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January, 1957Back to Top
A Discussion
by Our Readers
H. Stuart Hughes's article “Is the Intellectual Obsolete?” which appeared in our October 1956 number, inquired into the present role and status of the intellectual in American life.

The Duke of Windsor
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have not read the memoirs of the Duchess of Windsor, which were reviewed in the November issue by Lillian B.

The American Jewish Committee
A Half-Century View

by Oscar Handlin
The American Jewish Committee long reflected the intellectual and social views of the community in which it had been established in 1906.

The Prophet Announces
by Harvey Shapiro
And so they arrive for all the world to see, Elijah with the shofar to his mouth, His hand upon the guide reins of the King, Who rides an ass.

Story of the Sinai Campaign
"Operation Kadesh"

by Leo Heiman
The truck that gave us a lift back to Nitsana was loaded with hundreds of wood saws and thousands of cans of anti-freeze—all of it made in Russia and captured from the Egyptians.

Budapest Under Fire
The Conspiracy of Freedom

by Peter Schmid
I had no trouble crossing over from Austria into Hungary on November 1, though the threat of Russian intervention already hung in the air like a black cloud.

Will the Western Alliance Survive?
A British View of American Policy

by Henry Brandon
For more than two years the bonds of the Western Alliance, forged when the cold war was hotter, have been slackening.

The Jews of South Africa
Portrait of a Flourishing Community

by Dan Jacobson
Though there have been Jews in South Africa almost since the first days of European settlement of the Cape in the middle of the 17th century, the South African Jewish community of today is the child of the same great wave of emigration from Europe which carried so many Jews to the United States from about 1880 onwards.

Liberalism and the Law
Justice Frankfurter and Professor Chafee

by Sidney Hook
There is a root ambiguity in the word “liberal.” It is reflected in the fact that its opposite is in some contexts “illiberal,” which no one will own up to being, and in other contexts “conservative,” to which, if it is kept in lower case, everyone in some respect can make a claim.

The Ascalon Light
A Story

by A. Davidson
When a phrase grows trite it is, I suppose, usual enough that the fact behind the phrase should lose some of its reality.

On the Horizon: Radicalism in the American Novel
by Richard Chase
There is no more notorious fact about American culture than its cruel and bewildering changes. The writer sleep-walking through the later years of his life because his ideas and his reputation belong to some earlier era is a common and a sad spectacle.

The French in Cyprus, 1956
by J. Lukacs
In warm rusty ships they are sent       to places   Void now of the purple prisms of the       East, Their brown bodies tired with skepticism's       yeast,   The Levantine babble was kept from       their young faces. Yet “les parfums, les couleurs et les sons se       répondent,”   Baudelaire's buried but his images go       deeper; Perfume, amber, Saint Jean, verdigris, and       chypre,   Their symbolic mission to the warm       Eastern pond. Sons of the brume, of the restraining roof       on ô!   Long outshouted by Wagner's Heya-Ho!   Long told that their race has come seedless       and brittle, And yet: there they were, berets gay with       menace,   To still remind the world, these Français       en Chypre,   Of the still entente between Saint George       and Saint Denis. _____________

Cedars of Lebanon: Not on the Side of the Angels
by Our Readers
The following extract from the Midrash T'hillim—the collection of midrashim on the Book of Psalms—deals with the eighth Psalm, the oldest commentary we have on the Creation of Man.

The Study of Man: Pagan Symbols in Jewish Antiquity
by Erwin Goodenough
The decorations on Jewish graves and synagogues during the Greco-Roman period have long been known in part, but the number of such decorations uncovered is now increasing.

Questions Jews Ask: Reconstructionist Answers, by Mordecai M. Kaplan; A New Zionism, by Mordecai M. Kaplan
by David Baumgardt
Dr. Kaplan and Reconstructionism Questions Jews Ask: Reconstructionist Answers By Mordecai M. Kaplan Reconstructionist Press. 532 pp. $4.75. A New Zionism By Mordecai M. Kaplan Theodor Herzl Foundation.

England and the Middle East; The Destruction of the Ottoman Empire 1914-1921, by Elie Kedourie
by George Lichtheim
The Arab “Nation” England and the Middle East: The Destruction of the Ottoman Empire 1914-1921 By Elie Kedourie Bowes & Bowes (Cambridge). 236 pp.

Giovanni's Room, by James Baldwin
by Charles Nichols
The New Calvinism Giovanni's Room By James Baldwin dial Press. 248 pp. $3.00.   Baptized in the fierce fires of evangelism, scourged by race hate, redeemed by the blessings of partisans and reviewers, James Baldwin has emerged as one of the most promising of the younger American writers.

From the Tablets of Sumer, by Samuel Noah Kramer
by Jack Finegan
An Ancient Civilization From the tablets of Sumer, Twenty-five firsts in Man's Recorded History By Samuel Noah Kramer The Falcon's Wing Press.

Gertrud Kolmar: Das Lyrische Werk
by Michael Hamburger
German-Jewish Poetess Gertrud Kolmar: Das Lyrische Werk. Deutsche Akademie für Sprache und Dichtung. Heidelberg Darmstadt: Verlag Lambert Schneider. DM 16.50.   In his epilogue to this posthumous collection of Gertrud Kolmar's complete poems, Mr.

Reader Letters January 1957
by Our Readers
The Duke of Windsor TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I have not read the memoirs of the Duchess of Windsor, which were reviewed in the No- vember issue by Lillian B.

February, 1957Back to Top
Request for Einstein Letters
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The estate of Albert Einstein of which I am the executor is preparing Einstein's voluminous correspondence for publication.

Praise
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The December issue of COMMENTARY—with its timely, informative, and authoritative articles on the Middle East, East Europe, and on the analysis of Nehru—is so excellent that I want to write and tell you about it.

Jews & the Iron Curtain
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his article on “Soviet Policy and Jewish Fate” (October 1956) Mr. Walter Z. Laqueur censures my “attempt” during my visit to Rumania to “rescue East European Jews from their isolation,” and he quotes some remarks of mine to Bucharest reporters.

Precept of Love
by Our Readers
To the Editor: May I add two observations to Rabbi Petuchowski's penetrating review of Erich Fromm's The Art of Loving (December). While Fromm's latest work may be a modern midrash, as a Christian I claim that it contains no basic precept of love that isn't taught in a sermon or Bible class or through pastoral counsel.

Where Mindszenty Stands
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his otherwise very good article “Budapest Under Fire” (January) Mr. Peter Schmid seems to have given credence to a rumor which has been accepted as a “fact” by many other responsible men.

Proud Detroiters
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The September 1956 article “Small-Town Detroit,” by Gerald Weales, prompts this letter. . . . The claim that “one seldom meets” Detroiters with much civic pride and that Detroit “chiefly inspires indifference” could be disproved many times over in daily contacts with Detroiters.

Thomas Wolfe & the Jews
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Certain matters connected with Maurice Hindus's generally competent and judicious review of Elizabeth Nowell's edition of The Letters of Thomas Wolfe in the December issue seem to me to bear correction or comment. First, a factual amendment to Mr.

The Kaddish-Sayers
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Alan Benjamin's touching but revealing sketch of “A Summer Kaddish” in your December issue points up the pressing need for a sober analysis of Jewish religious mores in America.

The Revolution in U. S. Foreign Policy
From Containment to Spheres of Influence?

by Hans Morgenthau
Just two centuries ago, in 1756, there occurred an event which has gone down in history as the “Diplomatic Revolution.” For two generations before that date, the conflict between Austria, allied with Great Britain, and France, allied with Prussia, had dominated the international scene.

Letter from Israel
Sinai and After

by Meir Mindlin
We had just come home from a movie that Saturday night when the bell rang. I went to the door wondering who could be calling at that hour, and when I opened it I didn't recognize the young fellow standing there till I noticed the printed army call-up slip he held in his hand.

Progress of a Suburban Jewish Community
Park Forest Revisited

by Herbert Gans
Park Forest, a privately developed suburban new town located some thirty miles south of Chicago, started off with its first tenants in the summer of 1948.

The American Communists Today
Parting of the Ways?

by Maurice Goldbloom
For the first time since its “Bolshevization” over three decades ago, the Communist party of the United States is facing a convention, to be held this month, which will actually decide party policy and not merely approve a decision laid down in advance.

Fire
A story

by Isaac Singer
I want to tell you a story. It isn't from a book—it happened to me personally. I've kept it secret all these years, but I know now I'll never leave this poorhouse alive.

"A Dead Branch on the Tree of Israel"
The Xuetas of Majorca

by Robert Graves
The Xueta (pronounced: shwetta)1 community, who occupy a couple of streets in the center of Palma, the capital of Majorca, and monopolize the goldsmith and silversmith trades, are of unmixed Jewish stock, but strict Catholics.

My Friend Paul
One Who Survived

by Theodore Frankel
Looking at Paul Weiss one would never suspect that only twelve years have passed since he came out of Buchenwald.

G.I. Reprise
by William Poster
At peenemund, V-Twos rose slowly into     the air, mammoths of a new order, self-sealing, shutting out the old like natural air. We     watched, chewing spearmint, with knowing grins,     until we saw that it was plainly feasible and cunningly consented as strong boys tucked us into jeeps and     half-tracks, all neatly ticketed, rules and regulations encircling the last Awol, guerrillas, fauves, Bohemians, idealists utterly defeated in their first great clash with fashion.

Liberal Unpolitics on Stage and Screen
Gesture Without Content

by Henry Popkin
We live now in an era which is characterized by the absence of great divisive political issues at home. On the one big issue of the moment—desegregation—the liberals have been joined by the right wing, or what used to be the right wing: of the four candidates for national office in 1956, only one—Vice President Nixon, the man reputedly most conservative—was able to claim membership in the NAACP.

Cedars of Lebanon: Herman Melville in Jerusalem
by Our Readers
One hundred years ago Herman Melville made a trip to Europe and the Levant which took him through Scotland, Liverpool (where he renewed his acquantaince with Hawthorne), Gibraltar, Algiers, Malta, Greece, Turkey, Egypt, Syria, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Holland, and England again.

On the Horizon: John Strachey Twenty Years After
by William Petersen
Like thousands of others who grew up during the 1930's, I owe a certain debt of gratitude to John Strachey.

The Study of Man: Cultural Differences and Race
by Kenneth Bock
During the past two decades social scientists have responded to the awful reality of racial persecution with a vigorous attack on racist theory.1 Anthropologists in particular have called attention to the obvious facts that racial classifications are at best tenuous, that races can be identified, if at all, only in terms of measurable physical characteristics, and that there is no evidence for the existence of innately inferior or superior races.

Gestapo-Instrument of Tyranny, by Edward Crankshaw
by John Lichtblau
The Unique Crime Gestapo—Instrument of Tyranny By Edward Crankshaw Viking. 275 pp. $3.75.   Edward Crankshaw's Gestapo contains very little that has not appeared previously in books, articles, or public testimony.

So Fell the Angels, by Thomas G. Belden and Marva R. Belden
by Edward Saveth
Father Fixation So Fell the Angels By Thomas G. Belden and Marva R. Belden Little, Brown. 401 pp. $5.00.   Suddenly, and for no reason that makes any real sense, the pursuit of father by women who should know better has become almost a fad.

Prophecy and Religion in Ancient China and Israel, by H. H. Rowley
by Moses Hadas
Urbanity & Fervor Prophecy and Religion in Ancient China and Israel By H. H. Rowley Harper 154 pp. $2.75.   The leveling of partitions between civilizations which students of anthropology, comparative literature, psychology, and other disciplines have effected in recent decades has contributed substantially to a general awareness of the essential brotherhood of man and may one day facilitate the ecumenical organization of society.

Six Books on Russia
by Paul Willen
Many-Headed Monster Khrushchev and Stalin's Ghost By Bertram D. Wolfe Praeger. 322 pp. $3.95. The Changing World of Soviet Russia By David J. Dallin Yale University Press.

The Refugee and the World Community, by John G. Stoessinger
by Sidney Liskofsky
No Place to go The Refugee and the World Community By John G. Stoessinger University of Minnesota Press. 239 pp. $4.50.   Events in Hungary and Egypt have once again made the refugee a central figure on the international stage.

Reader Letters February 1957
by Our Readers
The Kaddish-Sayers TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Mr. Alan Benjamin's touching but revealing sketch of "A Summer Kaddish" in your De- cember issue points up the pressing need for a sober analysis of Jewish religious mores in America.

March, 1957Back to Top
Footnote to Duke of Windsor
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In your January issue you carry an exchange of letters between Mr. Irving M. Engel and Mrs. Lillian Blumberg McCall re the Duke of Windor's pro-Nazi sympathies. Mrs.

Goldsmiths Street in Majorca
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to make a single point with regard to Robert Graves's fascinating article, “A Dead Branch on the Tree of Israel” (February).

American Council for Judaism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Oscar Handlin's anniversary contribution to your January 1957 issue dealing with the history of the American Jewish Committee contains a regrettable misstatement of the position of the American Council for Judaism.

"Free Practical Intellectuals"
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I wish to endorse heartily the arguments of Morton White in his reply to H. Stuart Hughes in your January “Letters from Readers.” I do so as a relatively late convert to his ideal of the “free practical intellectual,” having been strongly inoculated at college with the Spenglerian virus (I wrote my A.B.

"Militant Jew"
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In the excerpts from Melville's Journal (February, “Herman Melville in Jerusalem”), reference is made to Warder Crisson of Philadelphia.

The United States and Israel
The Tortuous Path of Compromise

by Hal Lehrman
Israel has emerged from a month of agonizing maneuver almost as dramatic and conceivably as perilous as the month of her birth.

Poland and the Jewish Remnant
End of a Long History?

by Lucjan Blit
To visit Poland now is to visit tragedy. The scene is bare. Want and penury creep through the streets like yellow smoke over the rubble of a burnt-out house.

Program for a European Settlement
The West Must Explain Itself to Soviet Youth

by Hugh Seton-Watson
Four months after the October days in Poland and the Hungarian revolution, the political outlook remains confused in Eastern Europe, and indeed for Europe as a whole. In Poland the Gomulka regime does not seem to be in immediate danger.

The Lost Children
by Jacob Sloan
They have become no legend. Fifteen winters after, no one any more dreams of their pigeoning home- ward in the same light cottons they were driven out in, wings, pushing hands, through the dumptruck bars. But the Lost Tribes are no comparison. What stones could time have possibly thrown across the river Sambation of our wide unrest, to defend them from the alien host? What Messiah raised up to head their gay infant crusade for our redemption? Part of no fate, nothing at all to do with our vacated faith, they have slid down the drains of our memory unclogged by myth.

The Lubovitcher Movement: I
Organized Mysticism

by Herbert Weiner
In Korea one day, an American soldier wandered off from his squad looking for a stream in which to wash his hands before opening his can of C-Rations.

Jordan: Rise and Fall of a Squirearchy
by Ray Alan
“We bow our heads in respect and admiration for this heroic people which has dealt such a painful blow to imperialism!” Major Salah Salem, commenting thus in the Cairo daily Ash Shaab on the eclipse of British influence in Jordan, was, of course, indulging his customary hyperbole; but he was well on target.

The Tobacconist
A Story

by Dannie Abse
Clearly, having only four shillings to my name I needed a job. At least until the end of the week when, for my mother's sweet sake, Uncle Monty might advance me some money.

Neo-Conservatism and American Literature
Traditional Impulse and Radical Idea

by Richard Chase
By now the “new conservatism” is an old story. What has not been noticed, however, is the attempt to square American literature with conservative opinion in morals, politics, and religion.

From the American Scene: A Suburban Note
by Sylvia Rothchild
In March, the forsythia buds swell and the ice in our unpaved driveway turns to mud that tugs at the soles of our shoes.

Cedars of Lebanon: Letter to a Yiddish Dramatist
by Our Readers
Jacob Gordin (1853-1909) was the most renowned of all the writers for the Yiddish stage, yet his career as a playwright began only after he had come to this country from his native Russia, at the age of thirty-eight.

On the Horizon: Organization Men
by Robert Lekachman
In the film Sabrina, Humphrey Bogart, in the role of a hard-bitten, hard-driving tycoon of the deal-a-minute variety, is asked by his brother, a gay and good-looking but worthless wastrel, why he works so intensely.

The Study of Man: Freud, Religion, and Social Reality
by Will Herberg
Freud's impact on the 20th century has been immense, and so far at least incalculable. No field of intellectual or cultural life has been left untouched by the new and radical mode of analysis he initiated.

Maccabees, Zealots, and Josephus, by William Reuben Farmer
by Jakob Petuchowski
Judaism and the Zealots Maccabees, Zealots, and Josephus—an Inquiry Into Jewish Nationalism in the Greco-Roman Period By William Reuben Farmer Columbia University Press.

Illustrations for the Bible, by Marc Chagall; Chagall, by Lionello Venturi
by Clement Greenberg
Chagall Illustrations for the Bible By Marc Chagall. Introduction by Meyer Schapiro. Text (Poem) by Jean Wahl. Harcourt, Brace. 15 pp.; 105 black and white plates; 16 lithographs in color.

Germany in the 20th Century, by Edmond Vermeil; The Rise and Fall of Nazi Germany, by T. L. Jarman
by H. Trevor-Roper
The Nazi Problem Germany in the 20th Century By Edmond Vermeil Praeger. 288 pp. $5.50. The Rise and Fall of Nazi Germany By T.

The Sailor, Sense of Humour, and Other Stories, by V. S. Pritchett; Anglo-Saxon Attitudes, by Angus Wilson
by Leslie Fiedler
British Fiction The Sailor, Sense of Humour, and Other Stories By V. S. Pritchett Knopf. 369 pp. $4.50. Anglo-Saxon Attitudes By Angus Wilson Viking.

St. Ignatius Loyola, by James Brodrick, S. J.
by
The Jesuits St. Ignatius Loyola By James Brodrick, S.J. Farrar, Straus and Cudahy 372 pp. $5.00.   The Society of Jesus, better known as the Jesuit order, seems to have been fated for a special role in Jewish history.

Reader Letters March 1957
by Our Readers
"Militant Jew" TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: In the excerpts from Melville's Journal (February, "Herman Melville in Jerusalem"), reference is made to Warder Crisson of Phila- delphia.

April, 1957Back to Top
"The Lubovitcher Movement"
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Please let me express my admiration for Herbert Weiner's article on “The Lubovitcher Movement: I” in the March edition of COMMENTARY.

Judicial Opinion
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am one of your admiring readers, but I live so far away from New York that I could read the January issue of COMMENTARY only late in March.

FBI
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Some weeks ago you gave me an opportunity to review Don Whitehead's The FBI Story. Your readers will observe in this issue my fairly complete acceptance of the author's picture of that important institution. However, since the book was published and I reviewed it, I have been much concerned at the increasing tendency of J.

Refugees and the UN
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to make a brief comment on Mr. Liskofsky's review of The Refugee and the World Community by John G.

Morality and the Middle East Crisis: The American Mind in Foreign Affairs
by Robert Langbaum
In finally taking over responsibility for the Middle East, the United States, as so often before in this century, is doing in the end, at great cost, what it was perfectly clear from the beginning she would have to do—and what, if done earlier, might have been accomplished with relative ease.

Morality and the Middle East Crisis: Suez and the British Conscience
by Max Beloff
International events move so fast that one's perspective on them alters weekly, perhaps even daily. By the time these lines (written in the third week of February) are in print, things may have happened in the Middle East which will throw new light on all that was said and done in the late autumn of last year.

The Lubovitcher Movement: II
"The Root and the Branches"

by Herbert Weiner
It was after midnight when a young student ran into the outer office of the Lubovitcher Hasidic movement at 770 Eastern Parkway in Brooklyn to announce that the “case” from California, a man who had flown in to consult with the Lubovitcher Rebbe about a business problem, had just left.

How Real Is Arab Nationalism?
Nasserism Paves the Way for Communism

by Walter Laqueur
Arab nationalism existed before the Russian Revolution, and it would have continued to grow without it. But without Soviet encouragement and guidance it would not have attained its present dimensions—and without a sharp change in the Soviet attitude toward non-Communist and even reactionary regimes in backward countries, this encouragement and guidance itself would not have been forthcoming. Under Stalin, Communist collaboration with non-Communist movements in Asia or Africa was out of the question.

Touro Synagogue
by Ruth Whitman
As to an unknown lover I returned To my father's land, a shifting land,     now jeweled And satined like a bride, a holy ark. A stranger to his house, I heard my talk More friendly to the twelve Ionic trees Than to the tribes of Israel, more shy To celebrate this birthday than to die. White and perfect, starred with candlelight, The sacred chamber held a secret stair. The heart's escape leads out to everywhere, Nowhere, but dreams still find a certain     black Connecticut hill. My grandfather stands tall And wraps me in his cemetery cloak, Encircles me against the nightmare     chill, Till gowned in fear I follow with his ghost Through village, town, down through the midnight past To a second son reading by candlelight Forbidden books that set his passion free, To an immigrant tender in his blasphemy, Bold, repentant, joyful against death, Rich in gesture, eloquent as earth. Ignorant of all, I catch my breath To hear the sharp crack of the shattered     cup. Driven to live, I grope to gather up The windless torch of love, my tribe's     rebirth _____________

Education in Democratic Society
The U.S. and Britain Compared

by David Daiches
The other day I heard a professor of education at an important Midwestern university give a talk to a group of his colleagues on his experiences in Thailand, where he had been for over a year advising on education.

Toynbee: The Historian as False Prophet
A Failure of Conscience

by Walter Kaufmann
On the heels of Toynbee's ten-volume A Study of History, there have appeared two volumes of criticism of that work, as well as a new book by Toynbee himself: An Historian's Approach to Religion1 The two books of criticism differ decisively in kind from the many critical studies which are now devoted to poets, philosophers, and theologians: they are crushing exposés. In the first of the two, Toynbee and History,2 a volume of collected essays, we find the staid London Times Literary Supplement arguing that Toynbee “frequently” relies on “radical distortion of the facts,” and that his central thesis is downright absurd and “reinforced by a vast hodge-podge of subsidiary theories, arguments and explanations which are by no means always mutually compatible.” Geoffrey Barraclough, who has since succeeded to Toynbee's chair of international history at Chatham House in London, attacks Toynbee's “inconsistency and his arbitrary use of historical evidence,” and explicitly agrees with other scholars that Toynbee's vaunted empirical method is “mere make-believe.” Barraclough also ridicules Toynbee's “hotch-potch of the platitudes of current social and political analysis, combined with wishful thinking and dubious speculations.” And Hugh Trevor-Roper, the Oxford historian, concludes: “Helping out his conjuring tricks with imperfect light, distracting noises and a certain amount of intellectual hanky-panky, he pretends that he has proved what he has merely stated.

The Strange Case of Himmler's Doctor
Felix Kersten and Count Bernadotte

by H. Trevor-Roper
Felix Kersten was Heinrich Himmler's personal doctor during the Second World War; he has also been decorated for outstanding services to humanity during the same period.

Cedars of Lebanon: Louis Marshall of the American Jewish Committee
by Our Readers
This month, in its Fiftieth Anniversary Year, the American Jewish Committee holds a Half-Century Observance Conference at the Waldorf-Astoria in New York (April 10-14), dedicated to the theme “The Pursuit of Liberty at Home and Abroad.” It was this same pursuit that inspired the devoted service of Louis Marshall (1856-1929), one of the Committee's distinguished founders, to his fellow Jews.

On the Horizon: A Conference on the Psalms
by Jakob Petuchowski
It was at an adult conference of one of the Protestant denominations, held on the campus of an Ohio college.

The Study of Man: Social Science on Madison Avenue
by Walter Goodman
The same psychology-flavored techniques which have enlivened the prune, revitalized Ry-Krisp, and broadened the appeal of Sanka coffee are presently being applied to a human being.

The Sacrifice, by Adele Wiseman
by Algene Ballif
Fathers and Sons The Sacrifice by Adele Wiseman Viking. 346 pp. $3.95.   Possibly because it is a first novel, and in some ways better than many first novels, and possibly too because it was written by a serious young woman with a gift for rhetoric, The Sacrifice has been overpraised.

The FBI Story, A Report to the People, by Don Whitehead
by Norman Thomas
Agency of Justice The FBI Story, a Report to The people by Don Whitehead Random House. 368 pp. $4.95.   This is the story of the FBI and its hero, J.

Bible and Sword, by Barbara W. Tuchman
by Herbert Howarth
Englishmen and Jews Bible and Sword by Barbara W. Tuchman New York University Press. 268 pp. $5.00.   Probe into almost any period of British history and you come on men and women striking dramatic attitudes against the background of Israel and Israel's Scripture.

The History of a Literary Radical & Other Papers, by Randolph Bourne
by Mark Harris
Poser of Questions The History of a Literary Radical & Other Papers by Randolph Bourne S. A. Russell. 309 pp. $3.75.   Randolph Bourne died in 1918, at thirty-two, six weeks after the armistice ending a war he had opposed with bitter determination.

Portrait of a Statesman, by Dennis Bardens; The Turn of the Tide: The Alanbrooke Diaries, by Arthur Bryant
by George Lichtheim
Sir Anthony Eden Portrait of a Statesman by Dennis Bardens Philosophical Library. 326 pp. $6.00. The Turn of the Tide: The Alanbrooke Diaries by Arthur Bryant Collins (London).

Reader Letters April 1957
by Our Readers
Refugees and the UN TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I would like to make a brief comment on Mr. Liskofsky's review of The Refugee and the World Community by John G.

May, 1957Back to Top
Frued & Fromm, & Judaism
by
To the Editor: Will Herberg has written an interesting article on “Freud, Religion, and Social Reality” (March), but I wonder to what extent Mr.

Correction
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The correspondence [of] the late Simeon Strunsky . . . and the late Jacob Gordin . . .

Strachey: Pros & Cons
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. William Petersen's article in the February COMMENTARY, “John Strachey Twenty Years After,” is so full of .

Multi-National Yugoslavia
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It seems to me that Mr. Hugh Seton-Watson (“Program for a European Settlement,” March) is wrong when he characterizes the Serbs or Croats as being a less “educated and skilled nation” than the Poles.

Park Forest's Community
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As residents of Park Forest and active participants in the program of Congregation Beth Sholom, we have read the interesting and provocative article “Progress of a Suburban Jewish Community” by Herbert J.

Prodigal Republicans & Economizing Democrats
Congressional Inanition

by Hal Lavine
Ordinarily, no one pays much attention to party platforms, and that's fair enough, because, ordinarily, no one is supposed to, not even the candidates themselves.

The Peasant Caesar
Hitler's Union of German Imperialism and Eastern Reaction

by Solomon Bloom
The world, it seems, had rather forget about Hitler. The subject suits nobody. We all have good reason to foreshorten him in one way and magnify him in another, to write him down as a unicellular worm or a complex monster, and so be done with him.

Passover
by Leonard Wolf
Into the annual Passover leaps The firstborn son, back from his travels,     wise With mileage and the well-conducted tour. At the unsteady table, there is wine And matzos, and his father leans a little Heavily into the pillows.

The Unknown Leo Baeck
"Teacher of the Congregation"

by Adolf Leschnitzer
Leo Baeck, the subject of these commemorative words, would have been eighty-four this month. The life of this noble man was an epitome of the German Jewish fate.

Modern Judaism's Need for Philosophy
A Question of Vitality

by Erich Unger
Philosophy has at some time or another made its appearance in all the great religions of the world. Why? Because the problem of God and the world can be approached by way of philosophy too; because at some points both ways converge and merge; and because the dovetailing of the philosophical and the religious view of the divine becomes so important at times that upon this interaction may depend the vigor and very life of a religion. There is a widespread view that the importance of philosophy is necessarily restricted to the small number of those who study it, and that it is therefore of no consequence to the overwhelming majority of mankind.

Zoning Boards, Synagogues, and Bias
Religious Tolerance in the Suburbs

by William Schack
During the last few years in widely separated parts of the country, many congregations have been denied building or use permits for the construction of houses of worship or for the occupancy of already existing structures on the ground that such construction or occupancy would violate local zoning ordinances.

Why Did Khrushchev Do It?
De-Stalinization and the Manner of Stalin's Death

by G. Hudson
A Year has passed since Khrushchev by his speech to the closed session of the 20th Congress of the Soviet Communist party hurled the image of Stalin from the lofty pedestal on which it had been raised by the organized worship of the world Communist movement.

Aspects of Israel: Jerusalem Mood
by Zev Tronik
Israel's immigrants, wherever they may come from, inevitably bring the aura of their old homelands into the new. This is as true for the melancholy, romantic German, as for the merrier-dispositioned Yemenite.

Aspects of Israel: The Dark Aristocrats
by Gerda Cohen
All day the sharkeea blew from Arabia and whipped stinging sand into our skin. Sharp maize stalks, dried to needles, pierced our hands, and the hot wind tore like a demon at the scratches.

Some Younger American Poets
Art and Reality

by G. Fraser
The history of new movements in poetry in Great Britain since about 1930 falls into tidy patterns. The history of poetry in the United States does not.

Cedars of Lebanon: A Defense of American Rights
by Louis Marshall
Last month, on the occasion of the American Jewish Committee's Half-Century Observance Conference (held at the Waldorf-Astoria in New York City), this department offered an excerpt from the papers of Louis Marshall: Champion of Liberty, two volumes edited by Charles Reznikoff, with an introduction by Oscar Handlin.

On the Horizon: Japan's "Lost Generation"
by Peter Schmid
If, at this moment, any place in the Far East can be said to have inherited Shanghai's old reputation as the “City of Sin,” it is Tokyo, where crime, corruption, and vice proliferate under a blaze of neon lights rivaling Times Square, and gangsters are well organized and brazen enough to rob people on the Ginza, Tokyo's Fifth Avenue, in broad daylight, without the bystanders even daring to call for help. Tokyo's police force is too understaffed to do much about all this.

The Study of Man: Desegregation, Law, and Social Science
by Morroe Berger
When, in May 1954, the Supreme Court held that segregation in public education was unconstitutional, it brought to a head another question that is less immediately explosive but perhaps equally important for the future of our legal system.

Four Books on Militarism and Anti-Militarism in America1


by Gordon Craig
Call war an extension of diplomacy, condemn it as a plague, thrill to its so-called glories, as you will. The fact remains that it is not just a phenomenon, something monstrously foreign to our civilization, but—whether we like it or not—it has been a fundamental element of man's struggle for existence.

The Sphinx Awakes, by Gerald Sparrow
by Ray Alan
“Resurgent” Arabs? The Sphinx Awakes By Gerald Sparrow Pitman Publishing Corporation, New York, for Robert Hale, Ltd., London. 217 pp. $4.50.   One notes with approval, early in the first chapter of Gerald Sparrow's book, that its author was once a judge—a British judge at that, with international experience, chiefly in Siam.

The Fall, by Albert Camus
by Lionel Abel
Man without Grace The Fall By Albert Camus Knopf. 147 pp. $3.00. Most Europeans believe that their culture is dead. Here is a fact which explains, at least in part, the attraction so many cultivated Europeans have felt for Communism.

The Clash of Cultures in Israel, by Abraham Shumsky
by Aleph Sherman
Israeli Sociology The Clash of Cultures in Israel By Abraham Shumsky Teachers College, Columbia University. 170 pp. $3.75.   Though it originated as a doctoral dissertation, this is a most ambitious little book.

Pride of Innocence, by David Buckley; Off Limits, by Hans Habe
by Peter Jacobsohn
Occupied Germany Pride of Innocence By David Buckley Holt. 346 pp. $3.95. Off Limits By Hans Habe Frederick Fell. 466 pp. $4.95.   Apparently the past dozen years have tempered the trauma that the immediate postwar period represented for the Germans, and in part too for their American conquerors, and it is now easier for both peoples to look at this period with a certain detachment.

Visas to Freedom: The History of HIAS, by Mark Wischnitzer
by Milton Konvitz
Fulfilling a Mitzvah Visas to Freedom: The History of HIAS By Mark Wischnitzer World. 286 pp. $4.00.   In his message to Congress vetoing the McCarran-Walter bill—which was then passed over the veto to become the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952—Harry Truman affirmed that in recent years American immigration policy had become a matter of major national concern.

Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes: The Shaping Years 1841-1870, by Mark DeWolfe Howe
by Daniel Boorstin
Holmes of New England Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes: The Shaping Years 1841-1870 By Mark DeWolfe Howe Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Reader Letters May 1957
by Our Readers
Park Forest's Community TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: As residents of Park Forest and active par- ticipants in the program of Congregation Beth Sholom, we have read the interesting and provocative article "Progress of a Suburban Jewish Community" by Herbert J.

June, 1957Back to Top
Defense of D.H. Lawrence
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It is always a pleasure to read Leslie Fiedler's criticism. His response to the novel is lively and accurate to a very gratifying degree.

Praise and Exception
by Our Readers
To the Editor: This is just a note of appreciation from a Christian reader for COMMENTARY and its many fine articles.

"Organization Men"
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Robert Lekachman, in reviewing William H. Whyte's Organization Man (March) asks himself if he is exaggerating in stating his case.

Atomic Force and Foreign Policy
Can the "New Pacifism" Insure Peace?

by Hans Morgenthau
The actions and pronouncements of the government of the United States since the great international crises of November 1956, the British White Paper on defense of April 4, 1957, and the private warnings addressed by Bulganin to the British and French governments in the fall of 1956, all agree on one point: rejection of the use of force, except in self-defense, as an instrument of national policy.

Who Shall Be Our Doctors?
A Critical Shortage Lies Ahead

by Lawrence Bloomgarden
If You enter an American hospital tomorrow, the chances are better than one in four that the resident physician who admits you will be a foreigner.

The U.S. Backs the Arab Monarchs
The Eisenhower Doctrine and the Anti-Nasser Bloc

by George Lichtheim
The visitor to Israel quickly discovers that events which loom large in the headlines abroad are not necessarily of prime concern to the inhabitants of this small but tough republic.

Life in Chicago
The Land and the Lake

by Isaac Rosenfeld
All faces, coins, and questions have two sides, there is concave and convex, and what man isn't a Janushead? This being topology it holds good of all things: so also of cities with their inside and out.

Israel Back to "Normal"
An Informal Report

by Walter Laqueur
In Israel these days, understandably enough, there is no escaping discussions of international politics. When I was there in March, everyone was still talking about the Sinai campaign, and it was only just being fully recognized that the Anglo-French intervention in Suez, far from helping Israel, had saved Nasser.

The Art and Craft of Jewish Collecting
Dealings in the Higher "Junk"

by Cecil Roth
I imagine that I must own one of the most preposterous collections of miscellaneous Jewish junk to be found anywhere in the world today in private hands.

The Trip
A Story

by Bruce Friedman
When the time came for me to go college, my mother decided she would go with me. Since the college was fifteen hundred miles away, in the Midwest, and since I was very young to be going to college, it seemed to her the proper thing to do. My mother pretended there was nothing strange about her taking me to college.

European Anti-Semitism East and West
The Jewish Stake in Democracy

by Leon Poliakov
“If to hate the Jews is to be a good Christian, then we are all good Christians,” wrote the humanist Erasmus early in the 16th century; and if from the Crusades to the Enlightenment there was no such word as “anti-Semitism,” there was scorn and hatred of the Jew, the outcast, shut away in his ghetto.

To Be a Jew
A Discovery

by Dachine Rainer
“I Have a most curious feeling,” I began. “Please!” The little man held up a thin, imperious hand. “I have feelings all the time.

Cedars of Lebanon: Jacob H. Schiff, Humanitarian
by Our Readers
In our April number, and again in May, this department presented selections from the writings of Louis Marshall, a founding father of the American Jewish Committee, which is now celebrating its Fiftieth Anniversary.

The Study of Man: The Dead Sea Scrolls, or What You Will
by Stanley Hyman
The recent books on the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Jewish monastic community at Qumran that produced them almost unanimously disavow a scholarly audience.1 Allegro calls his Pelican paperback “a small popular volume” attempting “to give to the general public some conception of the extent and importance of recent discoveries in this area.” Fritsch is somewhat more equivocal, stating, “It is my purpose to relate these thrilling discoveries and present their significance for Biblical studies in a way that will catch the imagination of the general reader, and at the same time be practical for the student who may wish to pursue the subject more thoroughly.” Gaster writes flatly: “This book is addressed to laymen.” Graystone says he is reprinting his articles from a theological quarterly “in the hope that they may be of interest to a wider public.” Whitman's stapled pamphlet defines its intention as “the hope that it can, in some small measure, alleviate” the “tremendous need that Americans in all walks of life were beginning to feel for a full but concise treatment of the subject, in layman's language.” Only Rowley makes no concession to a popular audience, but then his book turns out to have been published in 1952, and reissued unchanged after widespread interest in the subject had been created.

Afterward ...
by Lionel Abel
I think of Jacob, tired, alone, His best adversary gone, Jacob, an arm half-through his sleeve, Doubting, fighting to believe That the wrestler whom he'd hurt, Tripped, and set down in the dirt, Embraced in fear, and strangling, pinned— Had not like him, Jacob, sinned; And that, against his better sense And what there was of evidence, He, he, Jacob, lamed and spent, Fast losing his astonishment, More earth's now even than the dirt on him Was—the champion of heaven! _____________

Legends of the Bible, by Louis Ginzberg
by Robert Graves
The Legends of the Jews1   The word legend is a monastic one: originally meaning stories about the lives of the saints, chosen as “fit to be read aloud” by the lector of the week, at mealtimes—when the monks were expected to turn their thoughts to higher things than food or drink, and forbidden to indulge in small talk.

The Bridge at Andau, by James Michener; The Hungarian Revolution, by George Mikes; A Student's Diary, by Laszlo Beke
by Paul Kecskemeti
Fateful October The Bridge at Andau by James Michener Random House. 270 pp. $3.50. The Hungarian Revolution By George Mikes Andre Deutsch (British Book Center).

A Surfeit of Honey, by Russell Lynes
by Lillian McCall
American Typologies A Surfeit of Honey By Russell Lynes Harper. 140 pp. $3.00.   We adore self-appointed scolds who tell us what shallow characters we are.

Rebel and Statesman, by Joseph B. Schechtman
by Ben Halpern
Jabotinsky Rebel And Statesman by Joseph B. Schechtman Thomas Yoseloff. 467 pp. $6.00.   Zionism from the beginning attracted a type of inveterate “outsider.” But, it also gave its adherents a new sense of community, a feeling of belonging as Jews.

Some Corner of an English Field, by Dannie Abse
by Dan Jacobson
Gloomy England Some corner of an English Field By Dannie Abse Criterion. 191 pp. $3.00.   Some corner of an English Field is set on an RAF station somewhere in Southern England, at the present time.

The Worker Priests, Translated by John Petrie
by Norman Birnbaum
From Catholicism to Marxism The Worker Priests Trans, by John Petrie Routledge, Kegan Paul (distributed by Macmillan). 220 pp. $5.00.   No matter involving the Church has so shaken France in recent decades as the episode of the worker priests.

Reader Letters June 1957
by Our Readers
"Organization Men" TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Robert Lekachman, in reviewing William H. Whyte's Organization Man (March) asks himself if he is exaggerating in stating his case.

July, 1957Back to Top
Honest Appraisal
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In this day and age when people overnight, with the help of an encyclopedia, become experts on any Jewish subject, it is refreshing to read such a thorough and exhaustive analysis as Herbert Weiner's article “The Lubovitcher Movement” (March and April 1957). The weeks and months which the author spent in making an honest appraisal of this great movement in traditional Judaism have produced a work which will be quoted decades later. Sholom B.

Again: Man & Organization
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The subject matter of The Organization Man by William H. Whyte is so important that I feel compelled to send you a few comments on Mr.

Estimate of Moses
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his very generous letter to you (June), The Reverend G. Thomas Friedkin takes exception to two points in my article on Toynbee (April).

The Community Synagogue
by Our Readers
To the Editor: William Schack's otherwise excellent report (“Zoning Boards, Synagogues, and Bias,” May) of our synagogue's struggle to establish a temple in Sands Point reaches a conclusion the facts make most unlikely: that the objection to our Temple was because of “traffic, noise, parking” and other “legitimate concerns of the neighbors.” Our Temple had no neighbors but one when we took title to the estate.

Uniqueness & Universality of Jewish History
A Mid-Century Revaluation

by J. Talmon
The epoch-making changes that have taken place in recent Jewish history have caused more than one Jewish historian to reexamine the basic assumptions of earlier writers.

My Uncle's Books
by Florence Victor
When my uncle came for supper twice a year, He always made strange noises when he chewed— They sounded deep inside his throat, as if Someone were checking off each thing he ate. He wasn't Jewish; I didn't even know. He had an English name—John Buckingham— But he said all the prayers at Passover And winked across at us after Elijah came. His wife was scary and she died when I was young; She never felt forgiven.

Desegregation and the Negro Right to Vote
New Legislative Effort on Capitol Hill

by Keith Kyle
In its own Southland the United States confronts the classic predicament dreaded by Otto von Gierke and other great legal thinkers: the need to impose law that does violence to the moral sense of the governed.

Albert Einstein on the Violin
by Leo Haber
David sang “holy” with his harp, I with my violin. He would string melancholy apart, I would let sadness in. He didn't even know Mozart, I didn't know T'hillim. David played fast with the girls, I with atoms grew wild. He would explore love's rules, I would encompass a field. Both battled God like fools To tie Him to our shield. This then the sweetest art, Music unparalleled: To question God from the start Until from this chamber compelled And to the future life depart Where discordant formulas jelled. _____________

Islam and Arab Nationalism
The Role of Religion in Middle Eastern Politics

by Joel Carmichael
As Universal religions, both Islam and Christianity make universal claims on the lives of their adherents. Over the last three centuries, however, Christianity has been forced drastically to curtail its claims, with the result that religious life in the West has been restricted to a narrow sphere; the secular nature of society is now taken for granted.

Jews in Modern Architecture
After a Late Start

by
If we were to look for a “Jewish architecture” as we might look for a “Jewish literature,” with a characteristic style, technique, spirit, and social function, we should not find it; it is not there to be found.

Aristotle and the Hired Thugs
A Story

by Herbert Gold
In 1933 my father had two mighty enemies. Against one of them he struggled all the long fruit-and-vegetable day, hoisting the crates and loading a top-heavy truck in early morning, at dawn, in his sheepskin jacket, then meeting the customers until evening in a store built narrow and dark in the alleyway between a bakery and a Peerless showroom.

My Grandfather's Rules for Holy Living
by Leonard Wolf
My grandfather said, “Stand up straight!” I stood up, eager and willing as a clown; But I stood in somebody's line of sight And, unfeelingly, he knocked me down. My grandfather picked me up and said, “Be pure!” “Not a bad idea,” I said, and kept my trousers zipped, Meaning to keep them up; but who can be sure At such a tender age of zippers.

European Communism "Re-Stalinizes"
In the Wake of Poland and Hungary

by G. Arnold
The Polish-Hungarian upheaval last autumn destroyed a number of illusions, notably the belief that “world Communism” is a monolith. If the Soviet leaders did not know it then, they must be aware by now that a considerable difference in outlook divides the Asian Communist parties from organizations tinctured, however faintly, by the traditions of the labor movement.

When Spain Paid Homage to Maimonides ...
The Words and the Music

by Jocelyn Davey
When the riots broke out in Morocco two years ago, I thought of my Jewish friends from Marrakesh and Safi, and wondered how they had fared.

From the American Scene: Living in Washington, D.C.
by Isa Kapp
A week after I came to live in the suburbs of Washington, I began to miss the effrontery of New York.

Cedars of Lebanon: From the Teachings of Habad Hasidism
by Our Readers
In view of the interest aroused by Rabbi Herbert Weiner's description of the Lubavitcher movement in his recent two-part article (March and April), we here present some “teachings” from various “Rebbes” of this particular branch of Hasidism.

On the Horizon: The Mind of Lionel Trilling
by David Daiches
Lionel Trilling is in many respects my idea of the perfect New York intellectual. Intelligent, curious, humane, well read, interested in ideas, fascinated by other times and places, and immensely knowledgeable about European culture, he is at the same time metropolitan (with the provincialism that goes with true metropolitanism), self-conscious and professional in the practice of literary criticism, very much the observer of the great stream of American life that goes on around him, the sophisticated urban observer who is proud of the fact that his observation is undoctrinaire and untainted with snobbism.

The Study of Man: "Toward Reunion in Philosophy"
by Emmanuel Mesthene
American and British philosophy during the first half of the 20th century has been dominated by a movement known as logical positivism or logical empiricism.

Canticle in October
by Jackson MacLow
Grass channel or anodyne canal, Nature thinkers' various paradises, Birds of saviour savour, Phoenix-flames, Acts of conscience, lily-clothed, voracious: Passenger pigeons of memory. Pompoms, asters, double-petaled daisies In rows on Bowling Green Encircle curly De Peyster. October draws a bead on Halloween. Inclement soul weather, Undertugger tides. My Lord, a simple soul, Thine Image in Thy Sight, Bless me, hide not Thy Face from me. Baruch Atah Adonai Elohenu Melech ha-Olam The channel choked with grass, The canal dry and cracked, Starved daemonic birds circling, Wolves pale in the offing: All dry but Thou the Source. Blessèd art Thou O Lord Our God King of the World. At Avenue C and Tenth Street A wastepaper basket's aflame: Speak to me, Lord, From the midst of the burning trash. Redeem the sparks, Redeem the fallen world: My God, Thy Hand is free. Intervene, we beg of Thee. The “horrible green birds” Are chittering like madmen. The rivers are receding underground. No weather is soul weather, Fair weather, in a fallen world. Blessèd art Thou O Lord Who makest us to eat by the sweat of the     brow. * * * For My people have committed two evils: They have forsaken Me, the fountain of     living waters, And hewed them out cisterns, broken     cisterns, That can hold no water. —Jeremiah 2:13 _____________

The Synagogue, by Carl H. Kraeling; Jewish Symbols in the Greco-Roman Period: Fish, Bread, and Wine, Vols. 5 and 6, by Erwin R.
by Moses Hadas
Pagan and Jew in the Ancient World1   For the history of Judaism the synagogue at Dura-Europos is easily the most significant building in the world.

The Energies of Art, by Jacques Barzun
by F. Leavis
The Critic's Task The Energies of Art By Jacques Barzun Harper. 355 pp. $5.00.   The opening essay of Mr. Barzun's book is called “The Critic's Task Today,” and I began to read with a marked alertness of interest: the critic's task today in England—that phrase defines pretty well a main preoccupation of my own.

Prospero and Caliban: The Psychology of Colonization, by O. Mannoni
by Kenneth Bock
New Light on Colonialism Prospero And Caliban: The Psychology of Colonization By O. Mannoni Praeger. 218 pp. $4.25.   The colonial problem or, more broadly speaking, the problem of the West's relations with those non-European peoples we call “primitive,” is so muddled, and now so pressing, that we must greet any fresh perspective on the question with interest and hope.

An Intimate Journal of the Dreyfus Case, by Maurice Paleologue
by Oscar Handlin
Reasons of State An Intimate Journal of the Dreyfus Case By Maurice Paleologue Criterion. 319 Pp. $4.50.   If the Dreyfus case continues to fascinate one more than fifty years after its close, this is not because of the qualities of its protagonist.

The Assistant, by Bernard Malamud
by Alfred Kazin
Fantasist of the Ordinary The Assistant By Bernard Malamud Farrar, Straus and Cudahy. 246 pp. $3.50.   Bernard Malamud's second novel has been getting extremely friendly reviews, for he is a talented writer, has a particularly intense sympathy for his Jewish material, and—what doesn't always accompany sympathy—an utterly objective ear for the harsh and plaintive American Yiddish speech.

Reader Letters July 1957
by Our Readers
The Community Synagogue TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: William Schack's otherwise excellent report ("Zoning Boards, Synagogues, and Bias," May) of our synagogue's struggle to establish a temple in Sands Point reaches a conclusion the facts make most unlikely: that the objection to our Temple was because of "traffic, noise, parking" and other "legitimate concerns of the neigh- bors." Our Temple had no neighbors but one when we took title to the estate.

August, 1957Back to Top
Exhibit at Jewish Museum
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I read with great interest Cecil Roth's article “The Art and Craft of Jewish Collecting” in the June issue of COMMENTARY.

Reports from West Germany
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Léon Poliakov's survey “European Anti-Semitism East and West” in your June issue is rather disappointing. . . .

Israel and Soviet Russia
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In the June issue of COMMENTARY, Walter Laqueur (“Israel Back to ‘Normal’”) attempts to analyze the “naive and ineffectual” dealings of Israel with Soviet Russia.

Counter-Weapons in Atom War
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Professor Morgenthau's challenging discussion of atomic force and its impact on our foreign policy (“Atomic Force and Foreign Policy,” by Hans J.

"Realer than Real"
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I must take exception to your designation of my story as “A Discovery” (see “To Be a Jew,” by Dachine Rainer, June).

What Made Hitler
by Our Readers
To the Editor: There is no question that Professor Bloom (Solomon F. Bloom, “The Peasant Caesar,” May 1957) has performed a real service by attempting to analyze Hitler's perverted ideology from the point of view of its origins and internal consistency.

Khrushchev's Russia: The Durability of Soviet Despotism
by Bertram Wolfe
At every turn the historian encounters the unpredictable: contingency; historical accident; bio-logical accident intruding itself into history, as when the death of a history-making person brings a change of direction; changes of mood; emergence of new situations; sudden leaps that seem to turn an accretion of little events into a big one; the complicated interaction of multiple determinants on every event; the unintended consequences of intended actions. Still, history is not so open that any event is just as likely as any other.

Khrushchev's Russia: The Permanent Revolution Is On Again
by Richard Lowenthal
On the eve of the fortieth anniversary of the Bolshevik seizure of power in November 1917, the Soviet Union has been launched on yet another social revolution—on yet another turn of the wheel, that is, of that permanent revolution from above by which the rule of the Communist party is maintained.

Racial War in the South
A Test of the American Charater

by Samuel Lubell
On the day the Supreme Court declared segregation unconstitutional the Savannah, Georgia, chapter of Rotary was holding a luncheon meeting.

Annus Mirabilis: 1932
Boyhood Diary

by Milton Klonsky
Like an archeologist in a dream, I opened a dark closet where all the used up and forgotten relics of the past had been slowly accumulated, year after year, and stacked in layers of dust up to the ceiling.

New Blocks for Old in the Middle East
Anti-Nasserism Is Not Enough

by Ray Alan
A year ago, relaxed and confident, Gamal Abdel Nasser straddled the Near East contemplating the interlaced ellipses of his ambition: Levant, Arab League states, Moslem Asia, North and East Africa.

Czechoslovakia: The Careful Satellite
The Land of Schweik

by Peter Schmid
Nothing brings the meaning of freedom home to one more vividly than to pass from Warsaw to Prague, as I did this spring.

A Second Chance for Samson
A Story

by Norman Stein
“Mirrors are pools where the soul bathes its wounds. See there! I have a salve and. poultice to heal that one.

"Where Judaism Differed"
Reflections on a Recent Work

by Jakob Petuchowski
In the history of every religion there are periods of dynamic growth, when the faith is open to developments originating from within and to accretions from the outside.

Cedars of Lebanon: Duties of the Heart
by Bahya Pakuda
Because the Jew has always been—in the language of the Sages—“hedged about” by an all-encompassing ritual, Jewish thinkers have repeatedly felt bound to raise the question of inner intention: seeking to balance, in their minds, the traditionally prescribed forms against the imperative demands of the heart.

A Dream of Life
by Harvey Shapiro
The seven-branched candelabra glowed, The flames like vapor ascending. I stood in the synagogue, idle, watching, When a man—I never saw him clearly— Approached, and with deliberation Began to snuff the candles, one by one. I broke into action, seized his arm, But couldn't stop him. Then a voice outside me cried: The place is already defiled!

The Study of Man: Can There Be a General Science of Man?
by Stuart Hampshire
There are some subjects that call for the statement of simple and obvious truths, if only because they have been so much discussed, so smothered by sophistication that the plainest, most elementary facts have been lost sight of and are no longer admitted as worthy of mention.

Prize Stories 1957: The O. Henry Awards, selected and edited by Paul Engle; The Best American Short Stories of 1956, edited by M
by Robert Langbaum
Best Short Stories   Looking over this year's O. Henry and Martha Foley collections of best short stories, one sees that it is not charity which has caused the editors to favor stories from the so-called “little mags,” for that is where, with one, perhaps two exceptions, the most interesting stories from both volumes come from.

Dieses Volk: Juedische Existenz, by Leo Baeck
by Maurice Friedman
A Scholar and Leader Dieses Volk: Juedische Existenz (This People: Jewish Existence) By Leo Baeck Frankfort On The Main: Europäische Verlagsanstalt. 182 pp.   Leo Baeck's last act, an hour before his death, was to affix his signature to the completed manuscript of the still unpublished second volume of Dieses Volk: Jüdische Existenz.

Portraits from Memory and Other Essays, by Bertrand Russell
by Lincoln Reis
Eminent Victorian Portraits from Memory and other Essays By Bertrand Russell Simon and Schuster. 246 pp. $3.50.   D. H. Lawrence and Bertrand Russell sought each other out because of principle—they were both pacifists during World War I.

The Roots of American Communism, by Theodore Draper; The I.W.W., by Paul Brissenden
by Maurice Goldbloom
Communists & Wobblies The Roots of American Communism By Theodore Draper Viking. 498 pp. $6.75. The I.W.W. (reissued, with a new preface) By Paul Brissenden Russell and Russell.

Religion and Social Work, by F. Ernest Johnson
by Robert Fitch
Serving the Community Religion and Social Work Edited by F. Ernest Johnson Harper. 194 pp. $3.00.   The Jewish Theological Seminary of America, under whose auspices we get this symposium on religion and social work, can hardly be accused of sectarian bias.

New and Selected Poems, by Kenneth Fearing
by William Poster
Poet of Manhattan New and selected Poems By Kenneth Fearing Indiana University Press. 143 pp. $3.95.   It is one of the peculiarities and, probably, weaknesses of modern American verse that so little of it is concerned in any significant way with New York life and that not one of its outstanding figures can be readily identified as a New York poet.

Reader Letters August 1957
by Our Readers
What Made Hitler TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: There is no question that Professor Bloom (Solomon F. Bloom, "The Peasant Caesar," May 1957) has performed a real service by at- tempting to analyze Hitler's perverted ideology from the point of view of its origins and in- ternal consistency.

September, 1957Back to Top
The Dreyfus Case
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have read with much interest the review by Mr. Oscar Handlin of An Intimate Journal of the Dreyfus Case (July 1957), and I challenge his statements that anti-Semitism was not the central issue or that Dreyfus was not victimized because he was a Jew. .

American Diary
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to express my great pleasure in “Annus Mirabilis: 1932” by Milton Klonsky (August 1957). I have just finished reading this story, and I think it is one of the finest things ever published in COMMENTARY.

The Negro Vote in the South
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his article on Southern solidarity in the white community (“Racial War in the South,” August) Mr. Samuel Lubell sees hardly any chance for improvement in race relations.

Middle East Conflicts: Old and New
Israel and the Arab Blocs

by Walter Laqueur
Arab-Israeli relations are among those intractable international issues which one approaches with great reluctance. Over the last ten years so many articles, books, and letters-to-the-editor have been written, so many public declarations and statements issued, so many attempts made to bring about reconciliation, by governments and by the United Nations, by public bodies and by individuals—and the result has been precisely nil.

Middle East Conflicts: Old and New
What Future for the Arab Refugees?

by Hal Lehrman
A little over a year ago, in the latter half of a five-month journey through the Arab world from Morocco to the border of Iran, this reporter began coming across many Palestinian Arab refugees in various places and conditions.

Anti-Colonialism in American Foreign Policy
Realpolitik and Illusion

by Max Beloff
The foreign policy of the United States in the last few years has obviously been affected by the belief that it is possible to acquire the support in the struggle against Communism of newly independent states in Asia and Africa, or of peoples likely soon to be independent, provided always that the United States takes care to dissociate herself from her partners in the Western alliance who are still committed to maintaining imperial positions overseas, or who are tainted in the minds of their previous subjects by what the latter now regard as a record of domination or exploitation.

Neiman-Marcus of Texas
Couture and Culture

by William Schack
As fashion center in the once remote city of Dallas, the Neiman-Marcus specialty store has achieved international fame. It is not nearly so well known, however, for being a strong cultural force in its community.

Lessons of the Hungarian Revolution
The New Proletarian

by J. Lukacs
For the past year in the United States, it has been a very positive asset to be a Hungarian. This is evident, for example, from a revision in the lines of that luminous and lovely musical, My Fair Lady.

The Gentleman from Cracow
A Story

by Isaac Singer
Amid thick forests and deep swamps, on the slope of a hill level at the summit, lay the village of Frampol.

Contra Simone Weil
"Voices of Demons for the Silence of God"

by Hans Meyerhoff
The significant facts of Simone Weil's life have grown into something like a legend. Born in 1909, she was the child of well-off, assimilated French Jews.

My Father, Sholem Aleichem
A Memoir

by Lala Kaufman
I am a little girl of six. We live in Kiev, the heart of the Ukraine. My father is taking me with him to a party.

Death of a Librarian
by Jacob Sloan
                                             To one who had lost his armband, a German police chief cried “Sie, Jude, Sie haben verloren das zwanzigste Jahrhundert!” He took his life or died of heartbreak (it is not certain     which) in his room, where he was found .

Cedars of Lebanon: Concerning Religious Intention
by Bahya Pakuda
This is the second and concluding installment we present from Bahya ibn Pakuda's introduction to his Duties of the Heart (the first part appeared in our August issue).

On the Horizon: Billy Graham: Respectable Evangelism
by Herbert Weiner
“I feel no Presence—none,” my friend whispered as we watched the “moment of decision” approaching on the opening night of Billy Graham's New York Crusade in Madison Square Garden.

The Study of Man: The Science of "Kremlinology"
by Isabel Madariaga
The recent meeting of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist party concluded its deliberations on June 29, 1957. The announcement five days later that Molotov, Malenkov, and Kaganovich, “to whom D.

Go South to Sorrow, by Carl T. Rowan
by C. Woodward
Report on Desegregation Go South to Sorrow By Carl T. Rowan Random House. 246 pp. $3.75.   Mr. Rowan is not the first who has gone South to sorrow, nor is this his first lamentation.

The SS: Alibi of a Nation, by Gerald Reitlinger
by Dennis Wrong
Bureaucrats of Murder The SS: Alibi of a Nation, 1922-1945 By Gerald Reitlinger Viking. 502 pp. $6.50.   Today, more than a decade after the defeat of Nazi Germany, the early flood of memoirs and sensationalized first-person stories is being succeeded by sober, heavily documented histories and biographies.

Tides of Crisis: A Primer of Foreign Relations, by Adolf A. Berle Jr.
by Franz Oppenheimer
Irrelevant Optimism Tides of Crisis: A Primer of Foreign Relations By Adolf A. Berle, Jr. Reynal. 328 pp. $4.00.   When a man of the experience and distinction of A.

San Nicandro, Histoire d'une Conversion, by Elena Cassin
by Edouard Roditi
A Curious Mass Conversion San Nicandro, Histoire D'Une Conversion By Elena Cassin Editions Plon (Paris). 256 pp. 900 fr.   Around the time that Mussolini decided to inaugurate a policy of official anti-Semitism, a community of peasants in the South Italian town of San Nicandro suddenly abandoned the Catholic faith, and—though they had never had any previous contact with Jews—proclaimed themselves Jews and began to observe the commandments of the Torah, finally emigrating, after the liberation of Italy, to Israel.1 Elena Cassin's book is a brilliant attempt to explain this small but puzzling mass conversion with the help of historical, sociological, economic, and psychological analysis. San Nicandro, Mlle.

One Basket, by Edna Ferber
by Lillian McCall
Edna Ferber's America One Basket By Edna Ferber Double-day. 581 pp. $3.95.   Every writer has favorite words or phrases whose repeated use becomes tic-like with him.

The Fight for Fluoridation, by Donald R. McNeil
by
Dilemma of Democracy The Fight for Fluoridation By Donald R. Mcneil Oxford University Press. 241 pp. $5.00.   The current controversy over fluoridation involves some of the most interesting problems of our society: the social status and authority of the medical profession; the nature and aims of plebeian malcontent agitators; the widespread suspicion of modern science; the perplexing question of the competence of the general populace to manage its own affairs.

Reader Letters September 1957
by Our Readers
The Negro Vote in the South TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: In his article on Southern solidarity in the white community ("Racial War in the South," August) Mr.

October, 1957Back to Top
Living Space
by Our Readers
To the Editor: However hard up the Czechs may be, they must be permitted to occupy more than the 27 cubic feet of living space per person which Mr.

For Edna Ferber
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to express my surprise and displeasure at . . . the review of Edna Ferber's book One Basket by Lillian B.

Undying Bureaucracy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The articles by Bertram Wolfe and Richard Lowenthal in your August issue (“The Durability of Soviet Despotism” and “The Permanent Revolution Is On Again”) present an interesting contrast in method; it would perhaps be going too far to suggest that their methods lead them to differing conclusions, since both are wise enough in the perverse ways of history to leave their conclusions partly implicit and altogether conditional.

Simone Weil and Voltaire
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I read with great interest Hans Meyerhoff's “Contra Simone Weil” (September). His restraint in analyzing what made her tick was admirable, but I feel that his restraint was too great when he took up the New York Times review of Simone Weil's Notebooks.

The Great Civil Rights Debate
The Ghost of Thaddeus Stevens in the Senate Chamber

by C. Woodward
“It Is time to march forward,” announced Senator Wayne Morse of Oregon, “toward the goal of social, economic, and political equality for all Americans, irrespective of the color of their skins.” But the Senator hastily followed up this bugle call for advance with a roll of drums for retreat: “However, this forward movement must be orderly, constitutionally lawful, devoid of carpetbagging and strong-armed tactics.

A Berlin Notebook
Parochial Capital

by George Lichtheim
The traveler to Berlin in 1957 needs no visa or permit of any kind. This was the first surprise, and it was followed by others, including the discovery that crossing the inter-zonal barrier which divides the city into a Western-controlled and a Soviet-Controlled sector is about as difficult as traveling from Piccadilly Circus to East London.

Henry Adams: Waning of America's Patriciate
A Conservative's Destructive Impulses

by Edward Saveth
There is a revival of interest in the Adams family—to put it mildly. Not only have they become, individually and en famille, a staple in the repertory of the academic periodicals; even Life has gone in for the Adamses, printing hitherto unpublished manuscripts of the family in its glossy pages. What accounts for this? (If we are to believe the Adamses themselves, they never went out of their way to court anyone's interest and never felt that popularity was among their long suits.) For one thing, the political climate is right.

The Tailor
by Leonard Wolf
Three deaths: the squirrel, the partridge,     and the dove. Now he is a hunter on a ridge Who lusted after flesh of his own killing, And killed it.

Poland's Year of Change
Gomulka on the Tightrope

by Lucjan Blit
Up to a year ago the political situation in Poland was as plain and obvious as the political situation in Moscow's East German puppet state is today.

A Solution to the Mystery of the Scrolls
Adding a Chapter to 1st-Century Jewish History

by Cecil Roth
The spirited discussion that has been going on during the past ten years regarding the historical background and implications of the Dead Sea Scrolls—with the sensational conclusions which we all remember—has been conducted by theologians and philologists, with occasional help from archaeologists.

The American Jewish Committee Abroad
In the Midst of War and Revolution

by Maurice Goldbloom
From its inception, the American Jewish Committee regarded the protection of Jewish—and human—rights throughout the world as its primary function.

Israel's New European Immigrants
"Not a Burden, but a Stimulus"

by Gerda Luft
As a result of the Hungarian revolution, which swept many Jews out in the stream of refugees that it created; the Sinai campaign, which forced Egyptian Jewry to leave their homes; and, above all, as a result of the opening of Poland's doors to Jewish emigration, somewhere in the neighborhood of 100,000 new immigrants came to Israel during the year ending September 1957.

The Promised Land
A Story

by Dan Jacobson
On one hot summer's Saturday afternoon, when I went to visit Ruth Stern, I was surprised to find her sitting on the wooden stoep of her parents' house with a stranger, who was introduced to me as Leopold Brodsky.

The Abandoned
by Dannie Abse
Where is my God? what hidden place     Conceals thee still? What covert dare eclipse thy face?     Is it thy will? —George Herbert . . .

Cedars of Lebanon: Succoth in the Days of the Temple
by Our Readers
The tractate Succah of the Mishnah not only discusses the laws governing the observance of Succoth, but also vividly describes how the festival—a joyous holiday of the autumn harvest—was celebrated in the days of the Temple.

On the Horizon: Hollywood Tackles the Race Issue
by Henry Popkin
“Island in the sun,” Hollywood's recent “miscegenation film,” was picketed in Jacksonville, Florida, by the Ku Klux Klan, but business was good at the box office.

The Study of Man: Class and Sociology
by Irving Kristol
Twentieth-Century America is perhaps the most egalitarian society the civilized world has ever seen, yet nowhere has there been so much solemn brooding over “class” as in this place at this time.

Judaism or Jewish Nationalism: The Alternative to Zionism, by Elmer Berger
by Lucy Dawidowicz
Jewish Survival and the American Council for Judaism1   Rabbi Elmer Berger, ideologue and chief architect of the American Council for Judaism, has written an apologia for the Council's views and activities.

Segregation: The Inner Conflict in the South, by Robert Penn Warren; The Negro in American Culture, by Margaret Just Butcher
by Charles Nichols
Negroes and Whites Segregation: The Inner Conflict in the South By Robert Penn Warren Random House. 66 pp. $1.95. The Negro in American Culture By Margaret Just Butcher Knopf.

Great Ages and Ideas of the Jewish People, edited by Leo W. Schwarz
by Milton Himmelfarb
First-Rate History Great Ages and Ideas of the Jewish People Edited by Leo W. Schwarz Random House. 514 pp. $5.00.   This is the best one-volume social and cultural Jewish history that I know, and Hadassah deserves our thanks for sponsoring it.

Die Geschichte von Joel Brand (The Story of Joel Brand), by Alex Weissberg
by John Lichtblau
“Goods for Blood” Die Geschichte Von Joel Brand (The Story of Joel Brand) By Alex Weiss-Berg Kiepenhauer & Witch (Cologne-Berlin). 319 pp.

The Unadjusted Man, by Peter Viereck
by Edwin Fogelman
Politics Without Policy The Unadjusted Man By Peter Vie-Reck Beacon. 339 pp. $5.00.   Under various pseudonyms, the Unadjusted Man has of late become a familiar figure.

The Hebrew Iliad, translated by Robert H. Pfeiffer and edited by William G. Pollard
by Moses Hadas
The Bible as Literature The Hebrew Iliad: The History of the Rise of Israel Under Saul and David Translated from the Original Hebrew by Robert H.

Reader Letters October 1957
by Our Readers
Simone Weil and Voltaire TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I read with great interest Hans Meyerhoff's "Contra Simone Weil" (September). His re- straint in analyzing what made her tick was admirable, but I feel that his restraint was too great when he took up the New York Times review of Simone Weil's Notebooks. Anne Fremantle, the reviewer, used other ques- tionable superlatives besides those cited by Mr. Meyerhoff.

November, 1957Back to Top
Hungary--and Dostoevsky
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have read J. A. Lukacs's article on “Lessons of the Hungarian Revolution” (September) several times, and after each reading I have come away less sure of what really has been said.

Bashevis Singer
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Isaac Bashevis Singer's story, “The Gentleman from Cracow” (September), is a fine composition in the elegant style of Yiddish writers.

The Shadow of Marxism?
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Irving Kristol's “Class and Sociology” (October) is the kind of witty demolition job we have come to expect from him, and once again his targets are those popular butts, American sociologists.

Judaism in Northrup
The Community and I: Part III

by Evelyn Rossman
A Neighbor called the other day to tell me the latest news. “Did you get one of the questionnaires?” she asked. “No,” I said.

Civil Rights After Little Rock
The Failure of Moderation

by Oscar Handlin
The puzzling course, in recent months, of the struggle for equal rights for the Negro reflects the dominant mood of American politicians today.

Intellectual Unrest Behind the Iron Curtain
The Rebellion of the Communist Clerks

by Paul Kecskemeti
There is ferment among the intellectuals behind the Iron Curtain. It has so far manifested itself most dramatically in Poland and Hungary where a full-blown literature of rebellion emerged last year, but the symptoms of nonconformism among the literati are unmistakable in the USSR as well. In this article I shall deal, not with the intellectual stratum as a whole, but with that section of it which carries most political weight: the party intelligentsia.

Budapest: November 1, 1956
by Andras Hubert
“We saw Truth rising in the morning and dying by night.” I walk fast while the rain is falling, The air is numb and streaked with fog, Past me run men and boys in gangs With submachine guns in their hands. A woman sits on the boulevard curbstone Her eyes are open with unspeaking pain, Her dead son lies under brown wrapping-paper, The blood is mingling with the rain. A tank breaks out from the foggy evening Its cannon flares in the slow-falling day, Three frowsy heads of three brownish striplings— A scene from a poor little revolution-play— Appear.

The Colonels and the Communists:
Syria: The New Storm Center

by Walter Laqueur
Despite recent alarums in Moscow, we are no longer, it seems, quite so sure that there really has been a revolution in Syria.

The Colonels and the Communists:
The Social Roots of Nasser's Egypt

by A. Sherman
Westerners have long taken it for granted that Communism, in the Middle East as elsewhere, must necessarily begin as a revolutionary force from below, directly caused by widespread poverty or the denial of equal rights to the masses; that economic aid, industrial development, and “nationalism” are the best antidotes to Communist influence in “backward” countries; that Communism and Fascism are mutually exclusive doctrines; that Arab nationalism and similar movements constitute a response to colonialism and will disappear along with foreign domination; and that the slogans used by these movements have the same meaning as they do in the West.

The Congregation of the Dead
by Jacob Zilber
There was a light on in the back when I got there and I went around to the kitchen door and knocked.

Apartheid and South African Jewry
An Exchange

by Dan Jacobson
Ronald M. Segal is the editor of Africa South, a quarterly published in Cape Town, South Africa. He is a graduate of the University of Cape Town and has also studied at Trinity College, Cambridge and the University of Virginia.

Underground Films
"A Bit of Male Truth"

by Manny Farber
The saddest thing in current films is watching the long neglected action directors fade away as the less talented De Sicas and Zinnemanns continue to fascinate the critics.

Schoenberg's "Moses and Aaron"
A Musical Genius as Relgious Philosopher

by Peter Gradenwitz
When Arnold Schoenberg returned to the faith of his fathers at a ceremony in a Paris synagogue in 1933, shortly after his forced emigration from Germany, his action marked the end of an epoch in Jewish cultural history, an epoch which may be said to have opened when Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy was baptized into Christianity. Moses Mendelssohn, the romantic composer's grandfather, had worked for the rapprochement of Gentiles and Jews; Felix, baptized as a child, was the first completely assimilated Jewish composer in modern history.

From the American Scene: You Can't Tell a Man by the Song He Sings
by Philip Roth
It was in a freshman high school class called “Occupations” that, fifteen years ago, I first met the ex-con, Alberto Pelagutti.

Cedars of Lebanon: Joseph and Potiphar's Wife
by Our Readers
The Testaments of the Twelve Patri-Archs is a series of fictive death-bed discourses delivered in turn by each of the Patriarchs to his descendants.

The Study of Man: "American Philosophers at Work"
by Kathleen Nott
“In most of the operations of the mind, each American appeals to the individual exercise of his own understanding alone.

The Memoirs of a Revolutionist, by Dwight Macdonald
by Hans Meyerhoff
Offbeat Political Writing The Memoirs of a Revolutionist By Dwight Macdonald Farrar, Straus and Cudahy. 376 pp. $4.75.   Don't be alarmed by the title!

The Sovereign States. Notes of a Citizen of Virginia, by James Jackson Kilpatrick
by C. Woodward
The Doctrine of Interposition The Sovereign States Notes of a Citizen of Virginia By James Jack-Son Kilpatrick. Regnery. 347 pp. $5.00.   For more than three years now the country has been living with a constitutional crisis.

Der Yiddisher Gedank in der Neier Tzeit (Jewish Thought in Modern Times), edited by Abraham Menes
by Israel Knox
Exile and Redemption Der Yiddisher Gedank in der Neier Tzeit (Jewish Thought in Modern Times) Edited By Abraham Menes Congress for Jewish Culture.

Germany's New Conservatism: Its History and Dilemma in the Twentieth Century, by Klemens von Klemperer
by H. Hughes
Buried Alternative Germany's New Conservatism: Its History and Dilemma in the Twentieth Century By Klemens Von Klemperer Princeton University Press. 250 pp.

Remember Me to God, by Myron S. Kaufmann
by Wallace Markfield
Sober Naturalism Remember Me to God By Myron S. Kaufmann Lippincott. 640 pp. $4.95.   Like some of the newer community centers, Remember Me to God gives every appearance of being well ordered, amply stocked, solidly constructed, and roomy, with lots of things going on all at once.

Reader Letters November 1957
by Our Readers
The Shadow of Marxism? TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Irving Kristol's "Class and Sociology" (October) is the kind of witty demolition job we have come to expect from him, and once again his targets are those popular butts, Amer- ican sociologists.

December, 1957Back to Top
Scrolls Controvery
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Dr. Cecil Roth in his article “A New Solution to the Mystery of the Scrolls” (October) wrote: “Josephus gives the date [of the surrender of the Roman garrison] as the sixth day of the month Gorpiaeus, which has been calculated as being equivalent to the 3rd Tishri.” It was I who calculated that the sixth day of the month Gorpiaeus fell in that year (65 C.E.) on the third day of Tishri.

Fluoridation
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In your September issue I find COMMENTARY, to my astonishment, going far outside its customary field to review Donald R.

Judaism & Zionism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Lucy S. Dawidowicz's review of Rabbi Elmer Berger's Judaism or Jewish Nationalism—the Alternative to Zionism (October) faithfully reflects the attitude of the American Jewish Committee, the organization that publishes COMMENTARY.

America's "Angry Young Men"
How Rebellious Are the San Francisco Rebels?

by Dan Jacobson
Reading the literary journals just a year or two ago one sometimes got the feeling that all the trend-spotters, the Zeitgeist-reporters, the people who watch the clouds of dust made by the movements as they wheel, were getting thoroughly discouraged by the alternate silences and incoherencies of the scene they were watching.

What to Do in the Middle East
A Proposal for a General Settlement

by Denis Healey
Western policy in the Middle East has for the moment come to a dead end. Twelve months ago the Suez debacle eliminated Britain and France as active influences in the Arab world.

After the Syrian Fireworks
The Powers Inflate a Local Dispute

by Ray Alan
There was a time, not long ago, when a crack Arab fighting force used to parade beneath my balcony in a Middle Eastern capital once a week to rehearse its second round against Israel.

Christian Teaching and Anti-Semitism
Scrutinizing Religious Texts

by James Brown
Traditionally, the study of anti-Semitism was concerned with the objective factors which over the centuries have contributed to Christian hostility toward Jews.

Bulgarian Impressions
Hospitality, Provocateurs, Roses

by Peter Schmid
“What, you're alone?” Throughout my Bulgarian trip, an astounded shaking of the head was the usual response to the sudden apparition of a foreigner traveling about the country on buses and trains without companions or even an interpreter.

Origins of East European Jewry
Myth and Fact

by Bernard Weinryb
Back in 1947, when the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine decided on partition, one member of that Committee, Sir Abdur Rahman of India, in opposing a Jewish state in Palestine, asserted that “whatever claim the Jews may have” to the land of their ancestors, “this claim cannot be made by those who were subsequently converted to Judaism.” And he went on to say: “Khazars of Eastern Europe, Turco-Finn by race, were converted to Judaism; can their descendants possibly claim any rights simply because the ancestors of their co-religionists had once settled in Palestine?” Later, in October 1947, when the issue of partition was brought before the UN Ad Hoc Committee on the Palestine Question, Faris el Khouri, delegate of Syria, advanced a similar argument: “Only a small fraction of them [the Jews] could lay claim to being children of Israel or even Semites.

The Emperor of the Last Days
A Study in Medieval Fanaticism

by G. Hudson
Soviet Communism and German National Socialism as systems of political power both took the world by surprise. In 1914 nobody anticipated such developments in human affairs.

The Locking Gas-Cap
A Story

by Meyer Liben
“They're at it again,” said Rhoda, and then she waited for my question before continuing with her explanation, because she finds it more interesting that way. “What now?” I asked, toning the question so that it fell in the middle ground between boredom and interest. “The gas-cap,” she said. I must explain that Rhoda and I were engaged to be married and that we already owned a car in common.

Self-Definition in American Literature
Experience and Fulfillment

by Philip Rahv
“Characteristically American” is the phrase that occurs and recurs with virtually compulsive regularity in all the intensive discussions of the prospects and condition of the national letters conducted since the earliest years of the Republic.

Cedars of Lebanon: From "Die Schuldlosen"
by Hermann Broch
This poem is from one of the lyrical sections (“Voices-1933”) of Hermann Broch's last novel, Die Schuldlosen (“The Innocents,” published 1950, but so far not translated into English). Hermann Broch, the eminent Austrian Jewish novelist, was born in Vienna in 1886 and educated as an engineer.

The Study of Man: History with a Present Meaning
by Arnold Rose
The history of American race relations provides an almost perfect example of the process by which popular myths are created to permit the simultaneous existence of two apparently incompatible elements of a social complex; one of these elements is usually an aspect of the social structure and the other an aspect of ideology.

The New Class, by Milovan Djilas
by A. Sherman
Djilas: the last of the Titoites1   Appropriately enough, Titoism, which once raised such high hopes as an alternative to Stalinism, has now had its obituary written by the man who in effect created and supplied it with an ideology and who has been disgraced and imprisoned by Tito for carrying its doctrines to their logical conclusion.

Out-of-Print Classics of Cantorial Liturgy
by Chemjo Vinaver
Reclaiming Jewish Music Out-of-Print Classics of Cantorial Liturgy. 35 books in a set of 25 volumes. Sacred Music Press of the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion.

Roman Tales, by Alberto Moravia
by Raymond Rosenthal
Lone Wolf Roman Tales By Alberto Moravia Farrar, Straus and Cudahy. 229 pp. $3.75.   When Alberto Moravia's complete works were put on the Index in 1952, a close friend and literary colleague visited Moravia and jokingly told him that he had better pack up and leave the country, since now at last he was officially out in the cold.

The Rise of the House of Duveen, by James Henry Duveen
by Alfred Werner
Art-Dealing The Rise of The House of Duveen By James Henry Duveen Alfred A. Knopf. 293 pp. 10 illustrations. $5.00.   In The decades of peace and great prosperity after the Civil War in the United States and the Franco-Prussian War in Europe, bankers and industrialists on either side of the Atlantic sought to fill their mansions with rare porcelain, heirloom furniture, old tapestries, and expensive pictures.

The Fabric of Society, by Ralph Ross and Ernest van den Haag
by Dennis Wrong
Rare Textbook The Fabric of Society: An Introduction To The Social Sciences By Ralph Ross and Ernest Van Den Haag Harcourt, Brace.

Reader Letters December 1957
by Our Readers
Judaism & Zionism TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Lucy S. Dawidowicz's review of Rabbi Elmer Berger's Judaism or Jewish Nationalism -the Alternative to Zionism (October) faith- fully reflects the attitude of the American Jew- ish Committee, the organization that publishes COMMENTARY.




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