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January, 1956Back to Top
The New American Family:
Causes and Consequences of the Baby Boom

by William Petersen
In 1933, a group of social scientists who had assembled at the request of President Hoover offered a composite work, Recent Social Trends in the United States, to the depression-ridden American public.

World Communism Shifts Its Line:
Making Room for Mau and Tito

by Franz Borkenau
It is a safe rule, in inquiring as to the motive for any turn in Soviet policy that does not strike one as self-evident, to refer to the dissensions among the top Soviet leadership.

The Jewish Revival in America, II:
Its Religious Side

by Nathan Glazer
Last month we described the various pressures and patterns that have led to larger and larger numbers of American Jews joining religious institutions.

The Dreyfus Affair Fifty Years Later:
The Captain Who Became a Case

by James Grossman
At the beginning of the First World War, Henry James wrote of France: “. . . she takes charge of those interests of man which most dispose him .

Nationalism, Revolution, and Fantasy in Egypt:
Behind the Arms Deal with Czechoslovakia

by George Lichtheim
In the checkered history of the Egyptian nationalist revolution inaugurated by the army coup of July 23, 1952, the autumn of 1955 stands out as a time when the regime clarified some of its long-term aspirations.

Philip Phillips, Southern Unionist:
A Memoir

by Our Readers
I was born in the city of Charleston [South Carolina], on 17 Dec, 1807. I had the benefit of the best schools then existing in that city, first that of Mr.

West Germany's Democratic Future:
After Adenauer What?

by F. Allemann
Konard Adenauer stands on the threshold of a Biblical fourscore years, an age at which most politicians retire, and the speculation as to who will succeed him to the Chancellorship has by now become a kind of parlor game in West Germany.

From the American Scene:
92nd Street Y: Unofficial City Center

by Jacob Korg
The Young Men’s and Women’s Hebrew Association on 92nd Street and Lexington Avenue in New York City, commonly called the “92nd Street Y,” is an improbable collection of enterprises embracing, in addition to the famous Poetry Center and its chamber and concert music recitals, the usual community center program, an extensive social and club program for high school boys and girls, the Dance Center, a dance school, a music school, a troupe of children’s entertainers called “The Merry-Go-Rounders,” a neighborhood old folks’ club, classes in Americanization for immigrants, and an adult education center.

Cedars of Lebanon:
The Tanya and the Gaon

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The following is an excerpt from a letter written in 1789 by Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Ladi—the “Tanya,” as he came to be called—to his congregation.

On the Horizon:
The Strange World of the Druzes

by Ray Alan
The Druzes rarely leap into the headlines more often than twice or three times a century; but when they do bestir themselves it is usually history they make as well as news. In 1860 they massacred about 15,000 Maronites and set in motion a train of events that resulted successively in the dispatch of a French expeditionary force to the Levant, an important expansion of French political and educational activities there, and finally the establishment of a French mandate over Syria and Lebanon.

The Study of Man:
Economics for Everybody?

by Robert Lekachman
If further evidence is needed that economics remains a difficult subject practiced by men of only moderate literary grace, some examples offered later on in this essay should suffice.

Guideposts in Modern Judaism, by Jacob B. Agus
by Milton Himmelfarb
A Conservative Theologian by Milton Himmelfarb Guideposts in Modern Judaism. By Jacob B. Agus. Bloch. 444 pp. $4.50. This collection of thoughtful essays about our religious and communal problems is also a revelation of the perplexities and ambiguities in the mind of one of those few of our rabbis who can be called theologians.

A Train of Powder, by Rebecca West
by Herbert Wechsler
Nuremberg and Other Trials by Herbert Wechsler A Train of Powder. By Rebecca West. Viking. 310 pp. $3.75. This book is a collection of six of the best of Miss West’s postwar essays.

The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit, by Sloan Wilson; The Young Lovers, by Julian Halevy
by Isa Kapp
Suburbia and Bohemia by Isa Kapp The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit. by Sloan Wilson. Simon and Schuster. 304 pp. $3.50. The Young Lovers.

Forbidden Neighbors: A Study of Prejudice in Housing, by Charles Abrams
by Benjamin Kaplan
Minorities and Housing by Benjamin Kaplan Forbidden Neighbors: A Study of Prejudice in Housing. by Charles Abrams. Harper. 404 pages. $5.00. According to a recent story in the New York Times, housing has emerged as the nation’s largest industry.

Anthology of Jewish Music, by Chemjo Vinaver
by Albert Weisser
Music of the Jews by Albert Weisser Anthology of Jewish Music. by Chemjo Vinaver. Edward B. Marks Music Corp. 282 pp. $10.00. This volume is a real joy to the eye—especially for those who have plowed through tons of Jewish music printed in a format that is indifferent, graceless, or even positively depressing.

People of Plenty, by David Potter
by Louis Hartz
Abundance and American Character by Louis Hartz People of Plenty. By David Potter. University of Chicago Press. 219 pp. $3.50. The author, an American historian whose interests extend well beyond the confines of his field, devotes the first half of his work to the theories of Margaret Mead, Karen Horney, and David Riesman.

Two Poems
by Harvey Shapiro
Feast of the Ram’s Horn by Harvey Shapiro As seventh sign, the antique heavens show A pair of scales. And Jews, no less antique, Hear the ram-rod summons beat their heels, Until they stand together in mock show As if they meant to recognize a king. For they are come again to this good turning: That from the mountain where their leader goes, In ten days’ time they greet the Law descending. And these are ancient stories from a book That circulates, and for them has no ending. All stand as witness to the great event. Ezra, their scribe, before the water gate Takes up the book, and the people rise. And those who weep upon the word are bid To hold their peace, because the day is holy. Feast of the ram’s horn.

Jewish First Names
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have just finished reading what, to me, was a truly fascinating article: “Jewish First Names Through the Ages” (November 1955), by Rabbi Benzion C.

The Stouffer Study
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Many of us owe Nathan Glazer a considerable debt for his penetrating critiques of contemporary work in the social sciences which have appeared regularly in Commentary over the past few years.

“... to the Nations”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Permit me to congratulate Commentary on the learned and thoughtful article “The Jewish Mission to the Nations” (October 1955) by Rabbi Jakob J.

The Nazarene Gospel
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As a non-Jewish historian who has been privileged to “plow with the heifer” of a learned Talmudist, Joshua Podro, I am delighted with Gerson D.

The Kastner Case
by Our Readers
To the Editor: W. Z. Laqueur’s “The Kastner Case,” in Commentary of December 1955, leaves more questions open than it answers, but I do not think it is his own fault entirely. One wishes, of course, that Mr.


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February, 1956Back to Top
Three Weeks in Cairo:
A Journalist in Quest of Egypt's Terms for Peace

by Hal Lehrman
I have just come out of Cairo after a three weeks’ stay in Egypt. At the beginning, I was able to find and interrogate a number of objective observers, track down certain opponents of the Nasser regime and win their confidence, even have some good talks with various government officials and three cabinet ministers—two of them members of the Revolutionary Command Council, the small group of young officers that kicked King Farouk out in 1952 and has been directing Egypt’s affairs ever since.

The Pharisaic Tradition Today:
Excuse or Inspiration?

by Jakob Petuchowski
Scholarship, both Jewish and Christian, has done much during the last one hundred years to restore the reputation of the Pharisees.

Greek Letter Discrimination:
Fraternities Without Brotherhood

by James Rorty
I know your friend Jones thinks he’s doing me a big favor. But the fact is I can’t afford the time or the money for this fraternity nonsense.

Mark Twain's Neglected Classic:
The Moral Astringency of "Pudd'nhead Wilson"

by F. Leavis
“Pudd’nhead Wilson” is not faultless—no book of Mark Twain’s is that—but it is all the same the masterly work of a great writer.

Western Strategy and Economic Revolution:
Direct or Delaying Action?

by H. Hughes
As the United States enters upon what promises to be one of the most protracted and confused election campaigns in history, the definition of foreign policy issues is more than customarily murky.

Returning to Dachau:
The Living and the Dead

by Bruno Bettelheim
Off and on for close to twenty years, and beginning long before my own experience made them a very personal and immediate issue, the problems posed by totalitarian society have occupied my mind.

Modern Art in the Synagogue, II:
Artist, Architect, and Building Committee Collaborate

by William Schack
In my first article in the December 1955 issue of Commentary, I asserted that in the last few years American synagogues were, “for the first time, beginning to make full use of the related plastic arts for both interior and exterior decoration.” Not every temple has gone in for full-scale use of all the decorative arts.

Usher from Brownsville:
A Story

by Arthur Granit
Their house peeked anonymously from its row with nothing to show it was a cross they were bearing up to their Golgotha.

Cedars of Lebanon:
Bilingualism in Jewish Literature

by S. Niger
Pick up an old Jewish book—pick up the Bible, the book of books, for example. You will immediately perceive that we Jews have not always been content with one literary language; for, in addition to Hebrew, there are sections in the Bible that are written in Aramaic (parts of Ezra, Daniel).

On the Horizon:
Memoir of a Rumanian Rope-Climber

by Solomon Bloom
There were three Ages of Man in Hârl?u, my home town in northern Rumania. The first began on the fourth birthday, when we entered cheder, or Hebrew school, and ended at eleven.

At a Patched Window
by Menke Katz
I am a lover, a pauper, and a poet. My heart is clean beneath the threadbare shirt. I learned wisdom from the Talmudic skies of Lithuania. I am gracefully uncouth. I cleaved my grace from the slums of New York. My father like Columbus dreamed of America, when I was born. My childhood wanned at a patched window, Where I imagined a cake soaring like a cherub, Where I saw candy, toys, and cocoa, under the wings of a nymph only. The cruel hand of destiny led us through hunger, war, and plague. We were four little brothers and a scrawny sister. In the autumn garret we heard the song of spring, as crawling doves would hear the giggle of their craven victor. The wind through redolent meadows was a bleak laughter. Oh, our weary mother carried us through the prosperous thorns of our scared little town, Michalishek. From a fairy tale came the night—a spectral undertaker, to bury the thorny day of Lithuania. God was the baker from Eden who baked the tasty stars. _____________

The Study of Man:
The All-Powerful "I"

by Paul Kecskemeti
To the perennial problem of evil and suffering, there are two perennial answers. According to one, evil and suffering have their origin in the deficiencies of nature.

The Study of Man:
In Dreams Begin Responsibilities

by Arthur Brodbeck
Although Freud’s wish-fulfillment theory of dreams was originally received by the world with freezing silence, time, working a familiar revolution, has rendered it both conversationally and professionally de rigueur.

Marjorie Morningstar, by Herman Wouk
by Norman Podhoretz
Marjorie MorningstarBy Herman WoukDoubleday. 565 pp. $4.95. Marjorie Morningstar is so obtrusively doctrinal that most reviewers have plunged headlong into moral issues without so much as a by-your-leave to the literary quality of the book.

Memoirs, by Harry S. Truman. Volume One: Year of Decisions
by Henry Parkes
Candor from the Top by Henry Bamford Parkes Memoirs. By Harry S. Truman. Volume One: Year of Decisions. Doubleday. 596 pp. $5.00. Harry Truman is entitled to a high rank in the roster of American presidents—not, of course, with the half-dozen great figures, but certainly on a level with Monroe or Polk or Cleveland.

The Myth of Sisyphus, by Albert Camus; Literary and Philosophical Essays, by Jean-Paul Sartre
by Leslie Fiedler
The Pope and the Prophet by Leslie A. Fiedler The Myth of Sisyphus. By Albert Camus. Knopf. 212 pp. $3.50. Literary and Philosophical Essays.

Protestant-Catholic-Jew: An Essay in American Religious Sociology, by Will Herberg
by Marshall Sklare
Third-Generation Religion by Marshall Sklare Protestant-Catholic-Jew: An Essay in American Religious Sociology. By Will Herberg. Doubleday. 320 pp. $4.00. The very title of this book arouses suspicion.

Der Tod in Rom, by Wolfgang Koeppen
by Theodore Frankel
The Hand of the Past by Theodore Frankel Der Tod in Rom. By Wolfgang Koep-pen. Scherz & Goverts (Stuttgart). 254 pp. $2.20. This disquieting book with its derivative title represents perhaps the most honest attempt on the part of Germany’s younger generation to find itself.

Two Poems
by Aubrey Hodes
A Jew Walks in Westminster Abbey by Aubrey Hodes God, how I envy you these great oak roots Growing without the ritual of upheaval, Your proud stillnesses sprung from a few wide miles Of gray flat sea.

The Stage Anne Frank
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Algene Ballif’s complaint that the adaptation of the Diary of Anne Frank (in “Anne Frank on Broadway,” November 1955), presents Anne Frank as “the image of the American idea of adolescence” and neglects her serious side suggests a major misconception of the original diary and the Broadway play.

The Kastner Case
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Kurt Grossman’s call [in the January “Letters from Readers”] for an authoritative study of the attempts to rescue European Jewry during World War II will be welcomed.

Biography and Faith
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The biography of his father and his own reaction to it by David Daiches (“My Father, and His Father,” December) is unfortunately typical of our times.

The Uptown Social Club
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . When you published the article “The Uptown Social Club” by Theodore Frankel, in your November issue .


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March, 1956Back to Top
The Return of Two-Party Politics
by Samuel Lubell
For a full generation the Republicans have suffered from an inferiority complex, reflecting a painful awareness that they lacked political sex appeal on economic issues.

The Crisis in the Middle East: Is an Arab-Israeli War Inevitable?
by Hal Lehrman
It is only too plain that further Western reluctance to deal sternly with the Arabs will have dismal consequences for all concerned in the Middle Eastern crisis—including the Arabs.

The Crisis in the Middle East: Britain's Traditional Hold Fails
by George Lichtheim
Great events, they say, cast their shadow before them. Small events, on the other hand, may be serviceable in illuminating the past.

The Community and I: Two Years Later
by Evelyn Rossman
A few weeks ago I came to New York to visit my parents and enjoy the city. The train could not move fast enough to please me.

Toynbee and the Culture Cycle
by Franz Borkenau
The last four volumes of Arnold Toynbee’s A Study of History (VII, VIII, IX, X), despite their enormous mass of new detail, add nothing to the basic ideas already stated in the first six.

A Case Study in Due Process
by Maurice Goldbloom
James Kutcher’s involvement in the great events of his time was almost accidental, and for the most part passive. The son of a Newark fur worker, he graduated from high school during the depression, only to find that his father’s vanishing earnings made it impossible for him to go on to college and become a teacher as he had planned.

From the American Scene: The Politicians
by S. Blumenson
The Seamen’s Barber Shop & Hotel, in the last decade of the 19th century, was located on Pike Slip in New York’s Lower East Side, one block from the East River water front.

Cedars of Lebanon: Why a Jew Studies
by Our Readers
Though the Torah had always been read and expounded in public, it was only in the last generations before the fall of the Second Commonwealth (70 c.e.) that the study of Torah became a decisive force in Judaism.

The Destructive Will
by Harvey Shapiro
This, then, is the child’s wish: To see the earth a dancing flood And the new home floating free, And all irrational, outside, inside. The packed beasts padding through The comforts of the living room. And the old man, his hand forced By the impossible command, Compass-less and out of touch. And all the navigational aids Part of the swiftly moving flood. But mainly it’s the murderous beasts, Wonderfully close and now accepted As part of home and family: The dumb, the fierce, the tooth and claw. I read it in the earliest book, Where all our childhoods signify Themselves in open imagery. And this is the image of the will: To see the globe a watery blot, History killed, pain stopped. And this must win us to the dark, And close our eyes, and rock our sleep, And pray the coffin be an ark.

On the Horizon: Gibbsville and New Leeds
by Norman Podhoretz
Mary McCarthy and John O’Hara are two of the most consistently interesting and provocaists in America. They are so different that it takes the accident of a publication date to bring them together for discussion.

The Study of Man: Automation and the Future Society
by Arnold Rose
A number of technologists and economists have predicted that we are on the verge of a series of radical changes in industrial technology which will revolutionize productive processes.

The Rungless Ladder, by Charles H. Foster; The American Adam, by R. W. B. Lewis
by Richard Chase
Adam Fallen and Unfallen by Richard Chase The Rungless Ladder. By Charles H. Foster. Duke University Press. 278 pp. $4.50. The American ADAM.

Epstein: An Autobiography, by Sir Jacob Epstein
by Alfred Werner
Bitter Autobiography by Alfred Werner Epstein: An Autobiography. By Sir Jacob Epstein. E. P. Dutton. 294 pp., 95 illustrations. $6.00. To begin with, this is no real autobiography but an overly generous selection—especially of articles pro or contra Epstein (mostly the latter) published in the British press between 1908 and 1939—from the sculptor’s scrapbook.

America at Mid-Century, by Andre Siegfried
by Oscar Handlin
Dangerous Friend by Oscar Handlin America at Mid-Century. By Andre Siegfried. Harcourt, Brace. 357 pp. $5.75. Professor at the Collège de France and member of the French Academy, André Siegfried has been awarded all the academic distinctions his own country has to offer.

On Jewish Law and Lore, by Louis Ginzberg
by Nahum Glatzer
Grand Old Man by Nahum N. Glatzer On Jewish Law and Lore. By Louis Ginzberg. The Jewish Publication Society. 262 pp. $3.50. The late Louis Ginzberg, a collateral descendant of the Gaon of Vilna, was one of the few Jewish savants of our time who combined first-rate scholarship with success in enlightening the much courted intelligent layman.

The Jewish Festival Cookbook, by Fannie Engle and Gertrude Blair; The Jewish Holiday Cook Book, by Leah W. Leonard
by Ruth Glazer
Holiday Cook by Ruth Glazer The Jewish Festival Cookbook. By Fannie Engle and Gertrude Blair. David McKay Co. 194 pp. $3.50. The Jewish Holiday Cook Book.

The Origin of the Communist Autocracy, by Leonard Schapiro; The Russian Marxists and the Origins of Bolshevism, by Leopold H. Ha
by Bertram Wolfe
Masonry of History by Bertram D. Wolfe The Origin of the Communist Autocracy: Political Opposition in the Soviet State, 1917-1922. By Leonard Schapiro.

Reader Letters March 1956
by Our Readers
Senator Humphrey's Amendment TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I have read with considerable interest the article entitled "Cost of the Security Pro- grams" by Maurice J.

Senator Humphrey's Amendment
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have read with considerable interest the article entitled “Cost of the Security Programs” by Maurice J. Goldbloom in the December 1955 issue.

In Praise of Brodbeck
by Our Readers
To the Editor: May I say how very much impressed I was by the article “In Dreams Begin Responsibilities,” by Dr.

Cave Scroll Dating
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Professor H. L. Ginsberg in his article “More Light from Judean Caves” (November 1955) said that among the finds which were discovered were “several fragmentary Hebrew documents dated by ‘deliverance of Israel through Simeon ben Kosbah, Prince of Israel.’” I assume that Professor Ginsberg has seen a photostat of these Hebrew fragments.

First Names Revised
by Our Readers
To the Editor: May I add some annotations to Rabbi Benzion Kaganoff’s essay “Jewish First Names Through the Ages” in the November 1955 issue of Commentary? An essay by me on the same subject will appear in the forthcoming issue of Tarbiz, Quarterly for Jewish Studies (The Hebrew University, Jerusalem). 1.

April, 1956Back to Top
Poujade: Hitler or Pierrot?
First Postwar Mass Movement on the Right

by Herbert Luethy
“Poujadolf” was invented by a British cartoonist, Vicky. It will probably dog Pierre Poujade to the end of his days.

Fall and Rise of a Zionist:
“For Better or for Worse”

by Benno Weiser
As soon as the hour of Israel’s birth struck I knew that I was going to settle there. I had always been a Zionist, and there was very little to tie me down where I was.

The Anatomy of Congress:
Where Is the Nation’s Majority Party?

by Samuel Lubell
Congress has often been attacked as a veritable “house of misrepresentatives.” Its members are widely portrayed as being concerned primarily with local interests or with obstructing whoever happens to be President.

Riesman and the Age of Sociology:
Critic of “Groupism” and the Zeitgeist

by Dennis Wrong
William saroyan once wrote a story about an ugly little man who tried to overcome his feelings of inadequacy by searching Time magazine for photographs of men as homely as himself.

The Thief:
A Story

by Dan Jacobson
A black-browed angry-looking man he was, and the games he played with his children were always angry games: he was chasing them, he was growling at them, he was snapping his teeth at them, while they shrieked with delight and fear, going pale and tense with fear, but coming back for more, and hanging on to his hands when he declared that they had had enough.

Of Water Come to Water
by Charles Bell
Before the flood that year the rains set in Pouring all day, with thunder in the dark. Our cook came complaining to her work:— The roof was leaking; the shingles were half gone; We went down with Daddy to see what could be done. Our house is like the body, the place we live, A shell against the unforming.

Stirrings in Araby:
Tribal Feuds and World Politics

by Ray Alan
The unrest and instability provoked by the disintegration of centuries-old social and religious conceptions in Syria, Egypt, and other Moslem states with a window on the West are spreading like a plague to even the remotest corners of Arabia.

From Synagogue Toward Yeshiva:
Institutionalized Cult or Congregations of the Learned?

by Emanuel Rackman
The synagogue was once a building where men met to pray and study; today it is an “institution,” often more social than religious.

The Khazar Poet
by Leo Haber
The Khazars, a pagan people who lived between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, were converted to Judaism about 740 c.e., following the lead of their king, Bulan II.

From the American Scene:
The Real Molly Goldberg

by Morris Freedman
For twenty-five years the affairs of “The Goldbergs,” a fictional Bronx family, occupied the more or less regular attention of a sizable portion of the American public.

Cedars of Lebanon:
Mystic Drama of Jerusalem

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The Jewish mystical writings of the Middle Ages, and especially the Zohar, the Cabbalist commentary on the Pentateuch, present a drama wherein the phenomena of worldly life serve as mere symbols of what takes place between the human soul and its Creator, between the Community of Israel and the Holy One.

On the Horizon:
Scrambled Eggheads on the Right

by Dwight Macdonald
Last fall a self-confident young man named William F. Buckley, Jr., announced that he had raised $290,000 from 125 “investors” to publish “a new conservative weekly of opinion.” He said he had put in only $10,000 himself, but had majority control.

The Study of Man:
The New Old Testament

by James Brown
In recent years the study of the Old Testament has for many of us suddenly become alive and relevant to an unexpected degree.

Prejudice and Your Child, by Kenneth B. Clark
by Bruno Bettelheim
Discrimination and Science by Bruno Bettelheim Prejudice and Your Child. by Kenneth B. Clark. Beacon Press. 151 pp. $2.50. Because Kenneth B. Clark’s Prejudice and Your Child is written out of the most laudable intentions, it raises again the very serious question of how far a good cause can be served by unsubstantial or even specious arguments made in its favor.

A Democrat Looks at His Party, by Dean Acheson
by R. Tannenbaum
The Party of Ideas? by R. F. Tannenbaum A Democrat Looks at His Party. by Dean Acheson. Harper. 199 pp. $3.00. Politics is an art which deals in ideas and interests.

Certain People of the Book, by Maurice Samuel
by Spencer Brown
A Rare Interpreter by Spencer Brown Certain People of the Book. By Maurice Samuel. Knopf. 363 pp. $5.00. Biblical elucidation is as old as the text of the Bible itself, not only because of the greatness of the Book, but also because of its abundance of contradictions, gnomic utterances, ellipses due to conscious art, and omissions due to unsophisticated narration.

A Wife Is Many Women, by Doris Fleischman Bernays
by Lillian McCall
Middlebrow Tuning Fork by Lillian Blumberg McCall A Wife Is Many Women. By Doris Fleischman Bernays. Crown. 209 pp. $5.00. In this book, Which is only superficially about women but more specifically about the irritations endemic to our culture, Mrs.

Satan in Goray, by Isaac Bashevis Singer; The Prophet, by Sholem Asch
by Judd Teller
Unhistorical Novels by Judd L. Teller Satan in Goray. by Isaac Bashevis Singer. Translated by Jacob Sloan. Noonday. 239 pp. $3.00. The Prophet.

The Age of Reform: From Bryan to FDR, by Richard Hofstadter
by Daniel Boorstin
New View of American Reform by Daniel J. Boorstin The Age of Reform: From Bryan to FDR. By Richard Hofstadter. Alfred A.

Reader Letters April 1956
by Our Readers
Fraternity Discrimination TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Mr. Rorty in his article "Greek Letter Dis- crimination" (February 1956) describes an in- cident which took place at the University of New Hampshire in 1946 involving a Jewish student who pledged and moved into a national fraternity. Mr.

Fraternity Discrimination
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Rorty in his article “Greek Letter Discrimination” (February 1956) describes an incident which took place at the University of New Hampshire in 1946 involving a Jewish student who pledged and moved into a national fraternity. Mr.

Religion in America
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Nathan Glazer in “The Jewish Revival in America: II” (January) is correct in theory in declaring, “Judaism emphasizes acts, rituals, habits, a way of life.

Marjorie Morningstar
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In reviewing Marjorie Morningstar (February) Norman Podhoretz seems grimly determined to patronize and at the same time annihilate not only a best-selling author, but also a way of life that has managed to survive roughly some four thousand years.

92nd Street
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have read, with interest, your article in the January issue by Jacob Korg, “92nd Street Y.” It is a comprehensive report on our work and gives your readers an opportunity to learn the extent of our program and service.

Ahad Ha'am and Conservatism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I trust you will allow me a few lines to clarify the perplexities that your reviewer, Mr. Milton Himmelfarb, found in my book Guide-posts in Modern Judaism (January). I devote many pages (276-306) to the explanation of my theological approach, which calls for the viewing of the same phenomenon from an objective as well as a subjective standpoint.

The Kastner Case
by Our Readers
To the Editor: My attention has been drawn to the article on the “Kastner Case” which appeared in the December 1955 number of your important monthly. It is not my intention to enter into a discussion with Mr.

The Dead Seas Scrolls
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Professor Ginsberg’s reply to my communication greatly disappointed me [“Letters from Readers,” March]. I said that “I assume Professor Ginsberg has seen a photostat of these Hebrew fragments,” and I should like to know the context of the entire fragments because only the context can give us an idea of the authenticity and antiquity of the quotation from these fragments.

Dachau
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have read your interesting article “Returning to Dachau” by Bruno Bettelheim, in your February 1956 issue. .

May, 1956Back to Top
Western Self-Interest and Israeli Self-Defense:
They Coincide

by Hal Lehrman
“If Israel is dissuaded from using the life force of their race to ward off the Egyptians until the Egyptians have learned to use the Russian weapons with which they have been supplied and the Egyptians then attack, it will become not only a matter of prudence hut a measure of honor to make sure that they are not the losers by waiting”.—Sir Winston Churchill In the two months just past, the threat of Middle Eastern war has taken up fixed residence on the world’s front pages.

The Moscow-Cairo Axis:
Its Aim: To Drive the West Out

by Walter Laqueur
Ever since the Communist-Egyptian arms deal in the autumn of 1955, there has been an unaccustomed, busy traffic of delegations to and from the Soviet bloc and the Arab countries, pledging undying friendship and (from the Soviet side) all kinds of economic aid.

Freud's Mother and Father:
A Memoir

by Judith Heller
Before embarking upon an account of my impressions of Sigmund Freud’s parents, who were my own maternal grandfather and grandmother, it might be well to give some account of myself. My life from the age of six on has swung back and forth between the Old World and the New.

American Jewry, Present and Future:
Part I: Present

by Herbert Gans
In The flurry of assertions about the future occasioned by the tercentenary of the American Jewish community, virtually no one, it would seem, took a real look at that community before beginning to prophesy.

Desegregation: Prince Edward County, Va.
by James Rorty
Abeaten and exhausted Confederacy fought its last battles in Prince Edward County in southern Virginia’s Black Belt. Ninety years later Prince Edward County became the defendant in one of the five cases on which the United States Supreme Court based its already historic decision outlawing segregated education in the public schools. It is an old agricultural county, located in a pleasant region of low hills and fertile valleys, to which settlers from the Jamestown Colony came during the first half of the 18th century.

Galya:
A True Story

by Julius Margolin
Had it not been for the war, would I have got married in Stolin? There is such a town; it’s on the Goryn River, amid forests, far from a railway.

The Perennial Spinoza:
Radical Philosopher

by Felix Weltsch
Three hundred years ago, in 1656, the Portuguese Jewish community of Amsterdam proclaimed: “In accordance with the judgment of the angels and the decision of the elders, and with the consent of God and this holy community, we hereby excommunicate, expel, curse, and anathematize Baruch de Spinoza.

California-The America to Come:
The Vitality of the Provinces

by H. Hughes
I have now lived four years in California. Obviously I cannot regard myself as a native, but the time has long since passed when I felt any real sense of strangeness and isolation.

From the American Scene:
"Papa"

by David Boroff
When you come down to it, there was a consistent pattern in Papa’s life. It was a kind of rugged, stubborn independence, a lonely intransigence.

Cedars of Lebanon:
Wisdom for a Time of Reckoning

by Our Readers
The preponderant concern of medieval literature, Hebrew as well as Latin, is doctrinal and liturgical, and such humanistic oases as Immanuel of Rome’s Hell and Heaven, Joseph Zabara’s Book of Delight, or Berechyah ha-Nakdan’s Animal Fables are as refreshing as the Carmina Burana.

The Village of My Fathers
by Jerome Barron
I wonder what it looks like. Earlocked men with caftans, Women with their wigs and Hannah in their eyes, Hasidim, drunk with piety and narcotic prayer, This village I never saw nor my father either. Unlike New England’s land except, perhaps, for climate. Men in grim solitude and women who did all work. How strange a land it was, one people living absent-mindedly In the country of another, island sinking in water’s hate. One countryman they had there though, a lad and his mother And loved they are and were as none have ever been. From Nazareth they hail, this woman and her boy. But they, my fathers, spat within their beards In ache of wounded hearts, of children bruised by stones and fists And kicks, of clubs and thrusts into the very groin of mercy Until poor Jesus says with Heine, “No, mass, no kaddish, say for me.” So this village was, two streets and the alleys off of them. On one, a barbaric boulevard of unpainted timber where Slavic peasants Made their beds between the pigs and Mary’s smile, Stood the church, marble white, its cross, firm and proud and gold. Was this Christ’s heart or was it Herod’s face? I did not answer but walked the other street And saw the synagogue and David’s star and a hundred thousand scars And I smelled a fire but the others shrugged and saw no smoke. They say the two God-houses were a mile away; I cannot say But as far as Jerusalem is from Rome, so far it was from each to home. I said I smelled a fire; a Jew can always spot a funeral pyre. You see, I never saw the village of my fathers. This is but a dreadful daydream, a photograph of anguish. The village of my fathers is the village of the dead. Its denizens are the brothers Auschwitz with snowflake flesh, Their shoulders rounded, eyes of a fish head, smelling of death about to die. There is my fire!

My Mother's Father
by Martin Halpern
My mother’s father, crippled and seventy, Waited for death on the living room couch And passed the time by reading Spinoza. That Spring was coming he knew by the clamor Of boys below in the street, and the bounce Of their ball against pavement and building and headache. Although a Jew, my mother’s father Preferred Spinoza to Talmud and Torah, And would scoff at the sketch of a fidgety godhead Who altered his plans with every report That the chosen people were disappointing His faith in their sense of propriety. The ball bounced in through the open window, Skipped from the sill, and before he could budge Had bumped both glasses and book to the floor. My mother’s father, alone in the house, Sick to his stomach and throbbing with headache, Studied the blur of the ball in his lap. He groped for his glasses but couldn’t quite reach them, And couldn’t quite reach the Works of Spinoza Sprawled on their back by his crippled left leg. And so he prayed.

On the Horizon:
Truman and the Idea of the Common Man

by Norman Podhoretz
The Truman memoirs are devoted mainly to Truman’s political career, which of course is as it should be. But the book is not strictly a political autobiography.

The Study of Man:
Childhood the World Over

by Stanley Hyman
Here then, we have those mysterious children popping in and out of the house, and how are we to discover what makes them tick? We might do well to listen to “the new field of personality and culture,” or “personality in culture,” which is apparently the coming integrative science of man, in which anthropology, psychiatry, psychology, child development, and other disciplines will find their place.

The Bridge, edited by John M. Oesterreicher
by Jakob Petuchowski
Christian-Jewish Dialogue? by Jakob J. Petuchowski The Bridge. A Yearbook of Judaeo-Christian Studies, Volume I. Edited by John M. Oesterreicher. Pantheon. 349 pp.

The Quiet American, by Graham Greene
by Philip Rahv
Wicked American Innocence by Philip Rahv The Quiet American. By Graham Greene. Viking. 249 pp. $3.50. In The Quiet American Graham Greene has drawn upon his first-hand experience of the war in Indo-China to produce a thriller with political complications.

The Fears Men Live By, by Selma Hirsh
by Dennis Wrong
A Handbook on Prejudice by Dennis H. Wrong The Fears Men Live By. By Selma Hirsh. Harper. 164 pp. $2.75. Anti-Semitism may very well be endemic to rapidly changing industrial societies which remain at least nominally Christian in outlook.

Orestes Brownson, Selected Essays, edited by Russell Kirk
by Bernard Wishy
Scholarship of Desperation by Bernard W. Wishy Orestes Brownson, Selected Essays. Edited with an Introduction by Russell Kirk. Regnery (Gateway Editions). 221 pp.

Notes of a Native Son, by James Baldwin
by Robert Flint
Not Ideas but Life by Robert W. Flint Notes of a Native Son. By James Baldwin. Beacon. 175 pp. $2.75. Here is a collection of ten essays, all bearing in one way or another on the Negro question, by the brilliant young author of Go Tell It on the Mountain.

The Foreseeable Future, by Sir George Thomson; Utopia 1976, by Morris L. Ernst; Time for Living, by George Soule
by Theodore Norman
Looking Ahead by Theodore Norman The Foreseeable Future. By Sir George Thomson. Cambridge University Press. 166 pp. $2.50. Utopia 1976. By Morris L.

Reader Letters May 1956
by Our Readers
Fraternity Discrimination TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I should like to address a few comments to Mr. Rorty concerning the rather hopeful tone of his article in the February issue of COM- MENTARY.

Fraternity Discrimination
by Our Readers
To The Editor: I should like to address a few comments to Mr. Rorty concerning the rather hopeful tone of his article in the February issue of Commentary.

"Pudd'nhead Wilson"
by Our Readers
To The Editor: I read with great interest F. R. Leavis’s “Mark Twain’s Neglected Classic” in your February 1956 issue. I take second place to no one in my admiration for Mark Twain, but I believe that Pudd’nhead Wilson .

The Pharisees
by Our Readers
To The Editor: Irresponsible quoting out of context has all too often provided misleading and damaging information to readers who may not have the time or resources to check.

Prejudice and Personality
by Our Readers
To The Editor: As an admirer of both Kenneth Clark and Bruno Bettelheim, I should like to comment on the latter’s review of Clark’s Prejudice and Your Child (April issue), in which Bettelheim challenges Clark’s thesis that prejudice is harmful to the child’s personality.

New Haven County
by Our Readers
To The Editor: In his article “The Return of Two-Party Politics” (March 1956), Samuel Lubell states erroneously that New Haven was won by President Eisenhower in his 1952 landslide. Actually, New Haven was carried in the presidential election of 1952 by Stevenson with 45,990 votes against Eisenhower’s 39,952. Hans Bronner New Haven, Connecticut _____________   Mr.

June, 1956Back to Top
The "New Reconstruction" in the South:
Desegregation in Historical Perspective

by C. Woodward
Two short years have passed since the Supreme Court’s decision of May 17, 1954 declaring segregation in the public schools unconstitutional.

Candles of the Heart
by Robert Pack
Here comes, with those occurrences of mind, Perhaps some rain, some snow; perhaps some sun, Some sky, clouds shaped by thoughts once left behind, Come you, come I, now see, comes everyone. And these arrivals are not ever done; Events dance purely for that secret sight When all the candles of the heart are gone, And gone, in time, the candles of delight. But if I still delay, now I’ve begun To love you with old moodiness of rain, Shyness of snow, possessiveness of sun— Remember—candles to the touch are pain, What mind conceives is never purely done; Though here come you, come I, comes everyone. _____________

1656: English Jewry's Annus Mirabilis
by Cecil Roth
Tercentenaries are in fashion. Hardly had the excitement of the American Jewish Tercentennial celebration died away, when Anglo-Jewry began its own more modest program, which is now reaching its climax.

America, Britain, and the Middle East:
For a Policy of Strength

by G. Hudson
When the news broke last year that Egypt was to receive arms from the Soviet bloc the comment of one British observer with long experience of the Middle East was simply “At last!” What he found surprising was not that the rulers of the Soviet Union had in 1955 moved to upset the precarious balance of forces in the Middle East, but that they had not done so before.

Stalinism Versus Stalin:
Exorcising a Stubborn Ghost

by Bertram Wolfe
Much analysis of the Soviet Union applies, unconsciously, a variant of the myth of “inevitable proggress.” Since everything changes, runs the argument, the totalist state, too, must change.

How Educate the Gifted Child?
The Problem of Precocity

by Spencer Brown
One of the biggest headaches in American education is the child who learns too well too quickly. He presents problems to society, to the schools, and to his parents. Society’s eager misunderstanding of the question was illustrated for me not long ago at a lecture by a prominent educator who was lamenting the waste to our nation and the world caused by our failure to use fully the powers of our gifted children.

Secular Hebrew and Esoteric Yiddish:
The Fate of Their Modern Literatures

by Judd Teller
Although occasional skirmishes still punctuate the armistice, it has been a long while since any large-scale action has taken place in the Yiddish-Hebrew war.

Academic Freedom and Communist Teachers:
Critique of a Report

by Paul Hays
The American Association of University Professors, an organization with about 37,000 members, recently adopted a report on “Academic Freedom and Tenure in the Quest for National Security” in the course of which it was said: “We cannot accept an educational system that is subject to the irresponsible push and pull of contemporary controversies.” The priggishness of this academic aloofness from “contemporary controversies” recalls Pliny the Younger’s irritation at being interrupted in his reading of Livy’s histories by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius.

Apologia Pro Vita Nostra
by Jacob Sloan
How cool within the fiery furnace of His creatures the young men daily raise wide sleeves in happy praise to His more-than-natural ways: See how they rise at Lauds each from his place, banked line to line against each other’s grace. Then see us, sweating, sad, like animals from nature, that cannot hold to hear His open voice for fear what once was, will be, clear: See how we, beating, breast each other’s sins, that all our rage may be forgiven Him. When we were young, we stared hour-long at mirror eyes, suddenly to surprise our true identity: Who now that we have grown through the simple glass know, We are not our past, but what we think or seem.

The Future of American Jewry:
Part II

by Herbert Gans
The main trends in the development of the American Jewish community can be traced most clearly in the changes that take place between generations.

From the American Scene:
The Jewish War Veterans: Kew Forest Post 250

by Walter Goodman
The resolutions passed at the sixtieth annual convention of the Jewish War Veterans of the U.S.A., held in Miami Beach in October 1955, read like a mixture of random excerpts from the yearly policy statements of the American Legion, Americans for Democratic Action, and any one of a number of merely Jewish organizations.

The Fear of Trembling
by John Hollander
If it is true that we no longer seek To avoid the three peculiar trees that grow At the edge of the wood, it is because we know That even the wood itself can hold no terrors. If, without fear of falling, we can speak Three times of the devil, ignore the fatal errors Of leaving nail-parings and bits of hair about, Or even our impress in wrinkles on a sheet, It is because of too many occasions On which the devil never appears.

Cedars of Lebanon:
A Jewish Boswell

by Solomon Schechter
Solomon Schechter is best known as an important Biblical and Talmudic scholar, but there was a lighter side to him as well.

On the Horizon:
“Culture Creep”

by Robert Graves
Richard M. Dorson is a trained folklorist, which means that he has learned to take down stories just as he hears them—by tape recorder, if possible—from members of some old-established and backward community, and afterwards resist the temptation to improve them.

The Study of Man:
Thaddeus Stevens: An American Radical

by T. Williams
Americans like to classify their politicians under simple labels that seem to explain completely their motivation and their philosophy. A man is put down in the books as a liberal, a conservative, or a radical: he represented the people or the interests; he was on the side of the angels or of the forces of evil.

Strangers in the Land, by John Higham
by Nathan Glazer
Closing the Gates by Nathan Glazer Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860-1925. By John Higham. Rutgers University Press. 431 pp.

Keep the Aspidistra Flying, by George Orwell
by Isaac Rosenfeld
Gentleman George by Isaac Rosenfeld Keep the Aspidistra Flying. By George Orwell. Harcourt, Brace. 248 pp. $3.75. It is strange that the fair, bland, decent, fresh-butter wholesome Orwell of the essays should have been such a terror in his fiction.

Jews and Arabs, by S. D. Goitein
by Ray Alan
Judaism and Islam by Ray Alan Jews and Arabs. By S. D. Goitein, Schocken Books, 257 pp. $4.00. Of all the societies with which Jews and Judaism have come into contact through the centuries, none has borne their imprint or itself marked them more profoundly than the great medieval civilization which, for want of a more precise term, is best labeled “Islamic.” As Dr.

This Is Our World, by Louis Fischer
by George Lichtheim
Reportage vs. Analysis by George Lichtheim This Is Our World. By Louis Fischer. Harper. 522 pp. $5.00. Although dedicated to “the Gandhians of all countries,” Mr.

Jewish Ceremonial Art, edited by Stephen S. Kayser
by Alfred Werner
Jewish Art by Alfred Werner Jewish Ceremonial Art. Edited by Stephen S. Kayser. Foreword by Louis Finkelstein. The Jewish Publication Society of America.

The Trail of the Dinosaur and Other Essays, by Arthur Koestler
by Hans Meyerhoff
Farewell to Politics by Hans Meyerhoff The Trail of the Dinosaur and Other Essays. By Arthur Koestler. Macmillan. 1955. $3.50. Like everybody else, Koestler is sick and tired of politics.

A Jewish Tourist's Guide to the U.S., by Bernard Postal and Lionel Koppman
by Oscar Handlin
Armchair Tourists A Jewish Tourist’s Guide to the U.S By Bernard Postal and Lionel Koppman The Jewish Publication Society of America. 705 pp.

Reader Letters June 1956
by Our Readers
"The National Review" TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I was surprised and chagrined at Dwight Macdonald's "Scrambled Eggheads on the Right" article in the April issue.

"The National Review"
by Our Readers
To The Editor: I was surprised and chagrined at Dwight Macdonald’s “Scrambled Eggheads on the Right” article in the April issue.

Jewish Music
by Our Readers
To The Editor: It is not my habit to jump at mistakes, but there were several errors in Albert Weisser’s review of my Anthology of Jewish Music (January issue) which I feel are too important to ignore. Nissye Belzer-Spivak, whom Mr.

Politicians
by Our Readers
To The Editor: I have just received a letter from an old friend in New York—Morris E. Moskovitz—pointing out an error in my story “The Politicians” (March 1956), and he is correct. Mr.

July, 1956Back to Top
The "Mystery" of Hitler's Death:
The Fact Are Now In

by H. Trevor-Roper
It is now ten years since my book The Last Days of Hitler was written. In those ten years some mysteries of the last war have been resolved, others deepened.

Arab Nationalism and Israel:
The Need to Come to Terms

by Walter Zander
In the forty years since the dissolution of the Ottoman empire, the Middle East has been in an almost perpetual state of crisis.

Liberals and the Supreme Court:
Making Peace with the "Nine Old Men"

by Alan Westin
One consistent thread in the pattern of American liberalism since the founding of the republic has been—at least until recently—hostility to the Supreme Court.

Confessions of Zilpah
by Leo Haber
And [Rachel] gave hint Bilhah, her handmaid, for [the third] wife, and Jacob went in unto her. . . .

Journey to the Falashas:
Ethiopia’s Black Jews

by Simon Messing
Half a century ago, Professor Jacques Faitlovitch, a young Jewish scholar from Paris, startled Jewish communities throughout Europe by presenting them with letters from the priests of the Falasha Jews of Ethiopia.

Official Anti-Semitism in Old Russia:
The Origins

by Leon Poliakov
The brutal flare-up of anti-Semitism in the USSR and its satellites a few years ago reminded the world that a tradition of official anti-Semitism had long existed in Russia, and that it has not been entirely extinguished yet.

Virginia's Creeping Desegregation:
Force of the Inevitable

by James Rorty
A northerner traveling in the South soon learns not to embarrass his hosts by supposing that they really believe their popular social mythologies any more than we do in the North.

From the American Scene:
Camp

by David Boroff
The summer I was ten I was given a three-week scholarship to a large Jewish camp through my Hebrew school.

Cedars of Lebanon:
Journalism in the New Kasrilevke

by Sholom Aleichem
Just as there were two of everything in Kasrilevke, there were also two Yiddish newspapers, the Yarmulke and the Little Cap.

On the Horizon:
America and "The Quiet American"

by Diana Trilling
Mrs. Trilling writes: May I comment on Philip Rahv’s review of Graham Greene’s The Quiet American (May 1956)? Mr. Rahv is a friend of mine as well as an editor and critic whom I much respect and admire.

On the Horizon:
Irwin Shaw: Adultery, the Last Politics

by Leslie Fiedler
You have to understand that a critic, in order to be a critic, always has to have his own pet theory about a writer.

Heaven
by Neil Weiss
Love is hidden in heaven because that’s all there is . . . It’s like a page of asterisks instead of print—you guess a meaning and then go on with the story proper. But it is a teaser—I mean, what all those people do behind the stars.

The Study of Man:
The Theory of Mass Society

by Daniel Bell
The sense of a radical dehumanization of life which has accompanied events of the past several decades has given rise to the theory of “mass society.” One can say that, Marxism apart, it is probably the most influential social theory in the Western world today.

The Mandarins, by Simone de Beauvoir
by H. Hughes
The French Intellectuals by H. Stuart Hughes The Mandarins. By Simone de Beauvoir. Translated from the French by Leonard M. Friedman. World.

Theodor Herzl, a Portrait for This Age, edited and with an introduction by Ludwig Lewisohn
by Benno Weiser
“King Herzl” by Benno Weiser Theodor Herzl, A Portrait for this age. Edited and with an Introduction by Ludwig Lewisohn. World. 345 pp.

Retreat from Learning, by Joan Dunn
by Arthur Brodbeck
Progressive Education by Arthur J. Brodbeck Retreat from Learning. By Joan Dunn. David McKay. 224 pp. $3.00. While discussing William Dean Howells, Lionel Trilling remarked, somewhat disapprovingly, that nothing in America is quite as dead as an American future of a few decades back.

Theresienstadt, 1941-45, by H. G. Adler; Race and Reich, by Joseph Tanenbaum
by Everett Hughes
“Paradise Ghetto” by Everett C. Hughes Theresienstadt, 1941-45: Das Antlitz Einer Zwangsgemeinschaft. Geschichte, Sociologie, Psychologie. (Theresienstadt, 1941-45. The Features of a Compulsory Community.

An Old Faith in the New World, by David and Tamar De Sola Pool
by David Bernstein
The Oldest American Synagogue by David Bernstein An Old Faith in the New World: Portrait of Shearith Israel 1654-1954. By David and Tamar de Sola Pool.

The Growth of the Pentateuch, by Immanuel Lewy
by James Brown
J, E, D, and P by James Brown The Growth of the Pentateuch. By Immanuel Lewy. Bookman. 264 pp. $4.50. This is a scholarly and closely argued attempt to provide an alternative to the documentary analysis of the Pentateuch associated with the name of the German critic of the last century, Julius Wellhausen, whose theory has been the orthodox view among Old Testament scholars.

Judaism and Christianity
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Rabbi Petuchowski’s review of The Bridge in your May issue is another in the long line of valuable clarifications you have published.

Yiddish Literature
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As a regular reader of Commentary, I have always been impressed by its high standards of writing and accuracy.

The Future of American Jewry
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Being concerned for the future of American Jewry, I found Herbert J. Gans’s articles in the last two issues of Commentary responding to some of my deepest anxieties.

The “National Review”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am astonished that “Letters from Readers” in your June issue contains only one letter about Dwight Macdonald’s “Scrambled Eggheads on the Right” (April) and that one denunciatory!

The Am Ha-aretz
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Allow me to make some comment on the exchange of views between Mr. Stanley M. Kessler and Rabbi Jakob J.

Conformity, Past and Present
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I fully agree with Mr. Dennis H. Wrong in your April issue (“Riesman and the Age of Sociology”) that David Riesman’s work, while important, has been over-advertised. In my opinion, there is still another weakness in Riesman’s work.

Kudos
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I found David Boroff’s biographical sketch, “Papa,” in the May issue of Commentary extremely moving. . . .

Correction
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I should appreciate the space to make a correction of the Soviet population figures I took from Dr.


by



by


August, 1956Back to Top
Civil Rights in 1956:
Politics Replaces the Economic Motive

by Charles Abrams
One is not surprised to find that most Democrats and Republicans would prefer to see the civil rights issue buried rather than exposed during the coming election campaign.

The Oren Case:
A Fellow-Traveler Comes Home

by Walter Laqueur
Kibbutz misra is one of the oldest collective settlements in the Jezreel valley, not a showplace perhaps, but a solid and neat little village.

Judaism and the Hellenistic Experience:
A Classical Model for Living in Two Cultures

by Moses Hadas
If, in looking back on the long Jewish past, the Hellenistic era appears to be more directly relevant to contemporary Jewish problems than any other period, it is because it was during that period that Jews first had to come to terms with the challenge of Europeanism.

Politics Among the Arabs:
Illusions of Progress, Delusions of Grandeur

by George Lichtheim
No apology is needed for dealing once again with the subject of Arab nationalism. Whether one thinks of the Middle East in general, or of the special issues raised by Israel’s relations with her neighbors, the topic is unavoidable.

Academic Freedom and Faculty Status
by Ralph Ross
From the top of a hill one may see everything for miles around, except the top of the hill. From the vantage point of the liberal arts college, scholars survey all time and space except the liberal arts college.

Poet Out of Israel:
The Odyssey of Pinhas Sadeh

by Herbert Howarth
By birth certificate Pinhas Sadeh is twenty-seven. He was scarcely twenty when readers of Commentary saw the first poem of his to be translated into English, his “Proverbs of the Virgins” (August 1950).

A Curious Theft:
A Story

by Meyer Liben
The junior counsellor ran up to the division head. “We found the Torah in Mickey Rosen’s trunk,” he said breathlessly. From this statement one might surmise that he had been looking for the Torah in Mickey Rosen’s trunk, which was, of course, not the case.

From the American Scene:
The Jewish Past in America

by Charles Reznikoff
The three volumes of Memoirs of American Jews: 1775-1865, edited by Jacob Rader Marcus, cover the period from the beginning of the Revolution until the end of the Civil War.

Cedars of Lebanon:
How I Chose to Come Here

by Abraham Cahan
Two women directed me to a hostel owned by a man called Machover on the other side of the large courtyard.

On the Horizon:
The Litvinov

by Bertram Wolfe
Sometime in 1952 or early 1953, Gregory Bessedovsky, a former Soviet diplomat resident in Paris, approached officials of various governments and representatives of publishing houses with a manuscript purporting to be the diary of Maxim Litvinov, who had died in 1951.

The Study of Man:
On the Economics of F.D.R.

by J. Galbraith
A young Columbia University scholar, Mr. Daniel R. Fusfeld, who is now on the faculty of Hofstra College, has just completed a careful investigation of the economic ideas to which Franklin D.

American Politics in a Revolutionary World, by Chester Bowles
by Irving Kristol
Not One World by Irving Kristol American Politics in a Revolutionary World. By Chester Bowles. Harvard University Press. 131 pp. $2.25. We grow old, but we can hardly believe it, and are always unprepared for the shock of self-recognition in those awful moments when we see ourselves under the harsh aspect of mutability.

Synagogue Architecture in the United States, by Rachel Wischnitzer
by John Hollander
Shuls, Synagogues, and Centers by John Hollander Synagogue Architecture in the United States. By Rachel Wischnitzer. Jewish Publication Society. 204 pp. $6.00. The flurry of architectural and quasi-sociological writing that has accompanied the present rush of construction all over the world is still more or less dominated by the doctrine of functionalism.

A Dance in the Sun, by Dan Jacobson
by Robert Davis
Moral Fable by Robert Gorham Davis A Dance in the Sun. By Dan Jacobson. Harcourt, Brace. 209 pp. $3.50. Marxists used to speak of a law of unequal development in political economy which permitted backward countries to leap suddenly ahead, as Russia did, under the influence of ideas and techniques borrowed from more advanced countries.

The Struggle for Mastery in Europe 1848-1918, by A. J. P. Taylor
by H. Hughes
Diplomatic History by H. Stuart Hughes The Struggle for Mastery in Europe 1848-1918. By A. J. P. Taylor. Oxford. 638 pp. $7.00. Ever since an explosive book entitled The Course of German History appeared in 1946, Mr.

Justice and Judaism, by Albert Vorspan and Eugene J. Lipman
by Jakob Petuchowski
“Prophetic Religion” by Jakob J. Petuchowski Justice and Judaism. By Albert Vorspan and Eugene J. Lipman. Union of American Hebrew Congregations. 271 pp.

An End to Dying, by Sam Astrachan
by Suzanne Silberstein
“Hansen’s Law” in Fiction by Suzanne Silberstein An End to Dying. By Sam Astrachan. Farrar, Straus & Cudahy. 246 pp. $3.50. In spite of the warning on the jacket, An End to Dying, a first novel by a twenty-one-year-old recent graduate of Columbia, is “another autobiographical novel of groping youth.” This is its failing, but also its virtue.

Two Poems
by Charles Gaines
Lost Heritage: II by Charles Gaines And who is this that sells the hot tamales, what shattered voice is this, what modern screamer what Godless one is this that heralds the morning with broken sighs and oaths and kissless lips? Must this one scream the horrors of the world or break his voice against the terrible nights that roll in from the animal core like waves crashing upon the rocks of barren shores? Is this the one whose laughter fills a room like air or gas compressed and then disturbed when in the evening some foul thought is caught between a sip of tea and spoon of beans? Or does he weep behind a mask of laughter, cough little bits of laughter over tears to keep the darkness of his morbid soul from weeping out the windows of the world? Does this one bunion home toward the evening to break a kiss upon some woman’s lips amid the stench of cabbage, grease, and dirt, a blasting radio and bawling baby? If this is him then bless him destiny, pull down the lids across his sleepy eyes for if he wakes while all the others doze he’ll only waste his life behind a wall. _____________ Now Song by Charles Gaines Now is the time of this house and this tree, Now is the time of this storming and lamplight, But the kiss we broke in a weeping of rain Is gone as the seconds and seasons That vanish in a turning of earth. And we, carved here in the rain laughing In a few more trips around the sun Will gasp just once and fall in a motion of mud. What then will be our worth within the earth Or what small thing between our fall and birth Will we have done to let them know we lived? Or must we slip from them unknown As this kiss slips from our lips Unknown to this tree in the raining? Now is the time of this flower That opens its throat to the storm, Now is the time of your beauty and my aggressiveness Here in the rain of the spring arc In an angle of sunlight Lost in a cluster of stars. But our coming here in the rain is a danger, For out of this, a hope is born And we who cling so tenaciously Dream of eternity, dripping with love. Now is the time of this watch Ticking our lives in the storm, Now is the time of this hour and this minute, But the kiss interrupted by a weeping of rain Must be our measurer of time And the heartbeat our metronome, Then we might say, It is quarter to a kiss Or, It is five heartbeats to dinner. And we will know, that, should we meet deletion, That we had Time, Seasons, and Suns at our tongue tips And found the truth between these Tears and Stars. _____________

Reader Letters August 1956
by Our Readers
Communist Teachers TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Two arguments (amid much hysteria) ap- pearing in Paul R. Hays's critique of the AAUP report on academic freedom ("Academic Freedom and Communist Teachers," June) deserve comment.

Communist Teachers
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Two arguments (amid much hysteria) appearing in Paul R. Hays’s critique of the AAUP report on academic freedom (“Academic Freedom and Communist Teachers,” June) deserve comment.

Jewish Survival
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his articles on the “Future of American Jewry” (May and June) Herbert J. Gans predicts the end of Jewish culture, the almost complete extinction of the Jewish community in the United States within the lifetime of another generation.

Two Views of Thaddeus Stevens
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have read with great interest Professor T. Harry Williams’s article, “Thaddeus Stevens; An American Radical,” in the June issue of your publication.

September, 1956Back to Top
Do the Voters Want Moderation?
The Politics of Evasion

by Oscar Handlin
The approaching election is knotted in a bundle of striking paradoxes. The Democratic position as majority party has scarcely been shaken; yet President Eisenhower seems destined to be reelected.

What Price Israel's Defense?
The Middle East’s New High Standard of Armaments

by Hal Lehrman
If all the weapons mounted on one of the twenty-four Israeli Mystère Mark IV jets newly purchased from France are fired for a total of sixty seconds, replacement of the rockets and other missiles expended in that single minute will cost $20,000. Israel’s need today for weapons—and the money to pay for them—is as urgent as it was in the spring of 1948, when the emerging Jewish state had only some ancient light artillery pieces, a few Piper Cubs, and not one tank with which to defend herself against five invading Arab armies.

The Cost of Israel's Survival: Faith, Courage, and Taxes
by Benno Weiser
The customs inspector at Idlewild looked at the gifts which I had brought along from South America. “I am in transit,” I explained. “In transit? Where to?” “To Israel.” The inspector looked at my passport and said sympathetically, “You have troubles there.” I knew that this conversation would not solve Israel’s troubles, but I felt that it could solve those posed by the gifts.

Small-Town Detroit:
Motor City on the Move

by Gerald Weales
Since Detroit does not have a palpable personality, like Atlanta or Montreal, the newcomer can only begin to understand it by realizing that, although the fifth largest city in the United States, it is still essentially a small town.

The "Sons of Light:"
The Spiritual Grandeur of the Dead Sea Scrolls

by Theodor Gaster
Everyone who has read the newspapers or listened to the radio or come within earshot of a professional Bible scholar during the past ten years has heard by now of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and it is safe to say that no archeological discovery of recent times has produced a more profound or sustained public excitement.

End of a Year:
A Story

by Sylvia Rothchild
The trees were ablaze. The water was on fire. Anna Cooperman spent her days sitting on the bank of the Charles River or the pond in Fenway Park, unmoved by the glories of a New England autumn.

Broadway's Missing Communist:
Theater Without Candor

by Eric Bentley
While the Communists have never been numerous in this country, it is a commonplace that their influence anywhere is out of all proportion to their numbers.

A Jeremiad
by Elie Flatto
Even I, an ancient panderer, a prophet impotent, A sterile leaf unwrinkled by God’s fire, Tonight feel in my sack-clothed loins The stirrings of a new fermenting power Raking the dull, dumbed embers of desire; Even I grow restless and cannot sleep. Come now, O foolish town!

Jewish Surnames Through the Ages:
An Etymological History

by Benzion Kaganoff
A man’s name is not like a cloak that merely hangs about him and that one may safely twitch and pull, but a perfectly fitting garment that, like the skin, envelops him so tightly one cannot scratch or scrape it without injuring the man himself.—Goethe _____________   An etymological study of family names runs into much thornier territory than a survey of personal names like the one I undertook in these pages last year (“Jewish First Names Through the Ages,” November 1955).

Cedars of Lebanon:
From the Dead Sea Scrolls

by Our Readers
Among the manuscripts discovered at Qumran in 1947 and since widely known as the Dead Sea Scrolls is a text called by scholars “The Manual of Discipline.” This text formulates the rules and principles of the Brotherhood whose headquarters were located in a recently excavated building near the caves in which the Scrolls were found, and from the library of which those Scrolls are now believed to have come.

On the Horizon:
Middlebrow England: The Novels of Kingsley Amis

by Richard Chase
The English novelist Kingsley Amis is being both hailed and damned in England as the spokesman for the postwar generation, a position he seems to share with two other young novelists, John Wain and Iris Murdoch.

The Study of Man:
Reading the Constitution Anew

by Richard Hofstadter
Every major turn in events seems to bring with it a turn in historical consciousness. The same mood which has recently brought upon us what we so loosely call the “New” Conservatism has also brought a new note into historical writing.

The Power Elite, by C. Wright Mills
by Dennis Wrong
Power in America by Dennis H. Wrong The Power Elite. By C. Wright Mills. Oxford University Press. 423 pp. $6.00. Like Professor Mills’s earlier books, The Power Elite is an uneven blend of journalism, sociology, and moral indignation.

Mori Sa'id, by Hayim Hazaz
by Paul Goodman
Dilemmas of Exile by Paul Goodman Mori Sa’id. By Hayim Hazaz, Translated from the Hebrew by Ben Halpern. Abelard-Schuman. 320 pp. $4.00. We hope for what we do not have.

The Political Behavior of American Jews, by Lawrence H. Fuchs
by
American Jewish Political Characteristics by Werner Cohn The Political Behavior Of American Jews. by Lawrence H. Fuchs. Free Press. 220 pp. $4.00. Professor Fuchs’s book consists of what the dust-jacket blurb calls “a historical account of the political behavior of American Jewry since Colonial times.” My first stricture on his work concerns the fact that many detailed statements are confidently asserted, but without any citation of evidence: thus in 1916 “for the first time in at least sixteen years and perhaps for the first time since 1856 more Jews voted for a Democratic candidate for President than voted for the Republican nominee.” Even more disturbing than the total absence of documentation in these first chapters is the haphazard nature of the account: a little anecdote here, a random piece of statistics there.

Toynbee and History, edited by Ashley Montagu
by Bernard Wishy
Toynbee as Ideologue by Bernard W. Wishy Toynbee and History. Edited by Ashley Montagu. Porter Sargent. 385 pp. $5.00. The well-known social scientist Ashley Montagu has collected over thirty articles to form a symposium on Toynbee’s A Study of History which includes the views of such distinguished scholars as Pieter Geyl, Hugh Trevor-Roper, Geoffrey Barraclough, A.

Negroes on the March, by Daniel Guerin; The Negro Potential, by Eli Ginzberg
by C. Woodward
Propaganda vs. Sobriety by C. Vann Woodward Negroes On The March. By Daniel Guerin. George L. Weissman. 192 pp. $1.50. The Negro Potential.

Reader Letters September 1956
by Our Readers
Jews in Old Russia TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Since I know that you always strive for ac- curacy of fact in the contributions you publish, I was a little surprised by Leon Poliakov's "Of- ficial Anti-Semitism in Old Russia" (July 1956).

Jews in Old Russia
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Since I know that you always strive for accuracy of fact in the contributions you publish, I was a little surprised by Léon Poliakov’s “Official Anti-Semitism in Old Russia” (July 1956).

Tribute
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The best tribute I can pay to the February [1956] number of Commentary, which is the first issue of the magazine I have ever seen .

Teachers & Pupils
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It is obvious from Arthur Brodbeck’s review of Joan Dunn’s book Retreat from Learning, in your July issue, that he is not a public-school classroom teacher.

Trade Unions in the Middle East
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to comment on Walter Zander’s article “Arab Nationalism and Israel” (July). My purpose is rather to amplify his viewpoint with some recent developments I was privy to at the June sessions of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions in Brussels, its world headquarters. The ICFTU, a six-year-old organization of free trade union organizations throughout the world (including our own AFL-CIO), has been able to bring into its fold whatever significant trade unions there are in the Arab world.

National Review's Answer
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I found it impossible to comment on Mr. Dwight Macdonald’s charges against National Review, as published in your March issue (“Scambled Eggheads on the Right”) in the space you allocate for such purposes.

October, 1956Back to Top
The White Citizens Councils:
Respectable Means for Unrespectable Ends

by David Halberstam
In march of this year Congressman John Bell William told a Greenville, Mississippi, White Citizens Council, “I’d gladly trade all the Negroes in the country for my few good nigger friends.” Williams is no political scientist—he flunked out of the University of Mississippi law school in near record time—but on this occasion he did, if inadvertently, define the nature of the Citizens Council movement.

Soviet Policy and Jewish Fate:
In Russia and in Israel

by Walter Laqueur
It took almost three years after Stalin’s death to find out what had happened to the Jews of the Soviet Union during what was almost as fateful a period of Jewish history as that which unfolded under the curse of Hitler.

Is the Intellectual Obsolete?
The Freely Speculating Mind in America

by H. Hughes
An acquaintance of mine who knows the Soviet Union well is fond of declaring that in the mid-20th century the intellectual has become an anachronism.

Suez and the Western Powers:
Where Will Nasser Stop?

by George Lichtheim
When an international crisis bursts upon the world, one of the things it does is to set earlier events in better perspective.

Notes on Gentile Pro-Semitism:
New England’s “Good Jews”

by Edmund Wilson
The Gentile of American Puritan stock who puts himself in contact with the Hebrew culture finds something at once so alien that he has to make a special effort in order to adjust himself to it, and something that is perfectly familiar.

The Books of Doom:
Life and Death of the Shtetl

by Sarah Schack
A unique literature is being written on the life and death, during the last war, of the Jewish communities of Eastern Europe.

North Africa Meets the Modern World:
Islam and Democracy in Morocco and Tunisia

by Benjamin Rivlin
The men who led the peoples of Morocco and Tunisia in their successful struggle for independence, achieved only this past year, and who now direct the destinies of these new nations, are in a position like that of most successful candidates for political office: they have won and they have to produce.

The Cadillac of Bibles:
A Story

by Leon Rosenbloom
Max brodsky reread the ad in the sales section of the Help Wanted column in the Times: Int yg mn, marr, exp not nec, avct, 117 wk, comm & bon, educ serv, Lo-2-3434.

Mr. Mammon
by David Ignatow
It was no use their pleading with me to whom they came for pay Fridays. I demanded loyalty, efficiency, promptness and no problem about it. I would raise my voice too in anger or sarcasm and I would see white come into their faces.

Cedars of Lebanon:
Debate at Barcelona: Has the Messiah Come?

by Our Readers
Public debates on religion between Jews and Christians were a frequent occurrence in Europe during the Middle Ages, when the representative of the Church, who was most often a converted Jew, sought to triumph over his reluctant Jewish antagonist by demonstrating out of Jewish texts themselves that Christianity was the “fulfillment” of Judaism. Such a debate was held in July and August of 1263 in Barcelona at the court of King Jayme I of Aragon.

On the Horizon:
A Talk with Robert Graves

by Arnold Sherman
I often saw a towering giant of a man, beyond middle age and usually dressed in an over-sized sweater and dungarees, on the beach near our home on Majorca.

The Study of Man:
The Business Elite: Then and Now

by Morroe Berger
The prestige of the American businessman, appropriately enough in this land of free enterprise and social mobility, has always been great.

Cousins and Strangers, edited by S. Gorley Putt
by Clement Greenberg
American Stereotypes by Clement Greenberg Cousins and Strangers: Comments on America by Commonwealth Fund Fellows From Britain: 1946–1952. Edited by S. Gorley Putt.

Confessions of "The Old Wizard," by Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht
by Maurice Goldbloom
Hitler’s Economist by Maurice J. Goldbloom Confessions of “The Old Wizard.” By Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht. Houghton Mifflin. 484 pp. $5.50. In Medieval demonology, a wizard was the male equivalent of a witch, a man who had sold his soul to the devil.

The Jewish Heritage, edited by Ephraim Levine; Midcentury, edited by Harold U. Ribalow; Jewish Life in America, edited by Theodo
by Jacob Neusner
British and American Jewries by Jacob Neusner The Jewish Heritage. Edited by Ephraim Levine. Vallentine, Mitchell (London). 225 pp. 18 shillings. Midcentury. Edited by Harold U.

The Fathers According to Rabbi Nathan, translated from the Hebrew by Judah Goldin
by Louis Finkelstein
Talmudic Portraiture by Louis Finkelstein The Fathers According to Rabbi Nathan (Abot De-Rabbi Natan). Translated from the Hebrew by Judah Goldin. Yale University Press.

Three Volumes of Short Stories
by Irving Feldman
Short Stories from Europe by Irving Feldman Beasts And Men. By Pierre Gascar. Atlantic-Little, Brown. 249 pp. $3.50. The Marked One. By Jacob Picard.

Jews, Christians, Hellenists
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Professor Hadas (“Judaism and the Hellenistic Experience,” August 1956) limited his historical analysis to the “classic” encounter between Pharisaic Torah religion and Hellenistic humanism and touched only by implication on the perplexities of our modern situation. The modern case differs, however, from the classic paradigm in at least two ways: (1) The challenge of modern humanism is even more intensive, since it touches upon the very right of Jewish existence and (2) our response is less forthright than the answer of Philo. The difference is largely due to a contemporary of Philo, another Hellenistic Jew, a Pharisee reared in the Rabbinic Torah religion, who turned apostle to the Gentiles and brought to them the apocalyptic message of the crucified Messiah as a new Torah.

Asia & the "Liberal Fallacy"
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have read Irving Kristol's review of Chester Bowles's book (August 1956) with great interest and completely approve of the philosophic foundations of his criticism.

Scope of Orthodoxy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his book review of Justice and Judaism in your August issue, Rabbi Jakob Petuchowski makes a number of controversial statements, but one, in particularly bad taste, stands out: namely, that Reform “made it possible for the Jew .

Dylan Thomas
by Our Readers
To The Editor: As trustees for the copyrights of Dylan Thomas . . . we wish to make as complete a collection as possible of the texts of his letters.

Detroit's Library
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Re Gerald Weales’s article on Detroit in the September issue (“Small-town Detroit”): I wonder why Mr. Weales did not bother to speak of the Detroit Public Library, regarded among librarians as one of the truly great, modern American public libraries. Arnold P.

Pentateuch: Oral and Written
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his review of my book The Growth of the Pentateuch (July) Mr. James Brown negates the value of my thorough literary analysis by the argument that the Pentateuch was originally a collection of orally transmitted texts redacted in post-Exilic times.

November, 1956Back to Top
Power and the Presidency:
Required: Pragmatic Idealism

by Bernard Wishy
The powers and prerogatives that President Eisenhower now invokes as a matter of course would, if foreseen back in 1930, have shocked the Franklin Roosevelt and the Harry Truman no less than the Herbert Hoover of those days.

The Dance
by Paul Zweig
When all the animals have fled into your eyes, To dance and sing the first flesh of the bone; When all the great bears and the humming birds Have shed the shadow of their silent wood, To be begotten on your sense and sight; Then you too shall dance among the animals, For were you not begotten on the mind of God? When the ocean’s diamonds fade in darkness, And the lost winds howl home above the beaches; When all the animals have fled into your eyes, To keep their company with you, who love their motions As they hum and shuffle in the new-born wind; Then you too shall dance among the animals, For were you not begotten on the mind of God? And then when all the world comes dancing in Your eyes, the sound of humming birds, and the shambling Of the great shaggy bears will pass, and the winds howl out Over the beaches, and there will be a hollow in the eyes Where the animals and all were born and died; And then you too shall dance among the animals, For were you not begotten on the mind of God? _____________

What Future for Judaism in Russia?
The Dark Record of the Past

by Lucy Dawidowicz
The several rabbinical delegations from America that visited Russia this past summer to see for themselves how matters stood with the Jewish religious community there have returned and made their reports.

New Moderation in Security
by Maurice Goldbloom
The recovery of American public life from the plague somewhat inaccurately called “McCarthyism” has been proceeding at an increasingly rapid pace.

The Case of Ring Lardner
by John Berryman
It is a disconcerting feature of much American literary art that either it’s so closely bound up with the world of popular entertainment that the boundaries between are not easy to fix, or else—as of poetry, say (Ogden Nash allowed as an exception)—it has no relation to that world at all.

The Books of Doom, II:
Last Days of Byten

by Sarah Schack
In slonim, in March 1942, six hundred people were hustled into the market place, deprived of all their possessions, beaten, and told to get out of town fast.

Can Israel Support Herself?
The Means: Production and Austerity

by Oded Remba
With the announcement in September 1955 of the Egyptian-Czechoslovak arms deal and the emergence of the Soviet Union as a major force on the Middle Eastern scene, Israel entered the most critical period of her existence since the end of the war of liberation.

The Jew in Recent Franco-Jewish Novels:
Assimilation and the Rights of Man

by Edouard Roditi
Nobody knows how many Jews there really are in France today. Under the German occupation of France, when all Jews were required to register with the authorities, tens of thousands of them managed to live under cover with false identification papers; the French authorities, at the time, were surprised to discover that their country, flooded with refugees from other German-occupied areas, had so many Jews.

Shakespeare Sonnets for Modern Reading
by Howard Moss
Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s Day? by Howard Moss Who says you’re like one of the dog days? You’re nicer. And better. Even in May, the weather can be gray, And a summer sublet doesn’t last forever. Sometimes the sun’s too hot; Sometimes it is not. Who can stay young forever? People break their necks or just drop dead! But you? Never! If there’s just one condensed reader left Who can figure out the abridged alphabet After you’re dead and gone, In this poem you’ll live on! _____________ When in Disgrace with Fortune and Men’s Eyes by Howard Moss When I’m out of cash and full of shame, And crying to beat the band, alone, And even God doesn’t know my name, And all I do is weep and moan, I curse myself in the mirror, Wishing I had a future, Or some real pals, or was a good looker, Or even a crazy artist, or a deep thinker! As I said, when even the old kicks seem tame, And just when I hate myself the most, I think about you.

No Golden Tombstones for Me!
A Story

by Arthur Granit
“Treasure!” said Usher’s mother. “Come here and look me straight in the face and tell me what you see.” “Nothing! I see nothing, Ma,” said Usher. “The truth, now, the truth.

Cedars of Lebanon:
The Justice of Louis Dembitz Brandeis

by Our Readers
OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES proved a prophet when he said, "For the rational study of the law the black-letter man may be the man of the present, but the man of the future is the man of statistics and the master of economics." Louis D.

On the Horizon:
The "Two Worlds" of David Daiches

by Stanley Hyman
DAVID DAICHES'S essay in auto- biography comes subtitled "A Jew- ish Childhood in Edinburgh," and its assurance that those two worlds combine picturesquely has convinced at least the jacket designer, who stencils a menorah against a colored background that looks sus- piciously like a tartan.

The Study of Man:
Immigration and Acculturation

by William Petersen
IN THE United States, the assimilation of immigrants was a subject of great con- cern in the early 1920's. Since then, with the decline of immigration, both popular and academic interest in it has waned.

Crestwood Heights, by John R. Seeley, R. Alexander Simm, and Elizabeth W. Looseley
by Nathan Glazer
Suburban Happiness by Nathan Glazer Crestwood Heights: A Study of the Culture of Suburban Life. By John R. Seeley, R. Alexander Simm, and Elizabeth W.

The Heart Has Its Reasons-the Memoirs of the Duchess of Windsor
by Lillian McCall
Duke & Duchess of Hearts by Lillian B. McCall The Heart has its Reasons—the Memoirs of the Duchess of Windsor. David McKay.

Violent Truce, by Commander E. H. Hutchison
by Hal Lehrman
Blinkered Observer by Hal Lehrman Violent Truce. By Commander E. H. Hutchison. Devin-Adair. 199 pp. $3.50. On the evening of June 30, 1954, firing broke out across the frontier dividing Jordanian from Israeli Jerusalem.

The Outsider, by Colin Wilson
by Sidney Hook
Sense & Salvation by Sidney Hook The Outsider. By Colin Wilson. Houghton Mifflin. 288 pp. $4.00. There was a time when to convict a thinker of absurdity was to place him under an inteltellectual obligation to rise to the argument or change his position.

The Republicans: A History of Their Party, by Malcolm Moos
by Seymour Lipset
The Republican Story by Seymour Martin Lipset The Republicans: A History of Their Party. By Malcolm Moos. Random House. 564 pp. $5.95. Conservative political parties have always been unattractive subjects for modern scholars and intellectuals.

The Philosophy of the Church Fathers, Vol. I, by Harry A. Wolfson
by Moses Hadas
Strictly Intellectual by Moses Hadas The Philosophy of the Church Fathers. Volume I, Faith, Trinity, Incarnation. By Harry A. Wolfson. Harvard University Press.

China and Soviet Russia, by Henry Wei
by G. Hudson
Intervention & Non-Intervention by G. F. Hudson China and Soviet Russia. By Henry Wei. Van Nostrand. 379 pp. $7.75. Dr. Wei’s book covers the history of Sino-Soviet relations from 1917 to the present day, that is to say a period of thirty-nine years, during the last seven of which the government of mainland China has been identical with the Chinese Communist party.

Reader Letters November 1956
by Our Readers
Jewish Names: Old & New TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: It is no more than human that a few errors should have crept into Rabbi Benzion Kagan- noff's excellent article on "Jewish Surnames Through the Ages" in the September issue.

Jewish Names: Old & New
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It is no more than human that a few errors should have crept into Rabbi Benzion Kagannoff’s excellent article on “Jewish Surnames Through the Ages” in the September issue.

Robert Graves Demurs
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Gratified as I am by being considered worthy of a profile in Commentary, I find that Mr. Arnold Sherman has made a number of misstatements which greatly embarrass me.

Jewish Politics
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Werner Cohn has written a patronizing . . . review of my book The Political Behavior of American Jews (September). Mr.

Du Maurier: George & Gerald
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In the October issue of your admirably edited magazine, I find an error in Mr. Edmund Wilson’s article (“Notes on Gentile Pro-Semitism”) which I am sure you and he would want to correct.

December, 1956Back to Top
Washington's "New Pacifism:"
Morality and the Free World’s Interests

by Hal Lehrman
The administration’s search for a policy in the Middle East, this writer was told the other day in Washington by one who helps look for it, reminded him of the ant who got tired of taking so long to travel from one place to another, and was told by an older ant to turn himself into a grasshopper if he wanted to go faster.

Why England and France Intervened:
Was the Soviet Timetable Upset?

by George Lichtheim
The month that failed to shake the world is over. As I write in mid-November, “order” of a sort reigns in Hungary, while in Egypt the ruling military clique must ponder the dangers of embarking on a fresh round.

Russia Enters the Levant:
The Arab World in Flux

by Ray Alan
Until 1914, Britain, the outside power most concerned with the Near East, had worked to preserve the independence and integrity of the Ottoman Empire as a means of denying footholds within reach of the Suez Canal to her European rivals.

Eruption in East Europe:
A Myth Destroyed and a Revolution Betrayed

by Hugh Seton-Watson
The “thaw” in Poland goes back at least to the fall of Beria in June of 1953. One consequence of this event was the defection to the West of a high official of the Polish security police named Josef Swiatlo.

The Paradox of Jawaharlal Nehru:
Democracy at Home, and Abroad—?

by G. Hudson
The events in Egypt and Hungary have brought into focus as an issue in Indian politics the “double standard” which Nehru has long maintained in his judgments on world affairs as between the Western powers and the states of the Sino-Soviet bloc.

Hate-Monger with Literary Trimmings:
From Avant-Garde Poetry to Rear-Guard Politics

by James Rorty
Since the late Huey Long departed this world in a blaze of ambiguous gunfire, our professional rabble-rousers have been a singularly untalented lot.

Why Do You Come From, Baby Dear
by Gerald Weales
The whole world’s gone fertile with a vengeance. Each morning’s mail brings news of a baby born. I change no diapers, nor walk in morning Hours to still a child.

Erich Fromm's Midrash on Love:
The Sacred and the Secular Forms

by Jakob Petuchowski
There is a sense in which Erich Fromm’s new book, The Art of Loving, might be said to represent a 20th-century midrash—particularly on the early chapters of Genesis.

A Chair in Heaven:
A Story

by Anzia Yezierska
I met Sara Rosalsky’s daughter, Mrs. Hyman, at the home of a friend where I was baby-sitting. One day she asked me to work for her. “I need someone to sit with my mother.

The Saint
by Irving Feldman
God, you were the handle to every door And I walked the world unlocking them To find always myself. I see the poor And starve, the naked are my shame, The evil undo, the sick burn Me, the wretched are my sorrow. I never wanted this—so to be torn By the plow of pity in every furrow. I wanted only to be there, And be still and slowly to grow Empty and round, to be all in my ear And listen for your endless Now. But this goodness gives me away from you, For love has scattered my soul through Fields and towns.

From the American Scene:
A Summer Kaddish

by Alan Benjamin
Sh’loshim, the first sorrowful month of mourning. I now began a new schedule of living, arising each day a full hour earlier than was my custom.

Cedars of Lebanon:
Joy in the Holy Days

by Hermann Cohen
Hermann Cohen was born in the small town of Coswig, in Anhalt, Germany, in 1842. Abandoning his intention of becoming a rabbi—his father was a cantor and a teacher of Hebrew—he devoted himself instead to the study of philosophy.

On the Horizon:
Annals of the Prize Ring

by Steven Marcus
When Gentleman Dick Humphries ascended the stage at Odiham, Hampshire, on January 9, 1788, for his widely heralded first match with Daniel Mendoza, his fighting dress consisted of a pair of fine flannel drawers, white silk stockings with gold-colored clocks, pumps, and black shoe ribbons.

The Study of Man:
Science, Ideology, and Dialogue

by Norman Birnbaum
The World Congress of Sociology, which met late in August of this year in Amsterdam, if it did nothing else, may have shocked some of the participating sociologists into practicing their discipline on themselves.

Sonnet
by Yehuda Amichai
The thoughts came to him like long lines of freight, a convoy of supplies before the battle. They came to him in order, one by one, and while he was unloading them, he thought them out in sentences, in neat array. The shots were commas, full stops, dots above the i’s.

The Crucial Decade, by Eric F. Goldman
by Irving Kristol
Trivia and History by Irving Kristol The Crucial Decade: America 1945-1955. By Eric F. Goldman. Knopf. 298 pp. $4.00. “Strange,” Thomas Carlyle noted sarcastically apropos Mary Queen of Scots and her English historians, “that a man should think he was writing the history of a nation while he is chronicling the amours of a wanton young woman.

The Fertile Plain, by Esther Salaman
by Dan Jacobson
Memory Uncorrupted by Dan Jacobson The Fertile Plain. By Esther Salaman. The Hogarth Press. London. 344 pp. 15s. The Fertile Plain is the record of the life of a girl who has among her earliest memories the sight of a revolutionary fleeing past her window: “I can see her now: she ran as if the top of her body wanted to leave the legs behind.

The Peculiar Institution, by Kenneth M. Stampp
by David Donald
Slavery Reviewed by David Donald The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South. By Kenneth M. Stampp. Knopf. 436 pp. $5.75. Current American historiography is atavistic.

The Letters of Thomas Wolfe, edited by Elizabeth Nowell
by Milton Hindus
An American Writer by Milton Hindus The Letters of Thomas Wolfe. Edited by Elizabeth Nowell. Scribner’s. 797 pp. $10.00. Characteristically, this book of Wolfe’s letters is a behemoth.

Martin Buber, the Life of Dialogue, by Maurice S. Friedman; The Writings of Martin Buber, edited by Will Herberg
by Heinz Politzer
The Social Buber by Heinz Politzer Martin Buber, the Life of Dialogue. By Maurice S. Friedman. University of Chicago Press. 310 pp.

Three Years in America, 1859-1862, by I. J. Benjamin
by John Higham
Early Jewish Traveler by John Higham Three Years in America, 1859-1862. By I. J. Benjamin. Translated from the German by Charles Reznikoff.

Reader Letters December 1956
by Our Readers
Judaism for the Doubters TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I was disappointed in the appraisal Stanley Edgar Hyman gave of David Daiches's views ("The 'Two Worlds' of David Daiches," No- vember).

Judaism for the Doubters
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was disappointed in the appraisal Stanley Edgar Hyman gave of David Daiches’s views (“The ‘Two Worlds’ of David Daiches,” November).

Justice Holmes & the Jews
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Many of your readers must have been astonished by Edmund Wilson’s “Notes on Gentile Pro-Semitism” in your October issue.

Mr. Lehrman Prophesies
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Just how many people have drawn your attention to Mr. Hal Lehrman’s “prophetic” anecdote in his article “Three Weeks in Cairo,” in your issue of last February? I refer to his remark, “In Cairo salons I even heard lugubrious speculations that the Soviet arms shipments endanger Egypt: It only leaves more stuff around for Israelis to capture.” In Israel at that time, shortly after a punitive raid, when the troops brought back a few lorries and guns, the current wisecrack was: Question: Who is the biggest donor to the Keren Magen (Arms Fund)? Answer: The Egyptian army.

Names, Fine & Otherwise
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his interesting article on “Jewish Surnames Through the Ages,” (September), Dr. Benzion C. Kaganoff seems to have been slightly mistaken about the not so fine-sounding names Jews sometimes happened to be stuck with.




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