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More than a half-century of opinion and ideas. Still timeless.

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January, 1960Back to Top
Correction
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In the article by Harry Gersh and Sam Miller, “Satmar in Brooklyn,” in your November issue, there was one gross misstatement. For the record: I have never attended, much less addressed, any meeting or rally organized by the Satmar group.

The Human Condition
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Golffing in his article (“The American and European Minds Compared”) in December's COMMENTARY attempts to illustrate his major thesis, a critique of American thought, by choosing as a contemporary illustration one small review of mine which appeared in the June issue.

“The Way It Was”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Never have I observed a critic abdicate so absolutely his editorial responsibility as did Mr. Henry Popkin in his report (October) on Mr.

The Kibbutzim
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Gerda L. Cohen's article in the October issue, “The ‘Affluent’ Kibbutzim,” touches on many problems, but with a superficial, slanted journalese. From the first paragraph onward an angry, bitter mood is sustained.

H-Bombs for Everybody?
The Dangers of Nuclear Plenty

by Denis Healey
London For the last fifteen years, the possession of atomic weapons has been the one incontestable criterion of great power status—and the difficulty of producing atomic weapons has kept the number of great powers very small.

The Concealments of Marcel:
Proust's Jewishness

by Maurice Samuel
Among modern literary creations there are on my list three which I believe cannot impart anything approaching their full values without long and sustained intimacy.

Settling in England:
Reflections of a South African Jew

by Dan Jacobson
Neither for me nor for my parents was England “Home.” My father and mother both came to South Africa directly from Eastern Europe; I was born in Johannesburg and grew up in Kimberley.

Uneasy Balance of de Gaulle's Republic:
Left, Right, and Underground

by Ray Alan
A little over a year ago in the outskirts of a small southern French town I stopped my car beside a group of four men and a woman to ask a direction.

The Magnification of Chanukah:
Afterthoughts on a Festival

by Jakob Petuchowski
Festivals, like books, have their fate. Changing times and environments can be either beneficial or detrimental to a festival's survival and, in this connection, its position within the rubrics and definitions of canon law is relatively unimportant.

The Klan Tries a Comeback:
In the Wake of Desegregation

by Wilma Dykeman
During the spring of 1959, a number of posters appeared on trees and utility poles in certain sections of Little Rock and at least eight other Arkansas towns, and along major highways in southeast and southwest parts of the state: “Be a Real Citizen!” “Pay Your Poll Tax,” “Join the U.

Simon bar Giora, Ancient Jewish Hero:
A Historical Reinterpretation

by Cecil Roth
In his article last June, Cecil Roth, the eminent Oxford historian of the Jews, described “The Jewish Revolt Against Rome.” He now reinterprets one of the heroes of that revolt.  _____________     Visitors to Rome are inevitably taken to see the Mamertine Prison, not far from the Forum, where it is said Servius Tullius, sixth king of Rome, perpetrated his deeds of bloodshed as early as the 3rd century before the Christian era.

Orlick Miller and Company:
Excerpt from a Novel in Progress

by Jack Ludwig
By day it was substandard candy, by night women, one his business, the other his calling. Those walleyes of his missed nothing, caught all: melted chocolate given new body in a freezer, a face patted into nice shape by beauticians or plastic surgeons, a false business statement, an old maid shprintzed up with assets.

Cedars of Lebanon: Babel, the Flood, and Space Travel
by Our Readers
We offer below some remarks on the possibility of space travel by the renowned 18th-century Cabbalist, Jonathan Eybeschütz. The excerpt was translated from the original Hebrew by Shabtai Rosenne, who, as an ambassador of Israel and legal advisor of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs in Jerusalem, has recently been in the United States serving with Israel's delegation to the United Nations General Assembly.

On the Horizon: Freud and the Zohar
by David Bakan
Some months ago I received a brief note, in German, from Chaim Bloch, the eminent student of Judaism, Cabbala, and Hasidism.

The Study of Man: Democracy and Revolution
by Oscar Gass
The Counterrevolutionary Tradition The traditional counterrevolutionary assessment of the aims and methods of the French Revolution is dominated by two thoughts: the Revolution came about through allegiance to abstract ideas; the Revolution was due to the willful acts of evil men.

Hellenism, by Arnold J. Toynbee
by Maurice Cohen
What Toynbee knows Best1   After many years, the universal historian Arnold Toynbee has given us a book-length work on the particular civilization in which he has been especially interested all his life.

Letters of Theodore Dreiser, edited by Robert H. Elias
by Milton Hindus
Dreiser's Prejudices Letters of Theodore Dreiser: A Selection in Three Volumes. by Robert H. Elias. University of Pennsylvania Press. 1067 pp. $18.00.   Some may see in these meticulously edited volumes a form of poetic justice: compensation to Dreiser for the indignities that were visited upon him when his first book Sister Carrie was published in 1900.

A Kindly Contagion, by Walter Toman
by David Ray
Tales by Toman A Kindly Contagion. by Walter Toman. Bobbs-Merrill. 218 pp. $3.75.   Quite belatedly—for Walter Toman's work, long popular in Germany, has been making the rounds of American publishers for some years—Bobbs-Merrill has brought out a volume of his tales.

New Face in the Mirror, by Yael Dayan
by Rose Guildenstern
A Curiosity Piece New Face in the Mirror. by Yael Dayan. World Publishing Co. 151 pp. $3.00.   In an interview with a French journalist, Yael Dayan is reported to have said that she does not consider this book of hers to be a work of art, but a documentary (témoignage).

Sociology Today, edited by Robert K. Merton, Leonard Bloom, and Leonard S. Cottrell, Jr.
by Reuel Denney
Sociological Sampler Sociology Today, Problems and Prospects. by Robert K. Merton, Leonard Bloom, and Leonard S. Cottrell, Jr. Basic Books. 623 pp. $7.50.   The editors of Sociology Today have put together thirty-five readable papers which serve to update us on many of the problems of method that make it so easy for sociologists to pick a bone with one another.

The A. F. of L. from the Death of Gompers to the Merger, by Philip Taft
by Ben Seligman
A Labor Chronicle The A. F. of L. From the Death of Gompers to the Merger. by Philip Taft. Harper. 499 pp. $7.50.   The turbulent history of labor was simultaneously the history of America's growth.

The Eighteenth-Century Commonwealthman, by Caroline Robbins
by Christopher Hill
Two Democratic Traditions The Eighteenth-Century Commonwealthman. by Caroline Robbins. Harvard University Press. 462 pp. $10.00.   The important problem which Professor Robbins sets herself has never been properly tackled: what is the connection between the English revolutionaries of 1640—60 and the radicals of the age of John Wilkes and the American Revolution? English radicals of the 1770's were very conscious of the heritage of the Great Rebellion—was this a “rediscovery,” or had something of the old tradition lived on? Putting the question another way, what happened to the radical revolutionaries and their ideas after 1660, when conservative Parliamentarians combined with royalists to restore the monarchy, the House of Lords, and the bishops? The problem is more complex than Professor Robbins always realizes.

Two Poems
by Irving Feldman
The Lost Language I have eaten all my words, And still I am not satisfied! Fourteen thousand and twenty blackbirds Hushed under my side. And when I think of what I have written Or might have and can and shall write —My life, this appetite, But how shall I eat the food forgotten? And think of how my envy like a lust Kept me up, me and Themistocles, And how the night unveiled a noble bust When I thought of glory—but that doesn't     please. So much ambition, And so little nutrition. II Après de déluge, moi. There it is, all the sad tale— A perfect post-diluvian male, And other humanist ta ran ta ra. For, after all, it's only disgrace, At the very best, to outlive (Half-monadnock, half-sieve) The saddest thing in the life of the race. And when I think how many fathoms deep Debris of that mighty birth .

Reader Letters January 1960
by Our Readers
The Kibbutzim TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Gerda L. Cohen's article in the October issue, "The 'Affluent' Kibbutzim," touches on many problems, but with a superficial, slanted journalese. From the first paragraph onward an angry, bitter mood is sustained.

February, 1960Back to Top
Kibbutz Life
by
To the Editor: Because kibbutzim have been significant in the development of Israel, they have been placed in glass houses for the whole Zionist world to disparage.

America's Hidden Resource
by
To the Editor: Mr. Herbert Hill's stimulating article, “Labor Unions and the Negro,” in your December 1959 number, is far and away the most up-to-date comprehensive discussion of the subject.

Jews in Rural America
by
To the Editor: I read with great interest the article by Louise Laser (“The Only Jewish Family in Town,” December 1959).

The Issue
by Norman Podhoretz
“On the Death of a Friend” was spoken by Lionel Trilling at the funeral services held for Elliot Cohen on May 31, 1959, and we are publishing it here in its original form.

On the Death of a Friend
by Lionel Trilling
If we are to speak of Elliot Cohen with truth, the first thing we must say about him is that he was a man of genius. Whoever, at any time, experienced the power of his mind, and the quality of his mind, knows that this is so.

Youth in the Organized Society:
Growing up in America

by Paul Goodman
It's hard to grow up when there isn't enough man's work. There is “nearly full employment” (with highly significant exceptions), but there get to be fewer jobs that are necessary or unquestionably useful; that require energy and draw on some of one's best capacities; and that can be done keeping one's honor and dignity.

In Puerto Rico
by Alfred Kazin
Long before the ice-cream man comes down the block (twice a day) you can hear his truck playing Brahms's “Lullaby” over the loudspeaker, and after he is gone, the sweet and gluey tones (a little like the tasteless local ice cream itself) still linger maddeningly on the air.

Birth Control and Public Policy
by Kingsley Davis
Until recently, the birth control movement was a ladies' volunteer affair, publicly regarded as either inconsequential or embarrassing. At the same time, Americans were privately exhibiting a remarkable consensus of opinion on the subject of birth control, and acting accordingly.

One Who Came Back
A Story

by Isaac Singer
You may not believe it but there are people in the world who were called back. I myself knew such a one, in our town of Turbin, a rich man.

The American Norman Mailer
by F. Dupee
Some future literary historian will doubtless be able to name the precise moment at which the big change in American literature occurred, and to give the reasons why it occurred at all.

A Sephardic Family
by Edouard Roditi
My great-grandmother, whose maiden name was Rebecca Yachni Belinfante, came of an ancient family, once famous for its learning and piety throughout the lands where the Torah is studied.

Last of the Saints
by Arthur Koestler
In May, 1953, two years after Acharya Vinoba Bhave had set out on foot to solve India's problem by persuading the rich to give away their land to the poor, the Rajah of Ranka, province of Bihar, seized by the holy fever, donated 11,000 acres to one of his laborers and 2,500 acres to another. Vinoba asked the Rajah why he had given four times more to the first than to the second.

Barenda Slough
In the San Joaquin Valley

by Philip Levine
Earth and water without form, Change or pause: as if the third Day had not come, this calm norm Of chaos denies the Word. One sees only a surface Pocked with rushes, the starved clumps Pressed between water and space— Rootless, perennial stumps Fixed in position, entombed In nothing; it is too late To bring forth branches, to bloom Or die, only the long wait Lies ahead, a parody Of perfection.

Our New Elite Colleges
by Lawrence Bloomgarden
Since the end of World War II, a significant change has taken place in the character of the so-called prestige college, a change which is bound to affect the patterns of American higher education in general.

The Study of Man: Democracy and Revolution II
by Oscar Gass
Democracy and revolution are dominant, recurring themes in the politics of the past two centuries. They work variously in combination and tension, with other major themes: autocracy and privilege, empire and dependency, capitalism and socialism, white man and colored man.

The Two Cultures, by C. P. Snow
by Steven Marcus
Intellectuals, Scientists, and the Future1   “By training I was a scientist,” remarks Sir Charles Snow at the beginning of The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution, “by vocation I was a writer.

Mark Twain & Southwestern Humor, by Kenneth S. Lynn
by Irving Kristol
D-a-v-y Da-vy Crockett1   There is nothing quite like American humorous writing in the literature of other nations. Nowhere else is humor so central to the literary tradition, so intimately revealing of the national experience, so representative of what the nation truly believes itself to stand for.

Up from Liberalism, by William F. Buckley, Jr.
by Murray Kempton
Document of Non-Dialogue Up from Liberalism. by William F. Buckley, Jr. McDowell, Obolensky. 205 pp. $3.50.   There are two possible tones whose employment toward William F.

Hellenistic Culture, by Moses Hadas
by Robert Graves
Hebrew and Greek Hellenistic Culture: Fusion and Diffusion. by Moses Hadas. Columbia University Press. 324 pp. $6.00.   When doubt in the literal truth of the Scriptures first seriously struck our universities, peace was kept by a tacit agreement between leaders of the theology and classics faculties not to trespass on each other's Tom Tiddler's grounds.

Sabbatai Zevi, by Gershom Scholem
by Mati Meged
The Sabbatean Movement Sabbatai Zevi. by Gershom Scholem. Am Oved (Tel Aviv). 2 vols.   Nothing in the history of the Jewish diaspora can be compared with the Sabbatean movement for depth of spiritual influence and psychological impact.

The Military & Industrial Revolution, by Fritz Sternberg
by George Lightheim
Cold War Journalism The Military and Industrial Revolution of Our Time. by Fritz Sternberg. Praeger. 353 pp. $5.75.   It cannot be said with complete assurance that this is the worst book yet published on the subject of the cold war, since there are also the writings of Isaac Deutscher.

The Mansion, by William Faulkner
by Richard Chase
The Snopeses at an end The Mansion. by William Faulkner. Random House. 436 pp. $4.75.   As Faulkner tells us in a prefatory note to The Mansion, the book is the “final chapter of, and the summation of, a work conceived and begun in 1925.” In this new book we presumably see the last of the famous Snopes tribe, whose earlier activities were chronicled in The Hamlet and The Town and whose name has become synonymous with mean-minded, small-time commercialism, provincial conniving in and out of politics, and general skullduggery.

Reader Letters February 1960
by Our Readers
Jews in Rural America TO THE EDrroR OF COMMENTARY: I read with great interest the article by Louise Laser ("The Only Jewish Family in Town," December 1959).

March, 1960Back to Top
Proust and Zhivago
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Maurice Samuel, while paying tribute to Proust's complex subtlety (“The Concealments of Marcel,” January), does the novelist an injustice.

The Subversion of Collective Bargaining
by Daniel Bell
Unhappy is a society that has run out of words to describe what is going on. So Thurman Arnold observed in connection with the language of private property—the myths and folklore of capitalism—which even thirty years ago was hopelessly out of date.

Passion at Oberammergau
by Robert Davis
This summer, if all goes as expected, some 400,000 people will travel to Oberammergau in Bavaria to watch the spectacle of Christ's being reviled and sent to his death by the Jews.

Modern Knowledge and the Idea of God
by Sidney Hook
Many years ago in a discussion with Jacques Maritain he remarked that anyone who was as keenly interested in arguments for the existence of God as I seemed to be was not beyond hope of redemption.

The Calling of American Youth
by Paul Goodman
 The present essay is the second in a series, of which the third and last will appear in next month's COMMENTARY._____________ Let us exaggerate.

Vox Populi, Vox Goldkorn
A Story

by Norman Stein
The kitchen staff whispered and hissed their amazement and anger. Even the waiters were upset; the fruit cup and consomme had been cleared away practically untouched and now seventy-odd servings of prime rib, asparagus, and baked potato lay uneaten on the tables in the Adams Room.

Duplicitous Mark Twain
by Leslie Fiedler
Duplicity is the most notable, perhaps the essential characteristic of the greatest American novelists; and surely the most duplicitous of all is Mark Twain, precisely because he wears the mask of straightforward simplicity.

Frank Lloyd Wright's Pictorama
by William Barrett
Why was Frank Lloyd Wright, who for twenty years or so had spoken with no uncertain contempt of modern painting, chosen as the architect of a building whose main function, supposedly, was to preserve and show off at their best the works of modern artists? The trustees of the Guggenheim Museum must have thought Wright was joking and did not mean what he said.

Bigotry in Schoolchildren
by H. Schmidt
The recent outbreak of anti-Semitic incidents in Germany, with its juvenile chain reaction in many parts of the world, has focused attention on the school, the teacher, and the textbook as the center of hope for improving relations between different ethnic and religious groups.

Birth Control and Foreign Aid
by James O'Gara
I am grateful for the opportunity to comment on COMMENTARY's article [February] by Kingsley Davis and Judith Blake. Under the heading of “Birth Control and Public Policy” the authors have discussed or touched upon such profound issues as the morality of birth control, the question of church-state and civil liberties, the role of authority in the Catholic Church, the workings of the democratic process, the concept of a pluralistic society, and the relationship between Catholic clergy and laity.

The Question of National Defense, by Oskar Morgenstern
by Gordon Craig
Military Defense and Civil Concern1   A colleague of mine who has had some interest in military affairs confessed recently that he was completely bewildered by the discussion of these matters in Washington, and that the Senate hearings on our defense capabilities seemed to him to bear a closer resemblance to farce or musical comedy than to serious politics.

The Newcomers, by Oscar Handlin; Wages in the Metropolis, by Martin Segal
by Nathan Glazer
New York's Population The Newcomers. by Oscar Handlin. Harvard University Press. 171 pp. $4.00. Wages in the Metropolis. by Martin Segal. Harvard University Press. 211 pp.

The Unfinished Country, by Max Lerner
by Midge Decter
A Peculiar Liberal Voice The Unfinished Country. by Max Lerner. Simon and Schuster. 733 pp. $7.50.   One may clasify the nature of Mr. Max Lerner's work in many ways (none of them quite satisfactory).

France During the German Occupation, 1940-1944, edited by Philip W. Whitcomb
by Max Beloff
Vichy France France During the German Occupation, 1940—1944. by Philip W. Whitcomb. The Hoover Institution. 3 vols. 1644 pp. $20.00.   Filial piety is a virtue—children should be jealous of their parents' reputation.

The Eavesdroppers, by Samuel Dash, Robert E. Knowlton, and Richard F. Schwartz
by Mairi MacInnes
An Attack on Privacy The Eavesdroppers. by Samuel Dash, Robert E. Knowlton and Richard F. Schwartz. Rutgers. 484 p. $6.50.   The initially striking and ultimately perhaps the most appalling characteristic of the world of 1984 was that it lacked privacy altogether.

The Issue
by N. P.
It may seem that Mr. Sidney Hook, In His article “Ideas of God,” is simply doing once more what so many philosophers have done before him—exposing the weaknesses in the various proofs that have been offered for the existence of God.

Reader Letters March 1960
by Our Readers
Proust and Zhivago TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Maurice Samuel, while paying tribute to Proust's complex subtlety ("The Concealments of Marcel," January), does the novelist an in- justice....

April, 1960Back to Top
Labor Unions and the Negro
by Our Readers
To the Editor: There is a need for an accurate balance sheet of labor's contributions to the Negroes' struggle for equal opportunity and labor's shortcomings with respect to that struggle.

The Elite Colleges
by Our Readers
To the Editor: May I compliment you on the excellence of Lawrence Bloomgarden's article, “Our Changing Elite Colleges” (February). I wish to correct an impression by Mr.

. . . And Con
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As an educator I take exception to Paul Goodman's sweeping indictments of American teachers and teaching. To people who verbalize easily and then make their living by vilifying those around them, I always feel impelled to ask a familiar rhyme from a journalism class: Who, what, when, where, why, and how? What does Mr.

Pro Paul Goodman
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . Paul Goodman's article [February] is just extraordinary, a fitting step after what remains the best book on Utopian thinking, his and his brother Percival Goodman's Communitas.

Portrait of a Business Generalist
by David Bazelon
Successful corporate lawyers like to be described these days as “generalists.” This new term has a touch of magic for them—it seems to catch the essence of their drastically changed role in shepherding money and men of money through the green pastures of the new American property system.

The Candidates and I
by Dwight Macdonald
I have been reading a book called Candidates 1960 edited by Eric Sevareid and published by Basic Books, and it has activated two old prejudices, the one against newspaper journalism and the one against voting.

The Role of the Intellectuals
by George Lichtheim
An essay on the current social significance of the floating stratum variously known as “the intellectuals” or “the intelligentsia” must at the outset face the obvious problem of coming to terms with its own implied assumptions: notably, the belief that the theme warrants yet another effort at clarification.

German Youth and German History
by Ernest Jouhy
The new wave of anti-Semitism, which began in Cologne and spread over many German cities, has evoked a profound concern with the German future, and with the youth upon whom that future so largely depends.

In Search of Community
by Paul Goodman
Paul Goodman's series on American youth is completed by this third and last essay; the previous two were printed in the February and March issues.

Shulim
A Story

by Sydor Rey
People were quietly suspecting—at least such was my impression—that I had homosexual inclinations, but these suspicions did not disturb me.

Wire Tapping
by Alan Westin
In the past six years, what can best be described as a civil liberties revolt has taken place in America over wire tapping and electronic eavesdropping.

Swastikas, Resolutions, Scholarship
by Milton Himmelfarb
Milton Himmelfarb's new department, “In the Community,” will appear regularly from now on at intervals of four months. _____________     Swastikas The pandemic of swastika and “Out with the Jews” scrawlings has abated by now, but the newspapers were full of it in the month or so after Christmas Eve.

The Constitution of Liberty, by F. A. Hayek
by Irving Kristol
Last of the Whigs The Constitution of Liberty. by F. A. Hayek. University of Chicago Press. 570 pp. $7.50. It is generally forgotten that Edmund Burke and Adam Smith were both Whigs.

Jews in Music, by Arthur Holde
by Albert Goldman
The Music in Jews Jews in Music. by Arthur Holde. Philosophical Library. 364 pp. $5.00.   Arthur Holder's recent volume Jews in Music should have been titled “Guide to Jews in Music” or “Handbook of Jewish Musicians.” It is simply a rather pedestrian exercise in lexicography—little notes on index cards expanded to “complete sentences”—not a study of the interesting subject suggested by the title. Years ago, and in another country, this sort of compilation might have been welcome, but today, in America, we cannot take much pleasure in ogling interminable lists of “Eminent Jewish Musicians.” At least, I hope we are beyond that sort of naive self-gratulation.

W. E. B. Du Bois: Negro Leader in a Time of Crisis, by Francis L. Broderick
by Nathan Glazer
Career of a Negro Aristocrat W. E. B. Du Bois: Negro Leader in a Time of Crisis. by Francis L. Broderick. Stanford University Press.

Lament for a Generation, by Ralph de Toledano
by Midge Decter
The Radical Road to Nixon Lament for a Generation. by Ralph De Toledano. Farrar, Straus & Cudahy. 263 pp. $3.95.   Ralph De Toledano's lament for his generation is a curious mixture of a book: part autobiographical memoir, part essay in hagiography, part manifesto, and in the midst of all this, a rousing campaign portrait of Richard Nixon.

Our Times: Selections from The Reporter, edited by Max Ascoli
by Harris Dienstfrey
The Problems of Liberalism Our Times. by Max Ascoli. Farrar, Straus & Cudahy. 502 pp. $6.50.   Our Times is a collection of “the best from The Reporter,” the magazine which, since its first issue in April 1949, has come to represent the concerns of intelligent American liberalism.

The Issue
by N. P.
Dwight Macdonald is right, of course: it matters very little to problems like defense or desegregation which candidate gets “that job” in 1960.

Reader Letters April 1960
by Our Readers
Pro Paul Goodman TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: ... Paul Goodman's article [February] is just extraordinary, a fitting step after what remains the best book on utopian thinking, his and his brother Percival Goodman's Communitas.

May, 1960Back to Top
The Idea of God
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to comment on a single crucial passage in Professor Hook's “Modern Knowledge and the Idea of God” [March]: “The finitude of the human intellect is no bar to adequate knowledge of other things [than the nature of God], even of things which are not finite.

Birth Control, Judaism, Public Policy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Kingsley Davis and Judith Blake [February] equate Judaism and the apparently dominant element in Protestant Christianity; but here is what the learned Ben-Azai recently said on the subject: “.

More on Goodman
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Paul Goodman's article in the February issue struck a very responsive chord with me, even though I suspect I would disagree strongly with some of his assumptions and standards.

Labor Unions and the Negro
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Herbert Hill may be entitled to the last word in the controversy he stirred with his article .

Collective Bargaining
by Our Readers
To the Editor: “The Subversion of Collective Bargaining” by Daniel Bell [March] calls attention to important concepts too often overlooked or misunderstood in our industrial economy.

The Oberammergau Passion
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Robert Gorham Davis's article in the March issue of COMMENTARY on the Passion Play at Oberammergau flagrantly displays prejudice against the Catholic Church. The story of the Passion of Christ is historical.

Seven Nazis Were Hanged:
The Diary of a Witness

by Arthur Settel
On August 8, 1945, in London, the governments of the USA, France, Britain, and the USSR resolved to punish “those German officers and men and members of the Nazi party who have been responsible for or have taken a consenting part in atrocities and crimes.

England, the Bomb, the Marchers
by David Marquand
“I wouldn't cross the road to vote for the Labor party, let alone the Conservatives,” said a student friend of mine recently, “but I'd march from here to Timbuctoo for the sake of the CND.” His words would probably be echoed in every university and training college in Britain.

The Yeshiva and the Medical School
by Myron Kolatch
In fifteen states scattered around the country, fifty young doctors are now interning who never took the Hippocratic oath. At their graduation they chanted instead the Declaration of Geneva (renouncing genocide) and listened to a recitation of the Physician's Prayer allegedly composed by the 12th-century rabbi-philosopher-physician Moses Maimonides.

China and Russia: The First Decade
by Roderick MacFarquhar
A tenth anniversary is customarily an occasion for review and appraisal. But the tenth anniversary of the signing of the Sino-Soviet treaty of friendship, alliance, and mutual friendship on February 14, 1950, merits attention for better reasons than mere convention.

Art While Being Ruled:
“Abram Tertz,” Brecht, and Calderón

by Lionel Abel
Really surprising about the Pasternak affair was not so much that Doctor Zhivago was denied publication in the Soviet Union or that Boris Pasternak was prevented from accepting his Nobel Prize award: fundamentally, our astonishment sprang from the fact that his novel had been written at all.

Story's End
by David Bergelson
David Bergelson—considered by many critics to be the greatest Yiddish writer of the generations following Mendele, Sholem Aleichem, and Peretz—was killed somewhere in Russia in 1952, a victim of the anti-Semitic upsurge during the last years of Stalin's rule.

The Soviet Census & the Jews
by Mark Neuweld
The first census of the Soviet population to be taken since the war—exactly twenty years after the last census—was conducted from January 15 to January 29, 1959.

On Puerto Rico
by Alfred Kazin
(1) And the Lion Shall Lie Down with the Lamb . . . When Mr. Kazin's piece on Puerto Rico [February] was reprinted in the local English-language daily, violent letters filled the columns; mine was among the most indignant because I felt Kazin had behaved shabbily during his stay, giving small value and leaving much ill-will, and because I thought his article a blend of conceit and truculent provincialism, a proportion I had observed in the man before seeing it demonstrated in the article.

Love and Death in the American Novel, by Leslie Fiedler
by Paul Levine
Two Views of Leslie Fiedler1   1. Paul Levine: Meanwhile, Back at the Raft For some time now critics have been so busy noting the decline of the American novel that they have completely missed the passing of American criticism.

Die Filosofie fun Yidntum: The Philosophy of Judaism, by Zvi Cahn
by Israel Knox
A Yiddish “Fundamentalist” Die Filosofie fun Yidntum: The Philosophy of Judaism. by Zvi Cahn. Farband Publishing Assn. (New York). Two volumes, 320 and 419 pp.

Max Weber, an Intellectual Portrait, by Reinhard Bendix
by Lewis Coser
Weber and his Work Max Weber, an Intellectual Portrait. by Reinhard Bendix. Doubleday. 480 pp. $5.75.   Max Weber is without doubt the greatest German sociologist, and his work belongs among the rare classics of the social sciences.

Pilgrims in the Zoo, by Bruce Brooks; Cain's Book, by Alexander Trocchi
by Harris Dienstfrey
Some New Avant-Garde Pilgrims in the Zoo. by Bruce Brooks. Beacon Press. 164 pp. $3.95. Cain's Book. by Alexander Trocchi. Grove Press. 252 pp. $3.95.   These works are two examples of current avant-garde fiction in America.

Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life, by Stanley M. Elkins
by Nathan Glazer
The Differences Among Slaves Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life. by Stanley M. Elkins. The University of Chicago Press. 247 pp.

The Issue
by Norman Podhoretz
Reading Arthur Settel's “Seven Nazis Were Hanged” was for me an experience similar to the one I had in watching I Want to Live, the movie about the execution of Barbara Graham.

Reader Letters May 1960
by Our Readers
The Oberammergau Passion TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Robert Gorham Davis's article in the March issue of COMMENTARY on the Passion Play at Oberammergau flagrantly displays prejudice against the Catholic Church. The story of the Passion of Christ is his- torical.

June, 1960Back to Top
The Oberammergau Passion
by
To the Editor: A reader's letter in the May issue states flatly that the story of the passion of Christ is historical and implies that criticism of the Oberammergau play is unjustified and anti-Catholic.

The Guggenheim Museum
by
To the Editor: It was more with dismay than anger that I read William Barrett's “Frank Lloyd Wright's Pictorama” [March]. .

Macdonald and the Vote
by
To the Editor: After reading Dwight Macdonald's discussion of Candidates: 1960 and the current campaign [April] I found myself wondering if one who writes like a political Jack Kerouac is making a contribution that is worth anything.

The American Crisis:
Political Idealism and the Cold War

by
A very large number of the ablest minds in the country, if concerned at all with defense and foreign policy, work for the Air Force's Rand Corporation, the Army's Operations Research Office at Johns Hopkins, or in the CIA.

Our Thwarted Republic:
Public Power vs. the New Feudalism

by Hans Morgenthau
It is the supreme dual paradox of contemporary democracy that the expansion of democratic methods goes hand in hand with the recession of actual popular control over the government and that this decline in the power of the people is not compensated for by a corresponding increase in the power of the government.

Entangling Juvenile Delinquency
by Kenneth Keniston
Late in January, the Commissioner of the New York City Youth Service called an extraordinary press conference to announce a development of “tremendous significance for the juvenile delinquency prediction effort.” Flanked by the Deputy Mayor, Paul T.

Middle-Class Judaism: A Case Study
by Lucy Dawidowicz
During the past ten years, “Garfield Hills”—the name I have given a compact neighborhood in New York City's borough of Queens which was once closed to Jews—has turned more and more markedly into a Jewish section.

Totalitarianism Reconsidered
by Richard Lowenthal
One of the most fateful developments of the 20th century has been the rise of the “totalitarian” regimes, both of the Communist and the nationalist-fascist types.

The Study of Man: Socialism & Democracy
by Oscar Gass
(1) Value and Limitations of Democracy I confess to having read Sidney Hook's new book1 with disappointment I admire some of Professor Hook's earlier publications and also several chapters of this book.

Stanley Kramer's “on the Beach”
by Midge Decter
At some moment during the course of On the Beach, the movie adaptation by Stanley Kramer of Nevil Shute's novel about the end of the world, one of the characters remarks that people must have an instinct for getting indoors and into bed to die.

A Conference on the Sit-Ins
by Ted Dienstfrey
It is with a desire to do something that many Northern white college students look at the sit-in movement of their Southern Negro counterparts.

Youth in America
by Paul Goodman
The Demonology of the Superego In Paul Goodman's roughly 25,000-word essay, what we have is a long, anguished, soul-rending cry of pain for the crucified adolescent.

The Time of the Peaches, by Arthur Granit
by Theodore Solotaroff
The Brownsville Syndrome1 This is a very good first novel—noisy and anecdotal, to be sure, but at the same time written under the spell of the truth it is telling.

The End of Ideology, by Daniel Bell
by Dennis Wrong
An American “Centrist” The End of Ideology. by Daniel Bell. The Free Press. 416 pp. $7.50.   For nearly two decades now articles and reviews by Daniel Bell have been appearing in our better journals of ideas and opinion.

The Nation's Children, Edited by Eli Ginzberg
by Nathan Glazer
Some Academics on Affluence The Nation's Children. by Eli Ginzberg. Volume I: The Family and Social Change, 252 pp. Volume II: Development and Education, 242 pp.

The Negro Personality, by Bertram P. Karon
by Melvin Tumin
The Victims of Caste The Negro Personality. by Bertram P. Karon. Springer Publishing Co. 184 pp. $4.50.   Many of us have known in our own lives what it feels like to be socially depreciated: considered unworthy of ordinary social rewards, excluded from places where others have unquestioned access.

Anatomy of Faith, by Milton Steinberg
by Ben Halpern
Religion and Theology Anatomy of Faith. by Milton Steinberg. Edited, with an introduction by Arthur A. Cohen. Harcourt, Brace. 304 pp. $4.75.   If History is what remains memorable over a span of generations, then history finds itself consistently distorted as the generations pass, owing to the original sin of the invention of writing.

The Issue
by Norman Podhoretz
Like Daniel Bell's article on collective bargaining in our March issue, Hans J. Morgenthau's extraordinary analysis of the executive function points to the signs of obsolescence in an apparently vital American institution and attributes this obsolescence to technological and other changes whose consequences we have been slow to acknowledge.

Reader Letters June 1960
by Our Readers
Macdonald and the Vote To THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: After reading Dwight Macdonald's dis- cussion of Candidates: 1960 and the cur- rent campaign [April] I found myself won- dering if one who writes like a political Jack Kerouac is making a contribution that is worth anything.... Macdonald's article is not so terribly unique.

July, 1960Back to Top
Tillich and Hook
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Perhaps it might clear up some of Professor Hook's [“Modern Knowledge and the Idea of God,” March] confusion over Tillich's “ultimate” to remember a few passages from Professor Tillich's essay “Moralisms and Morality: Theonomous Ethics” (in Theology of Culture) .

More on Macdonald
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Even in the Columbia School of Journalism, I'm sure they try to teach students not to generalize so flagrantly about (1) candidates, and (2) writers and journalists.

Two Parallel Revolutions
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Since the review of my book, The Military and Industrial Revolution of Our Time [by George Lichtheim, February] gave readers an inadequate and to some extent distorted picture of my ideas, a few observations seem necessary. I wrote in my introduction that “The military revolution of our time is moving forward parallel with the second industrial revolution; in fact it was the military revolution which originally launched the industrial revolution.” The review quotes this passage, but quite fails to mention that it is the starting point of a series of ideas designed to prove that in certain important respects the relationship between the military and the industrial revolutions today is fundamentally different from their relationship in former historical periods. In part Two of my book, “The Second Industrial Revolution,” a whole chapter, “The Relationship between the Military and Industrial Revolutions,” is devoted to a concrete analysis of these ideas. On page 112 I wrote: “In modern times, from the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Era up to the twentieth century and the two world wars, there has been absolutely no development which could even remotely be compared with the present-day military revolution.

The Puerto Rican Mind
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I should like to comment on the Kazin “Controversy” on Puerto Rico that appeared in the May COMMENTARY. I am sure that there is some truth in what Mr.

Seven Nazis
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The night seven Nazis were hanged was, as Arthur Settel [May] has occasion to mention, a joint experience of his and mine.

Eichmann & the Question of Jurisdiction
by Jacob Robinson
The recent capture of Adolf Eichmann has raised a good many questions in the public mind, some of them involving what might be called matters of policy and others touching on issues of international law.

Return to South Africa
by Dan Jacobson
Though my latest return to South Africa coincided (quite unintentionally) with the country's savage political crisis, my single overwhelming impression of South Africa, when I look back now, is not political.

The Decline of the New York Democrats
by Joseph Kraft
Seymour, Greeley, Tilden, Cleveland, Parker, Smith, and Roosevelt: seven of the thirteen men named by the Democrats for the Presidency since the Civil War have been New Yorkers.

“Fabianism” in Washington
by Harris Dienstfrey
Over the past two years, a series of incidents in this country has highlighted the uneasiness with which some Americans occasionally view their official leaders.

Reflections on the Jewish Day School
by Milton Himmelfarb
The two most striking things about the statistics of Jewish education today are that enrollments are growing faster than the Jewish child population and that the enrollment in day schools is growing even faster.

Come into the Hallway, for Five Cents!
A Story

by Arthur Granit
Once upon a time, we Jews had a Princess, named Berenice, who was affianced to the Emperor Titus. Bedecked in her jewels, attended by her slaves, and with gongs and cymbals clashing, this Jewish Princess made her appearance in the court of Rome, only to find that the King of the Romans had gone mad.

The Study of Man: Liberal Capitalism & Socialism
by Oscar Gass
“How say ye unto Pharoah, I am the son of the wise, the son of ancient kings? Where are they? Where are thy wise men?” —Isaiah 19:11—12 No other error of public judgment would, I think, be more damaging, for the just influence of the United States, than that we should ascribe too universal a significance to the present difficulties of the democratic socialist parties of the major countries of Western Europe and, from that mistake, take a misguided, fleeting courage to stand before the world as the parochial advocates of a single pattern of economic organization, one which may, largely, be unadaptable to the circumstances and aspirations of most other peoples.

Writing for Magazines
by Alfred Kazin
Chekhov, who died at forty-four, would have been a hundred years old this year, and there have been suitable tributes to him from short story writers, people in the theater, and scholars in the field of Russian literature.

Collective Bargaining:
Goals and Achievements

by Daniel Bell
Daniel Bell's article “The Subversion of Collective Bargaining” in the March issue reflects the disillusionment with the labor movement expressed by an increasing number of pro-labor intellectuals.

American Catholics: A Protestant-Jewish View, edited by Philip Scharper
by Marshall Sklare
A Contribution to the “Dialogue”1   In addition to the timeliness of its appearance just before the presidential contest the obvious significance of this volume is its contribution to the “Dialogue.” The participants in the symposium—Stringfellow Barr of Rutgers, Martin E.

White and Coloured, by Michael Banton
by Fred Graham
The Negro in Britain White and Coloured. by Michael Banton. Rutgers University Press. 223 pp. $4.00.   The central character in Brendan Behan's current London play, The Hostage, is a likeable cockney soldier named Leslie, who is captured by Irish Republican rebels.

The Affair, by C. P. Snow
by Michael Millgate
Strangers and Brothers The Affair. by C. P. Snow. Scribner's. 374 pp. $4.50.   It will no doubt be said of C. P. Snow's new novel, The Affair, that it attempts to repeat the formula of The Masters but does not succeed in doing so.

Class in American Society, by Leonard Reissman
by R. Nisbet
The Reality of Class Class in American Society. by Leonard Reissman. The Free Press. 436 pp. $6.75.   A skeptical historian once suggested that feudalism was introduced into England, not by William the Conqueror in the 11th century but by the antiquary, Sir Henry Spelman, in the 17th.

Name and Address, by T. S. Matthews
by Gertrude Himmelfarb
Anonymity, “Time,” and Success Name and Address. by T. S. Matthews. Simon and Schuster. 309 pp. $4.50.   Some time ago there was an exchange program for English and American journalists, in the course of which a member of the staff of the Economist was briefly attached to Time.

Men at the Top, by Osborn Elliot; Top Leadership U.S.A., by Floyd Hunter
by Andrew Hacker
Organization Men in Profile Men at the Top. by Osborn Elliot. Harper. 246 pp. $3.95. Top Leadership U.S.A. by Floyd Hunter. University of North Carolina Press.

Wooden Synagogues, by Maria and Kazimierz Piechotka
by Alfred Werner
A Jewish and Unique Art Wooden Synagogues. by Maria and Kazimierz Piechotka. Translated by Rulka Langer. With introductions by Stephen S. Kayser and Jan Zachwatowicz. Arkady (Warsaw).

American Folklore, by Richard M. Dorson
by Marshall McLuhan
Myth, Oral and Written American Folklore. by Richard M. Dorson. University of Chicago Press. 328 pp. $4.50.   “Since the arc of tradition in a given culture may vary considerably from country to country, it is only right that the study of folklore should follow the contours of a particular civilization.

The Issue
by Norman Podhoretz
Jacob Robinson develops what seems to me a strong argument for Israel's claim under international law to jurisdiction in the Eichmann case.

Reader Letters July 1960
by Our Readers
Seven Nazis TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: The night seven Nazis were hanged was, as Arthur Settel [May] has occasion to mention, a joint experience of his and mine. Settel is a good, evocative reporter.

August, 1960Back to Top
Eichmann
by Our Readers
To the Editor: We greatly appreciated reading Dr. Robinson's succinct statement on the Eichmann case. Aside from the affair itself, he manages to make the legal terms and their implications comprehensible to us—who have been swamped with both emotional and legalistic outcries. Ruth Gutmann New York City _____________  

Middle-Class Judaism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: My congratulations to Lucy S. Dawidowicz for “Middle-Class Judaism: A Case Study” in your June issue. This is one of the best jobs of research in religious sociology that I've read in many a day. Louis Cassels Washington, D.

The Existence of God
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I spent every spare hour for weeks trying to compose my ideas in response to Sidney Hook's article in the March issue.

Jewishness & Institutions
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Myron Kolatch's revealing article, “The Yeshiva and the Medical School” [May], evoked from the Editor of COMMENTARY some sangui?e observations that especially interested me. The Editor thought it possible that the development of such a school reflects American Jewry's feeling sufficiently secure “to turn its attention to general problems.

Predicting Delinquency
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Kenneth Keniston's critique of the prediction scale for delinquency [“Entangling Juvenile Delinquency,” June] is a useful reminder of the vagueness of statistics in this field.

Barbarism & Understanding
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “The Issue: May 1960,” Mr. Podhoretz displays an outrageous contempt for his readers' intellect when he uses the word “barbaric” to describe the young father in Philadelphia last year “who publicly trotted out all the clichés of liberal enlightenment to plead for ‘understanding’ of the boy who assaulted and murdered his four-year-old daughter the day before.” It should be pointed out that the young Philadelphia father did not plead for understanding of the boy in the tired, simplified sense that Mr.

Another View of Steinberg
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The review of Milton Steinberg's Anatomy of Faith by Ben Halpern [June] is a shameful travesty. The reviewer confesses his contempt for theology, insisting that the notion that “this or any other age need look to theology for its regeneration is entirely unfounded.” With such a conviction, is he qualified to judge a theological work? .

Nixon and Civil Rights
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In taking issue with Dwight Macdonald's quite proper observation that “no major candidate is on record against civil liberties,” Mr.

Turkey--A Case in Constructive Nationalism
by A. Sherman
The experience of Turkey in the past decade holds a significance for Asian and Middle Eastern nationalism in general: Turkey in the 1920's was the scene of the first successful “national-modernist” revolution.

Henry Roth's Neglected Masterpiece
by Leslie Fiedler
After the publication in 1935 of his first and only novel, Call It Sleep, Henry Roth retired completely from the literary scene until last year when his parable, “At Times in Flight” appeared in COMMENTARY (July 1959).

The Dun Dakotas
by Henry Roth
There was something ruinous about the time, or fatal to creative gusto, or so I feel. I have my inklings about its nature, my brief illumination, but just what it was I leave to others more competent at defining abstractions or rendering something definitive out of the multitude of eddies and appearances.

Economics of the Farm Problem
by Asher Brynes
When, last May, the omnibus Agriculture Appropriation Bill for 1961 was on the floor of the House for final consideration, a city Congressman rose to say.

Slums, Old and New
by Michael Harrington
It is clear now that postwar America's greatest single social scandal has been its failure to provide adequate housing for its low-income groups.

The Violent Gang
by Lewis Yablonsky
It is a truism that criminal organizations and criminal activities tend to reflect social conditions. Just as surely as the Bowery gang mirrored aspects of the 1900's, the Capone mob aspects of the 20's, and the youth gangs of the depression elements of the 30's, so do the delinquent gangs that have developed since the 1940's in the United States reflect certain patterns of our own society. The following quotations indicate the tone and ethos of a representative gang of today, the so-called Egyptian Kings, whose members beat and stabbed to death a fifteen-year-old boy named Michael Farmer in a New York City park not long ago.

Boris & the 2nd Avenue Muse
A Memoir

by Robert Brustein
When Boris called me in the summer of 1952, it had been a full three years since I had last heard from him; yet he launched into his proposition with only the most peremptory greeting. “How would you like to play General MacArthur?” “Play who?” “General MacArthur!

Pragmatism & the Tragic Sense of Life
by Sidney Hook
In the realm of thought and culture America has largely been a colonial dependency of Europe. Its own authentic history—the conquest of a virgin continent, the bloodiest of all civil wars, the technological revolution, the extension of social democracy—has not been reflected in a characteristic philosophy of life.

The Study of Man: Community, Values, Comedy
by Harold Rosenberg
Sociological studies expose their areas of inquiry as under a huge searchlight. There is an absence of shading, but this only makes the image presented by systematic research seem more complete; compared with it, the social novel or literary essay offers merely a smudge of emotionally charged individual instances.

Some Notes on Jewish Affairs
by Milton Himmelfarb
Nazi, Foreign Editorial opinion on the Eichmann case was generally understanding but mildly disapproving of the way the Israelis captured him and of their intention to try him in Israel.

Ethics & Eichmann
by Oscar Handlin
Oscar Handlin, a professor of history at Harvard and a frequent contributor to COMMENTARY, here comments on Jacob Robinson's article, which appeared last month, “Eichmann & the Question of Jurisdiction.” A reply by Dr.

General Education, edited by Lewis B. Mayhew
by Richard Schoenwald
The World of General Education1   General education grew out of a dissatisfaction with the system of free electives which, after the Civil War, displaced the tightly prescribed, largely classical curriculum long dominant in American colleges.

Three Books on the Third Reich, by Leon Poliakov and Josef Wulf
by George Mosse
Documents of Nazism Das Dritte Reich und Seine Denker, by Leon Poliakov and Josef Wulf. Arani Verlag (West Berlin). 560 pp. Das Dritte Reich und Seine Diener, by Leon Poliakov and Josef Wulf. Arani Verlag (West Berlin).

The Open and Closed Mind, by Milton Rokeach
by Lewis Coser
Dogmatism and Opinionation The Open and Closed Mind. by Milton Rokeach. Basic Books, 447 pp., $7.50.   This thought-provoking book follows the tradition of such modern classics as Erich Fromm's Escape from Freedom and The Authoritarian Personality by T.

The Noble Savage, edited by Saul Bellow, Keith Botsford, and Jack Ludwig; Love and Like, by Herbert Gold; Golk, by Richard Stern
by Elmer Borklund
A New Fictional Hero The Noble Savage. by Saul Bellow, Keith Botsford, and Jack Ludwig. Meridian Books. 255 pp. $1.50. Love and Like. by Herbert Gold. The Dial Press.

Words and Things, by Ernest Gellner
by Marshall Cohen
The Angry Young Philosopher Words and Things. by Ernest Gellner Beacon Press. 270 pp. $5.00.   Ernest Gellner knew full well that sooner or later the role of Angry Young Philosopher would have to be cast.

American Immigration, by Maldwyn Allen Jones; American Labor, by Henry Pelling; American Philanthropy, by Robert H. Bremner
by Nathan Glazer
Facets of American Civilization American Immigration. by Maldwyn Allen Jones. University of Chicago Press. 359 pp. $6.00. American Labor. by Henry Pelling. University of Chicago Press.

The Issue
by Norman Podhoretz
In criticizing my remarks about the Eichmann case last month, Oscar Handlin calls it a “tragic turn of events” that Jews “who profess an interest in an international moral code” nevertheless “defend the right of a Jewish nation to take the law into its own hands.” Presumably alluding to my comments in the May issue about Arthur Settel's description of the hanging of seven Nazi war criminals by the American Military Government in 1951, Professor Handlin also deplores the fact that Jews “who are against capital punishment in general” can be found seeking “the execution of those who have wronged their co-religionists.” Having taken great pains to make clear that I was not advocating the execution of Eichmann or the other Nazi war criminals, but rather explaining why—as a Jew—I could not bring myself to oppose such executions (though I am indeed an opponent of capital punishment “in general”), I can only suppose that Professor Handlin is refusing to accept the relevance of the distinction that seems to me so crucial here.

Reader Letters August 1960
by Our Readers
Nixon and Civil Rights To THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: In taking issue with Dwight Macdonald's quite proper observation that "no major candidate is on record against civil liber- ties," Mr.

September, 1960Back to Top
Ethnic Voting
by Our Readers
To the Editor, I trust I will not be the only reader to point out that while Joseph Kraft [“The Decline of the New York Democrats,” July] quoted a district leader as saying his predominantly Jewish district would not support an Irish insurgent over a Jewish incumbent, when the district actually voted, it gave the Irishman, William Ryan, an overwhelming majority over the Jew, Ludwig Teller.

Socialist Ideals
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Oscar Gass's article on “Socialism and Democracy” [June] strikes me . . . as hardly the “substantial contribution to the analysis of contemporary politics” which he is seeking. Mr.

Middle-Class Judaism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Lucy S. Dawidowicz's article “Middle-Class Judaism: A Case Study” [June] was very informative, interesting, and readable. It's a pity that her descriptions are so true to Jewish life. I would like to bring up to date, however, the reference to Henry Cohen's Jewish population study in New York City.

The Sit-Ins
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Ted Dienstfrey is quite right about the movement of Southern Negro students to gain equal rights [“A Conference on the Sit-ins,” June].

Impressionistic Writing
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Hans J. Morgenthau's “Our Thwarted Republic” [June] presents a good example of the strength and weakness of impressionistic writing.

Jewish Day Schools
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The first half of Milton Himmelfarb's article “Reflections on the Jewish Day School” [July] invoked no negative response in me; the second half did.

Ethics & Eichmann
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As one of the charter members of the Commentary Publication Committee, I have until now adhered strictly to the tradition that the lay Board should be reluctant, at least in public, to comment on the contents of the magazine.

Is “Integration” Possible in the New York Schools?
by Nathan Glazer
It is now more than six years since “integration” became an issue in the New York City school system; and, very likely, at the start of the new school term some of New York's Negro parents—for the third time in a row—will stage a “strike,” and keep their children from attending the all-Negro (or nearly all-Negro) schools of their own neighborhoods on the ground that the education to be got there is inferior. One way or another, “integration” has become an important issue in every Northern and Western city in which there are large numbers of Negroes and (as in New York) Puerto Ricans or (in California and elsewhere) Mexicans.

The Answer to Soviet Anti-Semitism:
Is Exodus Conceivable?

by Mark Richards
During the past few years a particularly vehement campaign on the part of the Soviet press has systematically represented Soviet Jews as being malicious and anti-social, and Jewish religious life as implicitly constituting subservience to a foreign state—Israel—and thus treason to the USSR.

Rockefeller as Liberal Hero
by Dennis Wrong
The most unusual event of the two cut-and-dried and largely predictable party conventions was the Nixon-Rockefeller meeting and its outcome the weekend before the Republican convention.

Affluence, Galbraith, the Democrats
by Ernest den
At the recent Republican convention, Senator Barry Goldwater varied the occasion's ritual excoriation of Democrats by accusing them of having abandoned Jefferson and Jackson in favor of: “Bowles, Galbraith, and Reuther.” And the country's newspaper columnists—with James Reston of the New York Times in the lead—have been telling us for some time now that Professor John Kenneth Galbraith's intellectual labors will surely exert great influence on future Democratic policies.

Memory of Tolerance
A Story

by Maurice Marks
The last time I tried my hand at public expression was in 1948 and in Doomington, England. For almost two months I trained to be a public speaker, attended Mr.

Otto Rank: A Forgotten Heresy
by Jack Jones
Otto Rank, who will probably turn out in the end to have been the best mind that psychoanalysis contributed to intellectual history, defected from the company of Freudians about 1925 and, as far as the orthodox element was concerned, thereby became almost an unpsychoanalyst.

The New Wave in French Culture
by J. Weightman
A tiny but significant piece of cultural news from France earlier this year was the report that Jean-Paul Sartre had said of one of the latest nouvelle vague (“new wave”) films, Jean-Luc Godard's Breathless (A Bout de Souffle—not yet released here), that it was très beau.

Drug Addiction in America & England
by Edwin Schur
There are in the United States about 60,000 opiate addicts, the Federal Bureau of Narcotics estimates, and some medical experts believe that 1,000,000 is closer to the actual number of those addicted to morphine, heroin, and related drugs.

Chaim Lensky's Ordeal
by Judd Teller
The story of how the manuscript of Boris Pasternak's Doctor Zhivago was smuggled out of the Soviet Union is drab compared to the odyssey of a recently published collection of strange, curious, and perhaps very important verse by Chaim Lensky1—a Soviet Hebrew poet who vanished in a Siberian labor camp in 1942.

The New Professors, edited by Robert O. Bowen
by Benjamin DeMott
A Sleep of Teachers1   Clever folk scorn it as a cliché and vulgar men read it with dollar-conscious lees, but the plain truth remains that the present situation of the young university teacher is probably more exciting than that of any of his counterparts since the mid-17th century. The reasons for this are obvious.

Evidence of Love, by Dan Jacobson
by Harris Dienstfrey
Tales of Hate and Love Evidence of Love. by Dan Jacobson. Atlantic Little, Brown. 242 pp. $4.00.   It is impossible to read any of Dan Jacobson's four novels without feeling how strongly they are suffused by his own humanity.

The Jews in the Renaissance, by Cecil Roth
by Gerald Strauss
Renaissance Jews The Jews in the Renaissance. by Cecil Roth. The Jewish Publication Society of America. 380 pp. $5.00.   In the dismal chronicle that records the existence of Jews among their host peoples, the age of the Italian Renaissance stands out as a period of uncommon liberality.

American Marriage, by Ruth Shonle Cavan
by Midge Decter
Marriage as a Way of Life American Marriage. by Ruth Shonle Cavan. Thomas Y. Crowell. 490 pp. $6.95.   “He's your fella. You're his woman— That's all you need to know” (Carousel, Act II). The appearance of a volume like American Marriage acts to remind one that there are colleges in the United States offering courses in how to have a happy marriage.

Crumbling Idols, by Hamlin Garland
by Leo Marx
The Radicalism of Hamlin Garland Crumbling Idols: Twelve Essays on Art Dealing Chiefly with Literature, Painting and the Drama. by Hamlin Garland.

The Professional Soldier, by Morris Janowitz
by Andrew Hacker
Specialists in Violence The Professional Soldier: A Social and Political Portrait. by Morris Janowitz. The Free Press. 464 pp. $6.75.   Generals and admirals are figures of no little mystery.

Some Recent Jewish Books
by Milton Himmelfarb
Karaites in Byzantium, by Zvi Ankori (Columbia University Press and Weizmann Science Press of Israel, 546 pp., $10.00). Karaism, an anti-talmudic and anti-rabbinic movement, arose among the Jews of Babylonia more than a thousand years ago and flourished there, in Palestine, and in Egypt for a few centuries.

The Issue
by Norman Podhoretz
Those liberals who have expressed disgust at the “undemocratic rigging” of the conventions and the resultant mediocrity of the two nominees may have to console themselves—if they wish to console themselves at all—with the reflection that Kennedy and Nixon represent pretty much what the American people seem to want at the moment.

Reader Letters September 1960
by Our Readers
Ethics & Eichmann TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: As one of the charter members of the Commentary Publication Committee, I have until now adhered strictly to the tradition that the lay Board should be reluctant, at least in public, to comment on the contents of the magazine.

October, 1960Back to Top
Books, Identities, Syntax
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Let me protest Elmer Borklund's slick disdain, in his review of The Noble Savage [August], for Harold Rosenberg's essay, “Notes From the Ground Up,” in which, Rosenberg, to my understanding, brings attention to the way in which middle-brow critics and writers have debilitated the idea of “identity” into a sort of fetish.

Slum Psychology and Housing
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Two ideas stand out in Michael Harrington's discussion on slums [“Slums, Old and New,” August]: “Public housing by itself fails to solve the problems of slum psychology”; and “A certain level of aspiration and culture is necessary before one can take advantage of modern opportunities.” However, Mr.

Polemical Philosophy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: There may be those who enjoy the denigrating kind of review offered by Marshall Cohen of Ernest Gellner's Words and Things in the August issue.

Ethics and Eichmann
by Our Readers
To the Editor: If we follow Professor Oscar Handlin's thesis as propounded in the August issue of COMMENTARY to its “logical” conclusion, then we would have to assume that the same argument would permit Adolf Hitler to live in peace if he were alive today and residing in a country such as Argentina. My main purpose in writing, however, is not to be critical of Professor Handlin, for it is rather difficult for me to equate ethics with the heinous crimes committed by Eichmann and his ilk.

Rockwell and Freedom
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I should like to endorse most heartily the views expressed by Milton Himmelfarb in “Some Notes on Jewish Affairs” [August] where he discusses the right of George Lincoln Rockwell to disseminate his Nazi poison under the constitutional protection of freedom of speech and the defense of Rockwell by civil libertarians, among them Jews.

Predicting Delinquency
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Kenneth Keniston's efforts to unravel the “entangling” of juvenile delinquency [June] was, it seemed to me, only partly successful.

The Protestant “Establishment,” Catholic Dogma, & The Presidency
by Arthur Hertzberg
After more than a year of discussion, culminating in the statement last month by Norman Vincent Peale and a number of other conservative Protestants, the “religious issue” in the coming election seems finally to have been defined: it concerns the First Amendment to the Constitution, which prescribes that “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.” So far (the middle of September) the public discussion has been fairly temperate in tone.

Some Statistics on Bigotry in Voting
by Seymour Lipset
Though the outcome of the 1960 Presidential election will be determined by a variety of factors, it is clearly the “religious issue” which most fascinates the majority of our political commentators.

Looking for Intelligence in Washington
by Benjamin Mott
What stands in the way of a reinvigoration of national purpose? Who opposes the invention of an active, responsible future for America? A thousand answers have already been returned to these questions—luxury, complacency, stupidity, the old guard, the new desire to be left alone, and so many more that teasing the whole catechism has now become fashionable fun in elite journals.

The Dilemma of Liberal Judaism
by Emil Fackenheim
The liberal Jew of today is in a dilemma. His Jewish conscience urges him to look for an authority which might guide and direct his Jewish life.

Two Stories
by S. Agnon
S. Y. Agnon is generally considered to be the foremost living writer of Hebrew prose. In addition to his numerous novels and short stories, he has also published anthologies of selections from Hebrew classics; one such, Yamim Noraim, was translated into English as The Days of Awe, and the interested reader may find an excerpt from it in COMMENTARY of September 1948.

George Eliot's Zionist Novel
by F. Leavis
Daniel Deronda is notable among George Eliot's major novels for its preoccupation with the Jewish question and the beginnings of the Zionist movement in the 19th century.

The South's Pupil Placement Laws:
Newest Weapon Against Integration

by Ralph Smith
If school integration in the South were to continue at its 1959 rate, it would take four thousand years for all Southern Negro children to achieve their right to equal educational opportunity.

The Study of Man: Varieties of Conservative Thought
by Francis Golffing
The present discussion is based on two recent books: Ludwig von Mises, Epistemological Problem of Economics (Van Nostrand, 239 pp., $5.50) and Wilhelm Roepke, A Humane Economy (Regnery, 312 pp., $5.00); and also on von Mises' most important volume, Human Action, published by Yale University Press in 1949.  _____________     For over three decades now Professor Ludwig von Mises has, with admirable consistency, pursued his passion for changing the world by making it stand still.

Louis Sullivan-Artist in America
by Paul Goodman
Louis Sullivan as He Lived1 is necessarily a valuable book, for it is the first attempt at a proper biography of the “founder of modern architecture.” Here, in conditions approximating our own times—Sullivan died in 1924—is the “American fate” of a gifted man, his meteoric early immense success ending in alcoholism and abandonment, wasted by the world and himself. Willard Connely explains the arc of it as follows: It is often said that the Panic of 1893, causing the severance of Adler and Sullivan as partners, was the main factor in Louis Sullivan's fall.

The Cold War
by Riesman
Leon Lipson—a member of the Yale Law School faculty and a consultant to the Rand Corporation—and Nehemiah Jordan—who has worked for various “think factories”—here comment on “The American Crisis,” an article by David Riesman and Michael Maccoby, which appeared in our June issue.

The Magician of Lublin, by Isaac Bashevis Singer
by Irving Howe
Demonic Fiction of a Yiddish “Modernist”1   Isaac Bashevis Singer is the only living Yiddish writer whose translated work has caught the imagination of the American literary public.

Temperament and Character of the Arabs, by Sania Hamady
by Hal Lehrman
The Complex Arab Temperament and Character of the Arabs. by Sania Hamady. Twayne. 285 pp. $5.00.   The Arabs burst into quarrels and threats. .

The Nineteen Letters on Judaism, by Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch
by Walter Plaut
The Secular and the “Torah-true” The Nineteen Letters on Judaism. by Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch. Prepared by Jacob Breuer in a new edition based on the translation by Rabbi Dr.

The Violent Bear It Away, by Flannery O'Connor
by Algene Ballif
A Southern Allegory The Violent Bear It Away. by Flannery O'Connor. Farrar, Strauss and Cudahy. 243 pp. $3.75.   The Violent Bear It Away, second novel of the remarkable young Southern writer Flannery O'Connor, is about people whose psychopathology can never for a moment be mistaken for anything else, so that from the outset it is free to communicate to us on other levels, to take hold of our imaginations in the manner of myth or parable or allegory, to make its own connections with the world in which we live.

Humanism, by Moses Hadas; Issues of Freedom, by Herbert J. Muller
by Maurice Cohen
Man the Measure Humanism. by Moses Hadas. Harper. 132 pp. $3.50. Issues of Freedom. by Herbert J. Muller. Harper. 170 pp. $3.50.   These two short but significant books are additions to the World Perspective series edited by Ruth Nanda Anshen.

Their Brothers' Keepers, by Clifford S. Griffin; The Mind and Spirit of John Peter Altgeld, edited by Henry M. Christman
by Eric McKitrick
Reformers and Intellectuals Their Brothers' Keepers: Moral Stewardship in the United States, 1800—1865. by Clifford S. Griffin. Rutgers University Press. 332 pp. $6.00. The Mind and Spirit of John Peter Altgeld: Selected Writings and Addresses. by Henry M.

Reader Letters October 1960
by Our Readers
Predicting Delinquency TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Kenneth Keniston's efforts to unravel the "entangling" of juvenile delinquency [June] was, it seemed to me, only partly successful. He does make a case that the Gluecks and the Youth Board have bungled in their at- tempts at prediction, but he goes on to imply that prediction is not worth the com- munity's expenditures of time, money, and effort.

November, 1960Back to Top
Measuring the Open Mind
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his review of my book, The Open and Closed Mind [August], Lewis Coser gives the reader a false impression .

American Soldiers
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In a review of Morris Janowitz's The Professional Soldier [September], Andrew Hacker, arguing from the Korean prisoner-of-war camp scandal and the general combat record of “our civilians-at-arms,” concludes that “Americans are not cut out for being good soldiers.” .

Rockefeller as New Aristocrat
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Dennis Wrong in his “Rockefeller as Liberal Hero” [September] neglected to extract those very phenomena which Dennis Wrong, sociologist, would have readily observed in his lectures .

The Economics of Farming
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I regret that Asher Brynes' “Economics of the Farm Problem” appeared in your August issue, for it is a poor month for a farmer to take the time to answer each of his provocative statements.

The Function of Criticism Today
by Alfred Kazin
Some years ago, in a course I was giving on European novels, a student handed in a paper in which he described Emile Zola's Germinal—that powerful but old-fashioned novel of French miners struggling for their rights—as characterized by paradox, tension, and ambiguity.

How the Cold War Began
by Staughton Lynd
At the banquet which closed the Yalta Conference, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin all offered toasts. When it came Churchill's turn, he addressed himself to the years ahead.

The Changing Anglo-Jewish Community: Epitaph for the East End
by A. Sherman
Many of the forces that have been at work among American Jews since the end of World War II have also begun to show themselves in the Jewish community of England.

The Changing Anglo-Jewish Community: Forces of Division
by Alan Miller
Many of the forces that have been at work among American Jews since the end of World War II have also begun to show themselves in the Jewish community of England.

The Rebelling Young Scholars
by Andrew Hacker
Over the last several years our larger graduate schools have contained within their precincts a cold war the outcome of which is going to influence higher education in this country for some time to come.

Revolution and Public Happiness
by Hannah Arendt
The purpose of the following reflections is to rehabilitate the word “revolution.” No other word, except perhaps “freedom,” will be more urgently needed in the years to come, and no other word, without exception, has been more gravely compromised by the events of the 20th century.

The Law
A Story

by Hugh Nissenson
On and off, that whole summer, I wondered what my uncle Willi was going to do about his son. The boy, Danny, was going to be thirteen on the twelfth of July, and as early as February, I remember, Willi was talking about having his Bar Mitzvah at their temple in Queens; the whole works—a service in the morning and a party for the family and their friends in the afternoon at their home. “Nothing ostentatious, you understand,” he told me.

Medical Care and the Consumer
by Edward Chase
The year 1960 may well come to mark the turning point in the American medical profession's social and economic relations with the American public.

In Defense of Ignorance, by Karl Shapiro
by Theodore Solotaroff
The Irrational Karl Shapiro1   Karl Shapiro is, as he says, a “critic in spite of himself”—a man of feeling, intuition, and personal taste, who over the years has had little inclination and less use for the abstruse ways of modern criticism.

Israel: Ancient Mosaics
by Moses Hadas
Mosaics in Israel Israel: Ancient Mosaics. by Michael Avi-Yonah, preface by Meyer Schapiro. New York Graphic Society by arrangements with unesco. 18 pp.

Cannibals All, by George Fitzhugh
by Stanley Elkins
The Right to Be a Slave Cannibals All!: Or, Slaves Without Masters. by George Fitzhugh. Edited by C. Vann Woodward. Harvard University Press.

Set This House on Fire, by William Styron
by Elmer Borklund
Fiction of Violence & Pain Set This House on Fire. by William Styron. Random House. 507 pp. $5.75.   “The only true experience,” observes the protagonist of Set This House on Fire, “is the one where a man learns to love himself.

The House Built on Sand, by Gerald Reitlinger
by Solomon Bloom
The Nazis in Russia The House Built on Sand: The Conflicts of German Policy in Russia, 1939—1945. by Gerald Reitlinger. Viking. 459 pp.

The Causes of Wealth, by Jean Fourastie
by Lewis Coser
Technology, Growth, “Progress” The Causes of Wealth. by Jean Fourastié, translated and edited by Theodore Caplow. The Free Press. 246 pp. $5.00.   Among the favorite clichés of European observers of America has been the so-called materialism of American culture, its alleged concentration upon productivity, technological progress, and private consumption to the detriment of concern with spiritual matters.

Reader Letters November 1960
by Our Readers
The Economics of Farming TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I regret that Asher Brynes' "Economics of the Farm Problem" appeared in your August issue, for it is a poor month for a farmer to take the time to answer each of his provocative statements.

December, 1960Back to Top
Admiration
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to communicate my admiration for the thoughts expressed, though so briefly, by Maurice Cohen in his review “Man the Measure” in the October issue of COMMENTARY.

Disagreement on von Mises
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As the translator of Ludwig von Mises' Epistemological Problems of Economies, I must express the keenest disappointment in Mr.

Appeasement?
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . Professor Riesman [“Controversy,” October] suggests that his ideas imply a new approach to world problems.

Catholics & Democrats
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was very interested to read Seymour Martin Lipset's “Some Statistics on Bigotry in Voting” [October]. . .

Washington Intelligence
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Only a hopelessly naive optimist would attempt to characterize Professor DeMott's “Looking for Intelligence in Washington” [October] as a positive commentary on “national purpose,” even allowing that such words have meaning beyond a kind of neo-Spenglerian word sophistication.

More on American Soldiers
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Andrew Hacker's review of The Professional Soldier by Morris Janowitz [September] was titled by a most insulting and defamatory epithet, “Specialists in Violence.” I cannot help but wonder where anyone would be today if there was no professional soldier to stop the world conquest and murders of a Hitler and his ilk.

“Syllabus Errorum”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: You might like to know that Arthur Hertzberg's article “The Protestant ‘Establishment,’ Catholic Dogma, and the Presidency” [October] is being read at table to the hundred Jesuits of the Saint Louis University Community.

Tragic, Aesthetic, Pragmatic
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Not many years before his death, John Dewey in COMMENTARY [January 1948] addressed himself once more to those European intellectuals who .

The Human Uses of Science
by Paul Goodman
In the present round of the century-old debate between Science and the Humanities, the humanities are a weak opponent. They are not sure of what they are and they do not seem to have much of use to offer.

Neo-Liberalism--The Turn of the 60's
by Amitai Etzioni
One of the most striking aspects of the 1960 election campaign is that it was waged between two comparatively liberal platforms and candidates.

The Legacy of Henrietta Szold
by Midge Decter
The year 1960 has been set aside by the Zionist movement, Hadassah particularly, for celebrating the centennial of the birth of Miss Henrietta Szold.

England's Labor Party & Its Discontents
by David Marquand
Ever since its birth sixty years ago, the British Labor party has appeared to be on the point of collapse.

The Comprehensive Incubus
A Story

by Norman Stein
When Night in her rustie dungeon hath imprisoned our ey-sight, and that we are shut separately in our chambers from resort, the divell keepeth his audit in our sin-guilty consciences, no sense but surrenders to our memorie a true bill of parcels of his detestable impietis.

Simon Dubnow--A Revaluation
by Saul Goodman
There is a widespread notion in American Jewish thought that the philosophies and ideologies of Jewish existence which developed in East Europe toward the end of the 19th century have become irrelevant and obsolete.

Truth: Upper, Middle & Lower
by Edgar Friedenberg
Truth surely is complex; but there is one dimension of truth that is especially useful in distinguishing among the different approaches to conviction that occur most frequently at different social class levels.

German Fiction & Purification
by Theodore Frankel
Since the end of the war, the German literary world has been waiting for the great German novel, one that would sum up, and at the same time transcend, the experiences of the last generation.

Bloc Voting, Unity, Prayers
by Milton Himmelfarb
Jewish Vote? With a Catholic candidate for the presidency, the so-called Jewish vote was bound to attract the scrutiny of reporters and the attention of politicians. The statistics of group voting or opinion are not ambiguous.

Drug Addiction
by Edwin Schur
M. L. Harney—formerly Superintendent of the Illinois Division of Narcotic Control, Assistant to the U. S. Commissioner of Narcotics, and Assistant to the Secretary, U.

American Communism & Soviet Russia, by Theodore Draper
by Dennis Wrong
Communism & American Radicals American Communism and Soviet Russia. by Theodore Draper. Viking Press. 558 pp. $8.50.   Theodore Draper's previous book, The Roots of American Communism, covered the early years of American Communism from the Russian Revolution to roughly the end of 1922.

Vienna & the Young Hitler, by William A. Jenks; A Study in Austrian Intellectual History, by Robert A. Kann
by Alfred Werner
Austrian Ideas & Hitler A Study in Austrian Intellectual History. by Robert A. Kann. Praeger. 367 pp., ill. $6.00. Vienna and the Young Hitler. by William A.

Inner Conflict and Defense, by Daniel R. Miller and Guy E. Swanson
by Kenneth Keniston
Social Class, Individual Character Inner Conflict and Defense. by Daniel R. Miller and Guy E. Swanson. Holt, Rinehart & Winston. 452 pp. $6.95.   It was Marx who in 1846 ridiculed the view of “Man in general, who belongs to no class, has no reality and subsists only in the realm of philosophical fantasy.” Since then, the influence of class on character, ideology, and style has been continually argued, though seldom demonstrated or explained with exactness.

The Jews in Our Time, by Norman Bentwich
by Lucy Dawidowicz
Guidebook to Modern Jewry The Jews in Our Time. by Norman Bentwich. Penguin Books. 176 pp. 95¢.   Norman Bentwich's survey of the modern Jewish scene is the second “original” devoted to Jewish matters to be issued by the English publishing house of Penguin Books; last year they brought out a historical survey, Isadore Epstein's Judaism.

The Last of the Just, by Andre Schwarz-Bart
by Theodore Solotaroff
The Path to Auschwitz The Last of the Just. by André Schwarz-Bart. Translated by Stephen Becker. Atheneum. 374 pp. $4.95.   At one point in The Last of the Just the main figure, young Ernie Levy, says of the reports about the Nazi extermination camps—“‘But the stories they tell are too much for the human spirit.’” André Schwarz-Bart's first novel is itself such a story.

A Nation Reborn, by Richard H. S. Crossman
by Walter Schwarz
Recollections of a British Zionist A Nation Reborn. by Richard H. S. Crossman. Atheneum. 171 pp. $3.50.   When the Anglo-American Commission of Inquiry landed in Palestine in 1946, Chaim Weizmann referred to the “excellent men” like Richard Crossman who were on it.

Reader Letters December 1960
by Our Readers
Tragic, Aesthetic, Pragmatic TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Not many years before his death, John Dewey in COMMENTARY January 1948] ad- dressed himself once more to those Euro- pean intellectuals who ...




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