by Saul Bellow. Viking. 536 pp. $4.50.   At first sight, The Adventures of Augie March is very different from Dangling Man and The Victim, Saul's Bellow's first two novels.

Campus Gods on Trial, by Chad Walsh
by Will Herberg
Religion in the Colleges Campus Gods on Trial. by Chad Walsh. Macmillan. 138 pp. $2.50. Chad Walsh is poet in residence and professor of English at Beloit College; he is also a minister in the Episcopal Church.

Chagall, Text by Jacques Lassaigne; Soutine, Text by Raymond Cogniat
by Clement Greenberg
Two of the Moderns Chagall. Text by Jacques Lassaigne. Ten color plates including cover. Skira: Masterpieces of French Painting. $3.50. Soutine. Text by Raymond Cogniat.

The Enormous Radio and Other Stories, by John Cheever; Some Faces in the Crowd, by Budd Schulberg
by Morris Freedman
New England and Hollywood The Enormous Radio and Other Stories. By John Cheever. Funk and Wagnalls. 237 pp. $3.50. Some Faces in the Crowd. By Budd Schulberg. Random House.

The Refugee Intellectual, by Donald Peterson Kent; The Cultural Migration, ed. by W. Rex Crawford
by Herbert Gans
Europe's Loss, our Gain The Refugee Intellectual. By Donald Peterson Kent. Columbia University Press. 317 pp. $5.00. The Cultural Migration. Edited by W. Rex Crawford. University of Pennsylvania Press.

Reader Letters October 1953
by Our Readers
Israel and God TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Is it not ironic that the people who belong among the elder statesmen of the old nations, who alone among the peoples have for cen- turies preached the doctrine of the unity of God and the brotherhood of man, should now be obsessed with an almost fetishistic concern with the State of Israel? The Canaanite cults described by Maurice Samuel (September) are horrifying illustrations of a morbid neo-tribal- ism.

November, 1953Back to Top
Rejoinder
by Our Readers
To the Editor It is characteristic of Professor Patai that he should assume that my only knowledge of the Middle East was acquired in Israel, apparently because I did not introduce irrelevant autobiographical material.

Israel and Oriental Culture
by Our Readers
To the Editor In Mr. Aleph Sherman's review of my recent book Israel Between East and West (August 1953), a false picture of the attitude of Israeli social scientists towards Middle Eastern culture and the cultural configuration of modern Israel serves as a basis for misleading statements about my book and for an unwarranted personal attack on me.

Can We Free Eastern Europe Now?
Why Neither Liberation nor Settlement Seems in Sight

by Hugh Seton-Watson
The June 17 uprising in East Berlin, coupled with evidences of unrest in the satellites, seemed to many to open the possibility of loosening the Soviet Union's grip on Eastern Europe.

Jew in the Factory:
How He Looks to His Fellow Workers

by Warner Jr.
Warner Bloomberg, Jr. is not the only Jew ' who has ever worked in a steel mill; indeed, a number of Jewish fellow students from the University of Chicago have, for one reason or another, gone down to Gary to work in the large plants there.

The “Idealism” of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg:
The Kind of People We Are”

by Robert Warshow
The execution of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg has by no means ended the Communist propaganda campaign seeking their “vindication"— a campaign which, though not noticeably successful in this country, has had great effect in Europe where the facts of the case are of course less familiar to the mass of the population.

The Germans' Present Conservatism: Its Roots:
What The People Want

by Peter Schmid
The trouble outsiders have in interpreting events in Germany was made very evident by the recent German elections. Adenauer's triumph may indeed have set at rest fears that the Germans, after their total defeat, would embrace some form of extremism, either of the right or the left.

My War with Hersh Rasseyner
A Story

by Chaim Grade
We know of no story that so movingly and intimately evokes the inner intellectual and spiritual struggle of the East European generation that lived through the Hitler ordeal as this by Chaim Grade, one of the leading Yiddish poets of today.

Vergil, Hebrew Prophecy, and the Roman Ideal:
Aeneas as the Roman Moses

by Moses Hadas
Medieval Christianity claimed Vergil for its own, and Dante had the Roman poet accompany him to the very gates of Heaven on his journey through the other world.

Conservative Judaism Faces the Need of Change:
In What Direction, How Much, and How?

by Fritz Rothschild
“Conservative Judaism” is the religious movement whose ideological center is the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, whose congregations form the United Synagogue, and whose rabbis are members of the Rabbinical Assembly of America.

The American Negro in Search of Identity:
Three Novelists: Richard Wright, Ralph Ellison, James Baldwin

by Steven Marcus
Novels about Negro life, Steven Marcus tells us, even when written by Negroes, have too often carried over the stereotype of “darkest Africa,” a primitive vacuum without culture and without order.

From the American Scene: County Official
by Donald Paneth
The part the Jewish storekeeper has played as pioneer and missionary of civilization in the backwoods and on the frontiers of this country deserves to be better known than it is.

Cedars of Lebanon: How Shall We Know the Messiah?
by Maimonides
It is only fitting that this department should often turn to the writings of Maimonides, the great Jewish philosopher and sage, who was born in Cordova, Spain, in 1135.

On the Horizon: Where Yiddish Theater Lives On
by George Ross
Taking as his point of departure the celebration of the Yiddish Theater Diamond Jubilee a few months ago, George Ross tries to evoke the special qualities which have given the Yiddish theater vitality even when it has not reached a high artistic level, and which, finding their way by devious routes into the general American theater, have made a distinctive contribution to American drama.

The Study of Man: Is America Still the Land of Opportunity?
by William Petersen
William Petersen here reports on some of the most important studies that have been published by American sociologists in recent years, measuring the extent of American social mobility—the chances in our system for the individual to “rise out of his class” in income, occupation, and status.

The Redeemers: A Saga of the Years 1945-1952, by Leo W. Schwarz
by Lucy Dawidowicz
The Saving Remnant The Redeemers: A Saga of the Years 1945-1952. by Leo W. Schwarz. Farrar, Straus and Young. 385 pp. $4.50.   The “redeemers” in the title of Mr.

A Passage in the Night, by Sholem Asch
by Norman Podhoretz
The Interfaith Temperament A Passage in the Night. by Sholem Asch. Putnam. 367 pp. $3.75.   A Passage in the Night is not a good novel, but it does make all the talk heard for years about Asch's “apostasy” seem mere partisan claptrap.

Ernest Bevin, by Francis Williams
by T. Fyvel
Bevin of England Ernest Bevin. by Francis Williams. British Book Centre. 288 pp. $4.50.   When writing a biography of the late Field Marshal von Hindenburg, whose name loomed so large during the 1914-18 war, John Wheeler-Bennett, the English historian, found a telling title phrase which once and for all delineated the character of that mustachioed German soldier—“The Wooden Titan.” There is a temptation to apply a similar epithet to Ernest Bevin.

Apostles of Discord, by Ralph Lord Roy
by James Rorty
The Wreckers Apostles of Discord. by Ralph Lord Roy. Beacon. 374 pp. $3.75.   About a year ago, after the Slansky trial and the arrest in Moscow of the Jewish doctors, James H.

Travels in Jewry, by Israel Cohen; Under Strange Skies, by Harry Simonhoff
by Morris Freedman
Traveling Salesmen Travels in Jewry. by Israel Cohen. Dutton. 372 pp. $5.00. Under Strange Skies. By Harry Simonhoff. Philosophical Library. 349 pp. $3.50.   It is easy for the modern, freethinking Jew to lose whatever sense of Jewish continuity he may have.

Reader Letters November 1953
by Our Readers
Israel and Oriental Culture TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: In Mr. Aleph Sherman's review of my re- cent book Israel Between East and West (August 1953), a false picture of the attitude of Israeli social scientists towards Middle East- em culture and the cultural configuration of modern Israel serves as a basis for misleading statements about my book and for an unwar- ranted personal attack on me.... Mr.

December, 1953Back to Top
Jew and Israeli
by Our Readers
To the Editor: COMMENTARY is to be congratulated on having been able to publish Rabbi Dolgin's extremely penetrating presentation of what lies at the root of the worries of broad sections of the Jewish people, both in Israel and abroad (“Can We Stay Jews Outside ‘The Land’?” by David Ben Gurion and Simon A.

Jews In the Paper-Backs
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Meyer Levin (“The East Side Gangsters of the Paper-Backs,” October 1953) seems to be overly agitated about the defamatory nature of certain books which are now getting extremely wide circulation through the tremendous sales volume of the paper-backs.

The Bible
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am sorry that Spencer Brown's enthusiasm for the “Bible” (“The Bible and a Liberal Education,” October 1953), as bound by the Christian churches, blinded him to the fact that he was dealing with two very different books—or rather collections of books.

“The Juggler”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: For those readers who may have expected an early reply to Meyer Levin's unwarranted comments on The Juggler in your letter section of August 1953, it is unfortunate that owing to a mischance in COMMENTARY's editorial offices, my letter of August 25, 1953, was not printed.

Unwatered Wine
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As a practicing engineer who spent the past fifteen years in the factories of this country, I was particularly attracted by Warner Bloomberg, Jr.'s, article, “Jew in the Factory” (November 1953).

Jews and Manual Labor
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As a practicing engineer who spent the past fifteen years in the factories of this country, I was particularly attracted by Warner Bloomberg, Jr.'s, article, “Jew in the Factory” (November 1953).

The Need to Clarify
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Although the main body of Norman Podhoretz's article “Sholom Aleichem: Jewishness Is Jews” (September 1953) is excellent, the philosophy inherent in his concluding paragraph is ultimately as corrosively destructive of Sholom Aleichem as it is of Judaism.

Israel's Economy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I congratulate you on your courage in publishing “The Hard Road to Israeli Self-Dependence” (August 1953). As a lifelong Zionist I have been heartbroken by the socialist-minded government of Israel which has prevented world Jewry from participating in the country's development.

How We Live Now in America:
Some Unprophesied Fruits of the Machine Age

by Granville Hicks
Last month William Petersen marshaled in our pages the statistical evidence of the prosperity and “openness” of American society (“Is America Still the Land of Opportunity?”); Granville Hicks here approaches the same subject from a more concrete standpoint: the life of the town of “Roxborough” in upstate New York; critics of modem industrial societies may find of particular interest his discussion of the effects of machines on the freedom and individuality of our citizenry.  _____________   Around our house in upstate New York are lawn and flower gardens and a kitchen garden, but beyond this small area of cultivation the forest has taken over.

The New Germany and Her Remaining Jews:
A Reporter's Notebook

by Hal Lehrman
Hal Lehrman first began to write for this magazine in 1946, while he was traveling through the satellite countries of Eastern Europe—in those days still accessible to an inquiring reporter.

The Issue Between Judaism and Christianity:
Facing Up to the Unresolvable Difference

by Jacob Taubes
The argument between Judaism and Christianity, Jacob Taubes here points out, is generally distorted by the historical success of Christianity.

Our Changing Ideals, as Seen on TV:
The Father on the Hearth

by Norman Podhoretz
A perceptive young American critic, just returned to his native Brooklyn after three years at Cambridge University, looked for some hours at the family TV set with an eye freshened by absence—and discovered something: a new kind of “domestic drama” which seems to him to reflect some of the new values of American society today.

The Crisis Behind Russia's Slowdown:
Negotiation Now: Its Uses and Limits

by Richard Lowenthal
Who needs a “relaxation of international tension” more—Russia or the West? Richard Lowenthal writes to say that it is Russia.

Dictators, Democracy, and Latin American Jewry:
Some Political Paradoxes of Our Hemisphere

by Benno Weiser
Many of the cherished political generalizations that we learned in the 30's have shown their inadequacy on more than one score in recent years.

The Illusions of the Intelligentsia:
The Moral Question and the Secularists

by Robert Fitch
Call it “the purge of eggheads” or the “tide of anti-intellectualism,” or what you will, there is no denying that the intelligentsia as a class has suffered a considerable decline in public esteem since its dizzying rise of the 30's and 40's.

A Family Man
A Story

by Dan Jacobson
I did not realize how much Tel Aviv had worn me down after three weeks of unemployment and loneliness until one night I sat in a cinema watching Beau Geste.

From the American Scene: A Pulpit in the South
by Harry Golden
Harry L. Golden, one of our valued correspondents from the South, tells here of the perils of the rabbinate in a no doubt imaginary (but not totally unrepresentative congregation) down Carolina way—and in the telling reveals something of the problems and paradoxes of “mixing,” a matter that seems to bulk large in the consciousness of many a Jew below the Mason-Dixon line, as well as possibly elsewhere on the American scene.  _____________   It had been an ordeal for both Rabbi Geller and Mr.

Cedars of Lebanon: Three Talmudic Tales
by Ralph Gordon
The Angels Yield the Law “The nature of heaven,” said Moses, “is the nature of flame: Flower-flame, water-flame, flame of thought; And if I contend with the angels, they will consume My speech with theirs.” Then in a division of light He saw the throne.

On the Horizon: Lord Jowitt and the Case of Alger Hiss
by James Grossman
Hiss and Chambers, the Rosenbergs, perhaps now Harry Dexter White—current history, it seems, revolves around investigations, grand jury proceedings, Congressional hearings, and trials, and we will have to become somewhat expert in legal matters if we are to judge intelligently some of the most important issues of our times.

The Study of Man: More Insanity Than a Century Ago?
by Nathan Glazer
Nathan Glazer here reports on a remarkable study of the frequency of insanity in the limited States, from 1840 to the present, that tends to shake views held by almost everyone.

Mourning My Grandmother
by Howard Sackler
Now in the rooms around us wails Of “Shalt, thou shalt” resound remorse     from beds To boards to blame, as the borrowed flesh Slips from the naked vows, But closed, quiet these windows behind your     plants The “heathens” admired;                                                     mirror And photographs draped or faced to the     wall In mourning.             Before you were lost to my language Merely, now lost to me wholly, free Of the skins of prayer and the pregnant Poor you loved.                                     O queenly carried On painful feet through dawn streets Walling despised alarms, you swayed Among the numbling faithful, nailing Spirit to their daily letter With “Amen, amen” and no more, daily Giving largely lightly, certain that charity Was natural gratuity for life at large; And fattened a duck in your kitchen For weeks, and kept intact a dazed carp In the bathtub until his time, Shrugging off protests of translation And loving the creatures, without pet Names, to the very knife.                                                      For life Was death for fish and fowl, and lip-bitten Burials of infants forgotten, and year-old Agonies, penned abroad, arriving     in ashes; And the form was an only Child to be cherished. So late your surrounding neighbors still Vibrate beside their supper and sorrow; No wand of your presence shall ever again Untwin despairs for an hour, nor spring Between me and my punishment.                                                       Dying, You shrilled a song from your girlhood And moaned for me to study the Law.                         Mourning over, your mirror Will be faced, and the first-born son, Shut in with it, will prolong, Prolong his audience there Until with a step                                        the dead Prince Confronts the living whipping-boy. _____________  

Level Sunlight, by Maurice Samuel
by Solomon Bloom
Zionist Ideals—Israeli Realities Level Sunlight. By Maurice Samuel. Knopf. 308 pp. $4.00.   Level Sunlight, in its own unsystematic but skillful way, manages to combine between the same covers a spiritual autobiography and “confession”; a historical sketch of the development of Zionism, and of the controversies that both divided and animated it; a description of the achievements, as well as shortcomings, of Israel; a consideration of the relations of the new state to its own past and to the contemporary scene, to the Diaspora, the West, and the world at large; and, finally, a prospectus for the future.

A Handful of Blackberries, by Ignazio Silone
by Martin Greenberg
Silone and the Peasants A Handful of Blackberries. By Ignazio Silone. Harper. 314 pp. $3.50.   More than ten years ago Ignazio Silone wrote that “a society is renewed .

The Jews in the Soviet Satellites, by Peter Meyer, Bernard D. Weinryb, Eugene Duschinsky, Nicolas Sylvain
by Henry Roberts
Communist Anti-Semitism The Jews in the Soviet Satellites. By Peter Meyer, Bernard D. Weinryb, Eugene Duschinsky, Nicolas Sylvain. Syracuse University Press. 637 pp.

Politics and the Constitution in the History of the United States, by William Winslow Crosskey
by Daniel Boorstin
The “Real” Constitution Politics and the Constitution in the History of the United States. By William Winslow Crosskey. University of Chicago Press. Vol.

Falasha Anthology, by Wolf Leslau
by S. Goitein
Ethiopia's Jews Falasha Anthology. Translations from Ethiopic sources, with an Introduction, by Wolf Leslau. Yale Judaica Series, Vol. 6. Yale University Press. 222 pp.

7 1/2 Cents, by Richard Bissell
by Nathan Glick
The Working Day 7½ CENTS. By Richard Bissell. Little, Brown. 245 pp. $3.50.   The 30's had their “proletarian” novels, but these were concerned with class-consciousness and revolt, and not with how a worker passed eight, ten, or twelve hours at a machine or desk.

Reader Letters December 1953
by Our Readers
Israels Economy TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I congratulate you on your courage in pub- lishing "The Hard Road to Israeli Self-Depend- ence" (August 1953).




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