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January, 1961Back to Top
Discrepancy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Allow me in good faith to point out a discrepancy in the August issue. Michael Harrington, in his excellent article “Slums, Old and New,” indicates that the farm population of the United States is less than 13 million (p.

A Liberal's Judaism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Dr. Fackenheim's comments on “The Dilemma of Liberal Judaism” [October] were inspiring and penetrating, but do not seem to have resolved the dilemma satisfactorily.

Soviet Anti-Semitism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mark Richards' article “The Answer to Soviet Anti-Semitism” [September], reflects the wooliness and faith which consume all liberals in their approach to the Soviet Union.

“Pharisaical”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was surprised and distressed to find the word “pharisaical” used as a synonym for hypocritical in the review of Cannibals All!

Critics, Criticism & World's End
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was immensely interested in Alfred Kazin's “The Function of Criticism Today” [November]. I agree, of course, with a very large part of it, and I have no doubt that Kazin is one of the best critics we have.

Scholarship & Rebellion
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Andrew Hacker's recent article “The Rebelling Young Scholars” [November], deserves a few brief comments for the benefit of your non-academic readers.

Harry Golden & the American Audience
by Theodore Solotaroff
Nikita Khrushchev should be given Golden's two books to read as he travels through America. Golden accomplishes on paper what Norman Rockwell does on canvas; a living, breathing, everyday America, with its glories, and always first, its people.

Political Crisis in France
by Ray Alan
In between convulsions, France is one of the most conservative countries in Europe. The average Frenchman prizes stability and tranquility above all other political ideals and is prepared to lean over the edge of chaos in quest of them; but he enjoys the counterpoint of a good crisis, too, provided he can feel sure that it will not get out of hand and does not really mean anything. For nearly two years the Fifth Republic served him well.

Moral Crisis in France
by Joseph Barry
France, said Gertrude Stein, always rises from the ashes. France is the phoenix, too frequently a phoenix, perhaps—never fully risen from the Napoleonic wars, from World War I and its slaughter of a million young men, from World War II and its degradation—not so much of the Occupation as of the Collaboration. And now France is rising from the dirty ashes of the Algerian war, oddly regenerated by the smoldering heat of that disaster—a singed phoenix, but a phoenix none the less.

The Jewish Intellectual in Israel
by Mati Meged
During a short stay in New York last year, I was invited by a group of Jewish students at Columbia University to speak to them about literary life in Israel.

Urban Renewal-For Whom?
by Staughton Lynd
I do not know—I am not a prophet—but I think I can make out that we are on the eve of great social changes, for which our democracy was meant to prepare us, but for which it finds us even now unfit.—Jacob Riis The persistence, indeed the worsening, of America's slum problem has been discussed in this magazine by Michael Harrington [August 1960].

Christianity in a “Post-Western” Era
by David Danzig
Perhaps the major recent development within Christianity has been the growing awareness of both Catholics and Protestants that Christianity's aspiration toward universality has been gravely compromised by its identification with the history and culture of the West.

The Man on His Back
A Story

by Karl Fruchtmann
Rosen was tired and decided to go to bed. Ma nishtana, how is this night different? . . . He wound the alarm clock and set it at five-thirty, earlier than usual.

The Study of Man: Voting Practices versus Democratic Theory
by R. Nisbet
The relation of man to state is a timeless problem, one that provides a sturdy bridge from Plato to the Michigan Survey on elections.

“The Wall” on Broadway
by George Ross
The Wall, both the novel and the play, is the story of the Warsaw uprising in 1943 against the Nazis.

Affluence
by Ben Seligman
Lewis A. Coser—an associate professor of sociology at Brandeis—and Ben B. Seligman—a labor economist—here comment on “Affluence, Galbraith, the Democrats,” an article by Ernest van den Haag, which appeared in our September issue.

The Waste Makers, by Vance Packard
by Seymour Lipset
The Conservatism of Vance Packard1   Vance Packard has achieved notable financial and critical success with his two previous books. The Hidden Persuaders and The Status Seekers, both of them harsh attacks on the mores of the business society and the behavior patterns of the middle and upper classes.

Andrew Johnson & Reconstruction, by Eric L. McKitrick
by John Braeman
The Leadership of Andrew Johnson Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction. by Eric L. McKitrick. The University of Chicago Press. 560 pp. $8.50.   Its blind spots notwithstanding, Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction heralds the appearance of a major new historian.

Law & Tradition in Judaism, by Boaz Cohen
by Sefton Temkin
Problems in Jewish Law Law and Tradition in Judaism. by Boaz Cohen. Jewish Theological Seminary of America. 243 pp. $5.00.   A recent collection of papers descriptive of Conservative Judaism bears the title “Tradition and Change.” And a survey of the forces at work within Conservative Judaism would suggest that its major organ, the Jewish Theological Seminary, stands as the guardian of tradition, while the Rabbinical Assembly, composed in the main of Seminary graduates, is impatient for change.

Frontiers in American Democracy, by Eugene J. McCarthy; The Conscience of a Conservative,by Barry Goldwater; U.S. Senators and t
by Andrew Hacker
Senators—Metropolitan & Provincial Frontiers in American Democracy. by Eugene J. McCarthy. World. 155 pp. $3.75. The Conscience of a Conservative. by Barry Goldwater. Victor. 123 pp.

Reader Letters January 1961
by Our Readers
TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Andrew Hacker's recent article "The Rebelling Young Scholars" [November], de- serves a few brief comments for the benefit of your non-academic readers.

Some Recent Jewish Books
by Milton Himmelfarb
The Saving Remnant, by Herbert Agar (Viking Press. 269 pp., $5.00). A history of the Joint Distribution Committee from its creation early in World War I, as a merger of Orthodox, labor, and “uptown” Jewish relief organizations, to the present.

February, 1961Back to Top
The Just French Critics
by
To the Editor: I was deeply interested in Theodore Solotarof'fs review of The Last of the Just by André Schwartz-Bart [December 1960].

A Teaching Machine
by
To the Editor: Dr. Skinner of Harvard is apparently an “aversive stimulus” to Paul Goodman [“The Human Uses of Science,” December 1960].

“In the Community”
by
To the Editor: I write this letter not in order to rebut or rebuke Milton Himmelfarb [“In the Community,” December 1960], but rather to express my sense of sad resignation to the human factor that makes it possible for someone as thoughtful, learned, and fair as he to so misinterpret a recent public announcement.

The Working Intelligentsia
by
To the Editor: In his valuable essay on the new academic generation [“The Rebelling Young Scholars,” November 1960], Professor Andrew Hacker refers to a British journal, New Left Review, and intimates that its editors are not the sort of people who would be welcome in academic employment.

Israel, Diaspora, Jewish Culture
by
To the Editor: I should like to thank Saul Goodman for his article “Simon Dubnow—A Revaluation” [December 1960]. . . .

Medical Services to Consumers
by
To the Editor: In the report entitled “Medical Care and the Consumer” [November 1960], Edward Chase writes that “what organized medicine scrupulously avoids discussing” is that the “uncontrolled activities of the doctors have led directly to the alarming inflation of medical costs.” However, experience in the State of Maryland reveals, to the contrary, a reluctance, if not a resistance by Blue Cross and the hospitals to accept the concept of “significant over-utilization” of hospital facilities.

Israel & the A-Bomb
by Gidon Gottlieb
The disclosure at the end of last December that Israel was secretly building an atomic power reactor in the Negev, with the assistance of France, set off a flurry of rumors and suppositions concerning Israel's intentions and the role of her French allies.

The Lavon Affair
by S. Abramov
At this writing (early January), the final outcome of the Lavon affair—which three months ago triggered the most serious political crisis in the history of Israel—is still uncertain.

Prospect for a New Foreign Policy
by Hans Morgenthau
Hans J. Morgenthau here inaugurates a series of articles—to be written by authors of differing points of view—on American foreign policy in the new circumstances of the 60's.

“Empiricism” and British Politics
by Norman Birnbaum
Ideology and actuality are everywhere in conflict, but no-where in Western Europe is that conflict so strenuously denied as in Britain.

Danilo Dolci: Non-Violence in Italy
by Kathleen Nott
When I arrived in Sicily last spring, my hostess told me, with some excitement, that Danilo Dolci, not long back from England himself, where he had been toured and televised, was holding an international conference at Palma de Montechiaro in the west of the island on the theme of the backward areas and depressed people of Sicily.

Jewish Writers In America:
A Place in the Establishment

by Benjamin Mott
Some months ago Leslie Fiedler addressed himself in Poetry magazine to the question why, “in a time of cultural philosemitism,” Jewish poets have failed to achieve a measure of the prosperity of “their opposite numbers in prose.” The immediate object of his attention was Karl Shapiro's Poems of a Jew; most of his space was devoted to an assessment of Shapiro's career; his judgments about the latter, and his tentative answers to the question posed were neither startling nor tendentious.

Jewish Writers In England:
A Tradition Begins

by Henry Popkin
During the past few years several new Jewish novelists and playwrights have attracted considerable attention in the British literary world.

The Origin of the Cold War: An Exchange
by George Lichtheim
In his article, “How the Cold War Began” (November 1960), Staughton Lynd attempted—with the help of American, British, and Soviet sources—to view the struggle between the West and the Communist bloc “with the kind of perspective which commonly comes only after the passage of much time.” The questions raised by Mr.

The Study of Man: Sizing Up the Mass Media
by Harris Dienstfrey
I shall assume that we all know what mass culture is. Stanley Edgar Hyman, Daedalus English is a mass medium. —Edmund Carpenter, Explorations in Communication   One way of approaching an evaluation of the mass media is to ask whether it sees the media as an old or a new thing.

Resistance, Rebellion & Death, by Albert Camus
by Lionel Abel
Albert Camus, Moralist of Feeling1   Practically everyone has agreed to call Albert Camus a moralist, as if it were clear what the term means, at least as applied to him.

Working-Class Suburb, by Bennet M. Berger
by Ronald Gross
Status in the Factory Working-Class Suburb: A Study of Auto Workers in Suburbia. by Bennett M. Berger. The University of California Press. 143 pp.

Jewish Gnosticism, Merkabah Mysticism, and Talmudic Tradition, by Gershom G. Scholem
by Jakob Petuchowski
The “Orthodox” Mystics Jewish Gnosticism, Merkabah Mysticism, and Talmudic Tradition. by Gershom G. Scholem. Jewish Theological Seminary of America. 126 pp. $4.00.   The 19th century in Germany, which saw the birth of the scientific study of Judaism, was an age that basked in the bright sunshine of Reason.

The Beat of Life, by Barbara Probst Solomon
by Jane Hayman
Awake and Sigh The Beat of Life. by Barbara Probst Solomon. Lippincott. 222 pp. $3.95.   Every four or five years along comes a new younger generation.

America in the Sixties, by the Editors of Fortune; Beyond the Welfare State, by Gunnar Myrdal; The Powerful Consumer, by George
by Lewis Coser
Faith, Hope, and the Facts: Three Views of Affluence America in the Sixties: The Economy and the Society. by the Editors of Fortune. Harper Torchbooks.

Reader Letters February 1961
by Our Readers
Medical Services to Consumers TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: In the report entitled "Medical Care and the Consumer" [November 1960], Edward Chase writes that "what organized medicine scrupulously avoids discussing" is that the "uncontrolled activities of the doctors have led directly to the alarming inflation of med- ical costs." However, experience in the State of Maryland reveals, to the contrary, a re- luctance, if not a resistance by Blue Cross and the hospitals to accept the concept of "significant over-utilization" of hospital fa- cilities.

March, 1961Back to Top
Progress, More Progress
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I think that the dispute [“Affluence,” January] between Ernest van den Haag and his Marxist critics [Lewis Coser and Ben Seligman] gets to the heart of the issue.

“Cannibals All!”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In Professor Stanley M. Elkins' otherwise masterful review of George Fitzhugh's Cannibals All! [November 1960] . . .

“Atavistic” Jewish Law
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was . . . disappointed by the review of Norman Bentwich's The Jews in Our Time by Lucy Dawidowicz in the December issue.

Drug Addiction, Continued
by Our Readers
To the Editor: According to Edwin M. Schur's rejoinder to my comment on his report “Drug Addiction in America and England” [“Controversy,” December 1960], we now seem to be in agreement that the narcotic laws of England and America are essentially the same.

Science, Education, Antibiotics
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Paul Goodman's apparently ingenuous article, “The Human Uses of Science” [December 1960], is one of the strongest anti-intellectual appeals I have read in some time.

Harry Golden & His Audience
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I want to congratulate Theodore Solotaroff on his courageously perceptive appraisal of Harry Golden [“Harry Golden & the American Audience,” January].

Middle-Class Rebellion
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Professor Friedenberg's broad conclusion [“Truth: Upper, Middle & Lower,” December 1960] that there is a “growing middle-class tendency to insist on more variety and uniqueness” seems fuzzy as compared to the high quality of other parts of his essay.

Problems of Urban Renewal
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In an excellent and comprehensive article “Urban Renewal—For Whom?” [January], Staughton Lynd . . . [explains that] public housing projects may create serious social problems, due to their allegedly mistaken ideological basis and poor administration.

The Strategy of Deterrence:
A Dissenting Statement

by H. Hughes
The past year has seen the publication of a spate of books on war, armaments, and the future course of American foreign policy.

Ben Gurion Against the Diaspora:
Three Comments

by Oscar Handlin
In an address before the World Zionist Congress, which met last December in Jerusalem, David Ben Gurion reiterated his belief that Jewish life in the Diaspora has a dim future.

Pornography, Art, and Censorship
by Paul Goodman
Present thinking about obscenity and pornography is wrongheaded and damaging. In order to protect vital liberties, the higher, more intellectual courts often stand out against the police, the postmasters, and popular prejudice; yet since they don't give the right reasons, the issues are never settled.

Shiddah and Kuziba
A Story

by Isaac Singer
Shiddah and her child, Kuziba, a schoolboy, were sitting nine yards inside the earth at a place where two ledges of rock came together and an underground stream was flowing.

The New Administration & Organized Labor
by Tom Brooks
The air of expectancy that has surrounded the beginnings of the Kennedy administration has a decided piquancy for organized labor.

Writing American Fiction
by Philip Roth
Several winters back, while I was living in Chicago, the city was shocked and mystified by the death of two teen-age girls.

The Dead Hasidim: Part I
by Herbert Weiner
In the small Jerusalem quarter of Mea Shearim—which houses the most intense concentration of Jewish Orthodoxy in the world—an unusual literary circle meets daily.

Women at Work
by Midge Decter
If you find yourselves troubled with too strong a competition from female workers, just prove yourselves worthy to be their husbands, marry them, provide good homes, and thus remove them from competition with you.—Horace Greeley to the New York Typographical Union No.

By the Light of the Silvery Screen
by Wallace Markfield
The intellectual who turns film critic is letting himself in for a rough time. Despite the hundreds upon hundreds of books written about movies, he is still left with no solidly established precedents or precursors to defy or demolish, no unassailable terms, standards, and values that can serve as springboard for his own work; indeed, even at this late date he must set about proving, as though for the first time, that movies belong to the area of “legitimate” art and deserve serious attention. Even worse, he is confronted by the maddening task of devising a prose style born from and suited only to his subject, a way of writing about, say, the Western, that would not serve equally well for The Wasteland.

Thought and Action, by Stuart Hampshire
by Richard Bernstein
The Thought of Stuart Hampshire1   Stuart Hampshire is a philosopher who has written urbanely and incisively on literary, political, and philosophic subjects.

The Faithful City, by Dov Joseph; A Clash of Destinies, by Jon and David Kimche
by R. S.
Sources of Victory The Faithful City. by Dov Joseph. Simon and Schuster. 356 pp. $5.95. A Clash of Destinies. by Jon and David Kimche. Praeger. 287 pp.

The Go-Away Bird and Other Stories, by Muriel Spark
by Thomas Rogers
The Enchanted Void The Go-Away Bird and Other Stories. by Muriel Spark. Lippincott. 215 pp. $3.75.   Muriel Spark is an English writer of great originality, who, since 1957, has published five novels and this collection of eleven short stories.

Graduate Education in the United States, by Bernard Berelson
by Lewis Coser
The Writer vs. His Evidence Graduate Education in the United States. by Bernard Berelson. McGraw-Hill Book Co. 346 pp. $6.95.   This volume provides—as they say—a gold mine of information about the state of graduate studies in America.

Year Book of the Leo Baeck Institute (Volumes I-IV), edited by Robert Weltsch; Aufbau Im Untergang, by Ernst Simon; Ostjuden in
by Ernest Stock
Toward a History of the German Jews Year Book of the Leo Baeck Institute. Vol 1, 446 pp.; Vol. II: The Legacy of German Jewry, 356 pp.; Vol.

Reader Letters March 1961
by Our Readers
Problems of Urban Renewal TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: In an excellent and comprehensive article "Urban Renewal-For Whom?" [January], Staughton Lynd . . .

April, 1961Back to Top
Revolutionary Democracy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In your excellent January issue, Mr. Ray Alan's analysis of the Algerian crisis [“Political Crisis in France”] presents a clarification of France's wretched policy in that unhappy land; Dean Nisbet's criticism of some new methods in political science [“Voting Practice vs.

Lavon and the Military
by Our Readers
To the Editor: S. Z. Abramov delineated certain features of the “Lavon Affair” [February] but barely sketched the outline of others.

A Program for the Cold War
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Of the many grave matters that remain at issue between Staughton Lynd and myself [“The Origin of the Cold War,” February], and which cannot be debated in this brief space, there is one point of personal privilege, as it were, to which I must reply.

Analyzing “The Wall”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was particularly distressed by the mean-spirited piece on the Millard Lampell-John Hersey play, The Wall [George M.

Political Economy & the New Administration
by Oscar Gass
I. The Politics In the first phase of his White House career, President Kennedy has thrilled his American audiences with the call to sacrifice and comforted them by not asking for any.

The Peace Movement in America ... 1961
by Nathan Glazer
Why is it that the peace movement in America has never been able to attract the kind of mass support which has gathered around the peace movement in England? The danger of nuclear war is the greatest political issue of our time.

Challenge to Negro Leadership
by Julian Mayfield
There is one, and only one, issue in the Robert Williams case. That single issue is: Shall the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People endorse the advocacy by a local NAACP officer of stopping “lynching with lynching” or “meeting violence with violence”? —from The Single Issue, a pamphlet distributed at the NAACP national convention in New York, July 1959.   For some time now it has been apparent that the traditional leadership of the American Negro community—a leadership which has been largely middle class in origin and orientation—is in danger of losing its claim to speak for the masses of Negroes.

Jewishness & the Younger Intellectuals: Introduction
by Norman Podhoretz
In February 1944—some two years after America's entry into World War II and less than two years before the end of the war—COMMENTARY's forerunner, the Contemporary Jewish Record, published a symposium entitled “Under Forty.

Jewishness & the Younger Intellectuals: Contributors
by Raziel Abelson
The Questions Do you feel that the situation of the Jew in America has altered in the past fifteen years? If so, has this had any influence on your present attitude toward your own Jewishness? What are your feelings, if any, about the generation of Jewish intellectuals whose socialism provided the basis for their more or less antagonistic relation to the Jewish community in America and elsewhere? Do you believe there are viable elements in the tradition they represented? Do you think that your experience as a Jew is importantly relevant to your experience as an American? Do you feel that Jewish culture—in the broadest sense of the term—exerts a significant influence upon American life? If so, how would you define this influence? Considering that you are at least partly a product of Jewish tradition, do you feel any obligation—any sense of historical reverence—to that tradition? Does this obligation include an involvement in the Jewish community, or extend to transmitting the values inherent in Jewish tradition to your children? Or do you perhaps see no merit in the claim that the Jewish people have created or preserved certain special values? Have you ever considered the possibility that your children may convert to another religion? If so, how do you feel about this possibility? Do you feel any special connection with the State of Israel? Does it, in your opinion, exert a legitimate claim on your sympathies? Would you say that it embodies the values of Jewish tradition more clearly than the American Jewish community does? _____________   Raziel Abelson: I shall follow the Jewish tradition of responding to a question by asking another question: What is a Jew? Is being a Jew an essence, like being animate or rational or mortal, or is it an accidental trait, like being a New Yorker, being liberal, or being susceptible to colds? I think it used to be an essence.

The Novels of Vance Bourjaily
by Harris Dienstfrey
The four novels of Vance Bourjaily have not received much attention, partly, I think, because they have not been properly understood.

Reader Letters April 1961
by Our Readers
Analyzing "The Wall" TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I was particularly distressed by the mean- spirited piece on the Millard Lampell-John Hersey play, The Wall [George M.

May, 1961Back to Top
Sartre & Camus
by
To the Editor: Lionel Abel decisively marred his sensitive interpretation of Camus [“Albert Camus, Moralist of Feeling,” February] by including some irresponsible comments on Sartre's contrasting position.

Israel, “Commentary,” Commitment
by
To the Editor: After reading Mati Meged's article on “The Intellectual in Israel” in the January issue of COMMENTARY, my mind went back about ten years to the first time I had heard the name of this publication mentioned.

Barry Goldwater's America
by
To the Editor: As a Jew, I find Andrew Hacker's resentment [in a review of Barry Goldwater's The Conscience of a Conservative, January] of Goldwater's mixed religious background puzzling.

The Statistics of Affluence
by
To the Editor: I suppose that most of your readers are as confused as Messrs. Coser and Seligman seem to think that Mr.

Pluralistic Monotheism
by
To the Editor: I found David Danzig's “Christianity in a ‘Post-Western’ Era” [January] enlightening. His resumé of the Christian literature is a contribution to those who cannot keep a whole eye on all the current thought in concerned Christendom. Regrettably, when Danzig digs into his own knowledge of Judaism, he shows his incompetence.

The Future of NATO
by Denis Healey
Denis Healey, from a British point of view, here continues the discussion (inaugurated by Hans J. Morgenthau and H. Stuart Hughes in our February and March issues) of various aspects of American foreign policy in the new circumstances of the 60's. The establishment of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949 was the culmination of the most creative period in recent diplomatic history.

The Sino-Soviet Dispute
by Richard Lowenthal
The Policy Declaration and the appeal to the peoples of the world adopted last December by the Moscow conference of eighty-one Communist parties mark the end of one phase in the dispute between the leaderships of the ruling parties of China and the Soviet Union—the phase in which the followers of Mao for the first time openly challenged the standing of the Soviet Communists as the fountainhead of ideological orthodoxy for the world movement.

The Chronicles of Dos Passos
by Richard Chase
The longer John Dos Passos writes, the more one admires his integrity, his hard-won skill, his capacity for work, and whether one agrees with him or not, the forthrightness of his political views.

Apologia for a Confirmation Text
by Emil Fackenheim
It is unusual nowadays for serious thinkers of any kind to address themselves directly to an audience of children, but it is perhaps even more surprising to find a Sunday school text being written by a leading Jewish religious thinker.

Lincoln Center: Planning for Music
by Joan Peyser
After a year-long “public participation program,” last September, a professional survey sponsored by the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts revealed the following bit of information: “as many people know about lincoln center as know about the great pyramids.” This comparative statistic was presented in the September 23 issue of the Performing Arts, one of the numerous publications which the Lincoln Center office puts out.

The Dead Hasidim: Part II
by Herbert Weiner
For the followers of Rabbi Nachman of Bratzlav, a famous Hasidic master (1772-1811), the hearing and telling of their founder's stories is a mode of worship.

Electioneering Among the Minorities
by Roma Lipsky
The existence of a minority group vote in America, or indeed of any bloc voting groups, is proclaimed and denied with about equal vigor—often by the same people.

Arthur Miller Out West
by Henry Popkin
Arthur Miller's movie, The Misfits, is a curious article. It continues several of Miller's favorite preoccupations and, in some respects, it is a sequel to Death of a Salesman (“The Further Adventures of Biff Loman,” it might be called); but it is, in the main, a violently forced dramatization of a theme that Miller has hitherto expressed only in passing and almost inadvertently.

The Rational Symposiasts & Other Matters
by Milton Himmelfarb
Principle and Interest Many states require adoptive parents to be of the same religion as the natural mother, so far as possible.

The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich by William L. Shirer
by George Lichtheim
Shirer as Historian1   Hitler's Reich Continues to fascinate the historians, more especially perhaps the amateur historians. Quarrying in the vast documentary mine excavated by their professional colleagues, they come up from time to time with one-man syntheses, bolder and less burdened by academic caution than the work of the professionals.

The Nephew, by James Purdy; Ceremony in Lone Tree, by Wright Morris
by Elizabeth Tornquist
The New Parochialism Ceremony in Lone Tree. by Wright Morris. Atheneum. 304 pp. $4.00. The Nephew. by James Purdy. Farrar, Straus & Cudahy. 210 pp. $3.95.   Ralph Ellison has written that the novel communicates a moral vision “by amplifying and giving resonance to a specific complex of experience until, through the eloquence of its statement, that specific part of life speaks metaphorically for the whole.” These words, I think, illuminate some of the failures and successes of the contemporary American novel.

The Leopard's Spots, by William Stanton; Louis Agassiz, by Edward Lurie
by Christopher Jencks
Early Science & the Slave The Leopard's Spots: Scientific Attitudes Toward Race in America, 1815-59. by William Stanton. University of Chicago Press. 245 pp.

Peaceable Lane, by Keith Wheeler; First Family, by Christopher Davis
by Milton Hindus
Negroes in Suburbia Peaceable Lane. by Keith Wheeler. Simon and Schuster. 345 pp. $4.50. First Family. by Christopher Davis. Coward-McCann, Inc. 253 pp. $3.95.   Some problems admit of no real solutions.

The Servants of Power, by Loren Baritz
by Walter Karp
Social Scientists in Industry The Servants of Power. by Loren Baritz. Wesleyan University Press. 273 pp. $4.50.   It is one sign of the times that a swarm of psychologists, sociologists, psychiatrists, human relations experts, and similar quasi-academics now occupy high staff positions in most of America's large industrial corporations.

Der Judische Witz, by Salcia Landmann
by Isaac Singer
The Everlasting Joke Der Jüdische Witz, Soziologie und Sammlung (“The Jewish Joke, Its Sociology and a Collection”). by Salcia Landmann. Walter-Verlag. 531 pp.   Included in this book is a collection of over a thousand Jewish jokes, a brief but scholarly preface by Professor Carlo Schmid, and an introduction of some ninety pages in which the author—a doctor of philosophy—summarizes several general theories of humor and proposes a special “sociology” of the Jewish joke.

Reader Letters May 1961
by Our Readers
Pluralistic Monotheism To THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I found David Danzig's "Christianity in a 'Post-Western' Era" [January] enlighten- ing. His resume of the Christian literature is a contribution to those who cannot keep a whole eye on all the current thought in concerned Christendom. Regrettably, when Danzig digs into his own knowledge of Judaism, he shows his incompetence.

June, 1961Back to Top
The “Meaning” of Work
by Our Readers
To the Editor: While I am grateful for the thoughtful review which Ronald Gross gave to my book Working-Class Suburb: A Study of Auto Workers in Suburbia [February], he nevertheless credits me with views I do not hold, with arguments I did not make, and then proceeds, with a righteous indignation largely irrelevant to the major points of my book, to show me—and sociology—the error of our ways.

Politics & Ideology in England
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Birnbaum's reasoning in “Empiricism and British Politics” [February] is wayward. He begins by identifying a central group of British social philosophers whom he characterizes as “anti-ideological.” He finds it no objection to his list that though three of his five thinkers do live in this country (Berlin, Popper, and Polanyi), of the remaining two one (Talmon) is an Israeli and one (Aron) a Frenchman. Next Birnbaum says that though these thinkers “refer only incidentally to Britain” in their writings and suppose that their repudiation of ideology is “universally valid,” what they are really trying to do is to describe the British political scene. And in this they are quite wrong.

Issues of the Lavon Affair
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his article [“The Lavon Affair,” February], Mr. Abramov has succeeded in giving a detailed picture of the events that led to the present political crisis in Israel.

The Cold War
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Staughton Lynd [“Exchange on the Cold War,” February] is quite wrong in comparing the 1944 situation in Finland to that of Poland—or that of any other Iron Curtain country—in his quest for the causes and origins of the cold war.

“Fortune” and America
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Lewis A. Coser's review (in February) of America in the Sixties, a collection of articles by “the Editors of Fortune,” carries on at some length about “the Luce mind” and “the ‘midtown view’ of economic realities.” I would be inclined to let him have some innocent downtown fun with these subjects except that he seems unable to have it without misrepresenting almost everything the editors (myself especially) actually said.

The Symposium—I
by Our Readers
To the Editor: May a middle-aged German Jew, who spent some of his formative years in what was then called Palestine, offer a few random thoughts on the symposium, “Jewishness and the Younger Intellectuals,” in your April number? As a non-combatant member of a now somewhat shrunken army of survivors from Central Europe, I am impressed by the confident manner assumed by the majority of the participants.

“Bosses” and “Reformers”:
A Profile of the New York Democrats

by Daniel Moynihan
The morning John F. Kennedy spoke to the New York delegation prior to the voting at the Los Angeles convention, he reminded the New Yorkers that the Democratic party was founded in the course of a botanizing expedition up the Hudson River valley, which had brought Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr together to talk politics.

Reflections on Jewish Identity
by Daniel Bell
A persistent fear worried Jews of the early Diasporas and of Hellenistic times: the fear that a child of theirs might grow up to be an amhaaretz—a peasant, ignorant of Torah; or, even worse, an apikoros—a sophisticated unbeliever who abandons Jewish faith to indulge in rationalistic speculation about the meaning of existence.

Betancourt's Venezuela:
Alternative to Castroism?

by Samuel Shapiro
At bottom the Castro problem lies in the special situation which created it—the misery in which most of the Latin American population lives.

Four Letters from the Warsaw Ghetto
by Our Readers
Halina Szwambaum died in the Warsaw Ghetto in April 1943, fighting alongside her lover in the final unsuccessful uprising of the seventy thousand.

National Purpose & New Frontiers
by Philip Green
During the last few years of the Eisenhower administration, many leaders of public opinion in this country became aware that American life was in the grip of a malaise so profound that it might almost be described as the central fact of our social order.

The Mind of Robert Warshow
by Lionel Trilling
Robert Warshow died in the spring of 1955. He was thirty-seven years old. In the circle of his friends the shock of his death was extreme—I have never known a death so intensely and openly grieved over.

Past Due
A Story

by Meyer Liben
We followed the ordinary procedures with this account, took the usual precautions. We received the inquiry, which we answered as a matter of course, enclosing our current price lists, with a covering letter, trusting that the recipient would find the enclosed of interest, and that we would be pleased, etc.

The Study of Man: Marxism & the Colonial Revolt
by Paul Kecskemeti
The Western world is facing two great revolutionary currents—the Marxist onslaught, represented chiefly by Soviet and Chinese Communism, and the colonial revolt, aimed at throwing off Western control where it still exists in non-Western areas.

A Memoir of Jabotinsky
by Dan Jacobson
Reading the first volume of Rebel and Statesman: The Jabotinsky Story by Joseph Schechtman has reminded me that it is now almost twenty-five years since I met Vladimir Jabotinsky, when in 1938 he visited our home in Kimberley, during a South African tour.

Algerian Independence & the Jews
by Ray Alan
The discussion we present this month grew out of the companion articles on “Algeria & the Fifth Republic” which appeared in our January issue: Ray Alan's “The Political Crisis” and Joseph Barry's “The Moral Crisis.” Samuel L.

The Supreme Court Review 1960, edited by Philip B. Kurland; The American Supreme Court, by Robert G. McCloskey
by C. Magrath
The Supreme Court and Society The Supreme Court Review 1960. by Philip B. Kurland. University of Chicago Press. 326 pp. $6.00. The American Supreme Court. by Robert G.

Scenes From Life, by William Cooper; Take a Girl Like You, by Kingsley Amis
by Ellen Moers
Still Angry Scenes from Life. by William Cooper. Scribners. 379 pp. $4.50. Take a Girl Like You. by Kingsley Amis. Harcourt, Brace & World. 320 pp.

Jewish Existence, by Ignaz Maybaum
by Walter Plaut
Jewish Isolationism Jewish Existence. by Ignaz Maybaum. Valentine Mitchell (London) 189 pp.   Since its founding, the State of Israel has continued to evoke feelings of pride and sympathy, as well as philanthropic and political support, from the Jews of the world.

Political Man, by Seymour Martin Lipset
by Andrew Hacker
Things as They Are Political Man. by Seymour Martin Lipset. Doubleday. 432 pp. $4.95.   Collections of essays that were previously published in various magazines usually make unsatisfactory books.

The Wedding Band, by Samuel Yellen; The Acrophile, by Yoram Kaniuk
by Jane Hayman
The Futile and the Uncertain The Wedding Band. by Samuel Yellen. Atheneum. 170 Pp. $3.75. The Acrophile. by Yoram Kaniuk. Translated by Zeva Shapiro. Atheneum.

Reader Letters June 1961
by Our Readers
The Symposium-I TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: May a middle-aged German Jew, who spent some of his formative years in what was then called Palestine, offer a few ran- dom thoughts on the symposium, "Jewish- ness and the Younger Intellectuals," in your April number? As a non-combatant member of a now somewhat shrunken army of survivors from Central Europe, I am impressed by the con- fident manner assumed by the majority of the participants.

July, 1961Back to Top
A Correction
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Because my reply to Bennett Berger [June] had to be cut, I would like to correct a distortion caused by several omissions. Dr.

Jewish Writing in England
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Henry Popkin, in his sensible discussion of Jewish writers in England [“A Tradition Begins,” February], seems to me to misconstrue the characterization of Fagin in the musical Oliver! Oliver!

Dealing with Pornography
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I've been reading COMMENTARY with great interest. . . . Perhaps I enjoyed Paul Goodman's article about censorship most of all [“Pornography, Art ' Censorship,” March], and it was amusing and delightful to see he feels that the Garden of Eden lies ahead, rather than behind us.

“Arms Control”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was very much impressed and heartened by the article “The Strategy of Deterrence—A Dissenting Statement” by H.

Negroes & Negro Leadership
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Julian Mayfield's “Challenge to Negro Leadership” in the April COMMENTARY is another in the long list of essays which have seen in each disturbance in race relations a major repudiation, a major challenge, a major rejection, a major re-orientation, a major confrontation (at long last) of the true adversaries in the basic struggle, etc., etc.

The Symposium—II
by Our Readers
To the Editor: May I as someone who would still fall into your category of the younger generation by the hairsbreadth of one year comment on the April symposium, “Jewishness and the Younger Intellectuals”? I think it fair to say that the large majority of the participants report that while they do not disidentify or seek to hide their Jewishness, they find little in it of positive value.

Federal Aid to Parochial Schools:
A Debate

by Oscar Handlin
The issue of federal aid to parochial schools is often approached largely in terms of whether such aid is compatible with the separation between church and state.

Israel During the Trial - A Journal
by Hugh Nissenson
Jerusalem March 27, 1961 Dinner at the Café Vienna on Jaffa Road, an expensive Yecke or German restaurant frequented by the well-to-do.

Utopian Thinking
by Paul Goodman
After a long spell of Marxian “scientific” realism and businessmen's “hard-headed” realism, our social scientists have begun to praise “utopian thinking.” Since the war, the cultural anthropology of the Americans has thus taken the following course: first, a flood of popular social criticism, and now an emphasis on goals and Utopias.

Varieties of African Nationalism
by Walter Schwarz
A methodical Ghanaian civil servant prepared a document recently which he entitled “Blueprint for the Establishment of a Pan-African Airline.” It amounted to a proposal to buy one ancient American airplane to fly between Accra and Bamako, carrying beef.

Crisis Theology & the Jewish Community
by Eugene Borowitz
A dozen years have passed since Irving Kristol, in a savage critique of Milton Steinberg's Basic Judaism,1 sought to demonstrate that Jewish thought in America was powerless to answer the great questions—questions about man and his condition, about destiny and the meaning of history—that the war had raised in the troubled minds of so many intellectuals in the West.

Asia: The American Algeria
by Hans Morgenthau
This issue we inaugurate a bi-monthly department, “Public Affairs,” in which Hans J. Morgenthau, one of America's most eminent political thinkers, will discuss leading questions of present concern.

The Study of Man: The American Scholar Today
by Leo Marx
Some scholars may have been aware of it for a few years, but most of us have only begun to recognize that we are entering a new phase in the study of the American past.

Jane Addams & the Radical Impulse
by Staughton Lynd
The Impulse To Radicalism has been geting a bad press. Students are being told that John Brown had “reasoning paranoia,” that abolitionists and Progressives were middle-class men who felt their status threatened by centralized industrialism, that Populism was anti-Semitic and paranoid, that Woodrow Wilson's insistence on Article 10 was Presbyterian rigidity, and that when Jane Addams was a little girl she would get up in the night to tell her father she had told a lie.

Fashions in Vulgarity
by Louis Kronenberger
Nothing, in a Sense, seems easier to chronicle—perhaps in pictures alone—than a history of bad taste. The past is strewn with horrible examples, with McKinley-period offerings in architecture, with German beer-mug trophies in ornamentation.

Deterrence
by Irving Kristol
The following discussion between Irving Kristol and H. Stuart Hughes grew out of Mr. Hughes's article in our March issue, “The Strategy of Deterrence—A Dissenting Statement.”  _____________     Irving Kristol: Mr.

The Schools, by Martin Mayer
by Edgar Friedenberg
Educating in America The Schools. by Martin Mayer. Harper. 446 pp. $4.95.   Martin Mayer's The Schools is the best book about education I have ever read.

Israel: A Blessing and a Curse, by Hedley V. Cooke
by Lucy Dawidowicz
Judging Israel Israel: A Blessing and A Curse. by Hedley V. Cooke. Stevens & Sons, Ltd. 308 pp. $3.50.   Just as Israel often feels it must justify its existence in the international community, so some of its supporters still examine their consciences to reassure themselves about Israel's title to sovereignty.

A Mirror for Anglo-Saxons, by Martin Green
by John Gross
The American Englishman A Mirror for Anglo-Saxons. by Martin Green. Harper. 178 pp. $3.50.   England is a highly class-conscious country, English culture is predominantly middle-class in flavor, the nastier kind of English snob is usually also anti-American in the bargain.

Five Publications of the Commission on Race and Housing
by Arnold Rose
Race and Housing Property Values and Race. by Luigi Laurenti. 256 pp. The Demand for Housing in Racially Mixed Areas. by Chester Rapkin and William G.

Revolutionary Road, by Richard Yates
by Theodore Solotaroff
The Wages of “Maturity” Revolutionary Road. by Richard Yates. Atlantic-Little Brown. 337 pp. $4.75.   Judging from all one reads and hears, there seem to be as many writers tramping around the suburbs these days as there are postmen: for every man carrying in the news, another is sending it out.

Reader Letters July 1961
by Our Readers
The Symposium-II TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: May I as someone who would still fall into your category of the younger generation by the hairsbreadth of one year comment on the April symposium, "Jewishness and the Younger Intellectuals"? I think it fair to say that the large majority of the partici- pants report that while they do not dis- identify or seek to hide their Jewishness, they find little in it of positive value.

August, 1961Back to Top
The Woman's Place
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In her perceptive article Women at Work [March], Midge Decter arrives at a conclusion that, in a sense, is misleading.

Criticizing Movies
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The issue is plain: either Wallace Markfield, whose “observations” on my book, The Three Faces of the Film, appear in your March number [“By the Light of the Silvery Screen”], is indulging in mental debauchery or I am—and with me, men such as Eric Bentley and Stanley Edgar Hyman, who have found my analysis of Hollywood films perfectly sober as well as very relevant and valuable, and John Crowe Ransom and Allen Tate, who, as editors, have printed work by me of the sort termed by Mr.

Survival in the Diaspora
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As one who has participated in the task of assisting Jewish immigration in recent years, I feel duty-bound to record my puzzlement that none of the three commentators on “Ben Gurion Against the Diaspora” [Oscar Handlin, Milton Himmelfarb, Charles E.

Labor and the Public Good
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his article on “The New Administration and Labor” [March], Mr. Tom Brooks has been terribly unfair and untrue in his comments on the United Auto Workers and Walter Reuther.

The Range of Jewish Writers
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I should like to object strongly to Mr. Benjamin DeMott's exercise in baffletalk, “Jewish Writers in America: A Place in the Establishment,” in your February issue.

Intelligence and Peace
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Nathan Glazer's article, “The Peace Movement in America—1961” [April], seems to me to be, on the whole, a valuable and perceptive analysis.

Plastic Men
by Our Readers
<p>To the Editor:<br /><br /> Re your symposium [April]:</p> <blockquote> <p><em>Orthodoxies</em><br /> Jews<br /> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;who<br /> go to<br /> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;no<br /> synagogue<br /> have<br /> faces<br /> which<br /> change<br /> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;all<br /> the time.</p> </blockquote> <p align="right"><strong>Norman Mailer</strong><br /> <em>New York City</em></p> <p align="center">_____________</p><br />

The John Birch Society
by Alan Westin
The present article is based in part on a paper Mr. Westin read last June before the plenary session of the National Community Relations Advisory Council in Washington, D.C.   Last April, the Gallup Poll asked a nationwide sample of Americans whether they had heard of the John Birch Society and found that thirty-nine million persons—an extraordinary number, according to Gallup—had read or heard of the Birchers.

The Genius of S. Y. Agnon
by Robert Alter
The flourishing of a diversified secular literature in Hebrew during the last two hundred years is in its way as remarkable as any blossoming of garden spots on neglected desert soil in Israel.

Forevermore
by S. Agnon
Two stories by S. Y. Agnon appeared in our October 1960 number. “Forevermore” was translated by Joel Blocker and will soon appear in a collection of Israeli stories, edited by Mr.

Disarmament vs. Arms Control A Discussion of Criteria
by Wayland
It is now generally accepted among the informed that the arms race is too dangerous for a sane power to continue pursuing without any check or inhibition whatever.

Their Canada and Mine
by Mordecai Richler
Back in 1953, on the first Sunday after my return to Montreal from a two-year stay in Europe, I went to my grandmother's house. “How is it for the Jews in Europe?” she asked me. My uncles reproached me for not having been to Israel, but their questions about Europe were less poignant than my grandmother's.

Why Students Leave Science
by Edgar Friedenberg
Why do many American students drop the scientific careers which they have spent several years training for with reasonable success? This question is likely to seem more patriotic than scholarly to anyone who is a respecter of science both as an area of inquiry and as a method of scholarship.

Pornography & Censorship
by Paul Goodman
The discussion we present this month grew out of Paul Goodman's article, “Pornography, Art & Censorship,” which appeared in the March COMMENTARY.

The Futilitarian Society, by William J. Newman
by Dennis Wrong
The Liberal Mood     The Futilitarian Society. By William J. Newman. George Braziller. 412 pp. $6.00. Shortly after the 1952 Presidential election, a reporter asked Senator Robert Taft if he had read Russell Kirk's The Conservative Mind.

Nachman Syrkin: Socialist Zionist, by Marie Syrkin
by Milton Hindus
A Visionary Planner Nachman Syrkin: Socialist Zionist—A Biographical Memoir and Selected Essays. by Marie Syrkin. Herzl Press. 332pp. $5.00. Nachman Syrkin was the founder of that political movement which has guided the State of Israel since its inception and which earned its leading place by the role it played in Palestinian life for many years before the state was founded.

As We Are, by Henry Brandon
by Dan Jacobson
Interviewing the American Mind As we are. by Henry Brandon. Doubleday. 282 pp. $430. Rather to my surprise, I found As We Are a depressing book to go through.

India & the West, by Barbara Ward
by E. Schumacher
Aid and Modernization India and the West. by Barbara Ward. Norton. 256 pp. $4.50. This engaging book, written by a highly accomplished writer, is a passionate appeal to the Western conscience to give economic aid to India on a much larger scale and firmer basis than has ever been contemplated hitherto.

Literature & the Press, by Louis Dudek
by Harris Dienstfrey
The Taste of Print Literature and the Press. By Louis Dudek. Ryerson and Contact Press. 238 pp. $5.00. These days print seems ubiquitous. Institutes have sprung up throughout the country to teach adults to read faster.

Reader Letters August 1961
by Our Readers
Plastic Men TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Re your symposium [April]: Orthodoxies Jews who go to no synagogue have faces which change all the time. NORMAN MAILER New York City Intelligence and Peace TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Nathan Glazer's article, "The Peace Movement in America-1961" [April], seems to me to be, on the whole, a valuable and perceptive analysis.

Some Recent Jewish Books
by Milton Himmelfarb
Some Recent Jewish Books What It Means To Be a Jew, by Charles E. Shulman (Crown, 256 pp., $3.95.) About forty short chapters on Judaism, Jewishness, the Judenfrage, Israel, and Zionism by a disciple of Stephen S.

September, 1961Back to Top
Music at Linoln Center
by Our Readers
<p>To the Editor:<br /><br /> In your May issue there appeared a highly critical evaluation of Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, Inc.

The Hasidim -- An Analogy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “The Dead Hasidim: Part II” [May], Herbert Weiner writes: “The sharing of bread and wine could not be much different in appearance from the actual last supper of Jesus and his disciples.

Containment in Asia
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Hans J. Morgenthau's piece “Asia: the American Algeria” [July] should be read along with his article in the New Leader of July 3, which directed itself more broadly to the Kennedy administration's foreign policy.

American Fiction
by Our Readers
<p>To the Editor:<br /><br /> Philip Roth&#39;s essay [&ldquo;Writing American Fiction,&rdquo; March] forced me to recall another by Philip Rahv, written some twenty years ago.

Defense and Deterrence
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Aside from the obvious objective merits of “The Strategy of Deterrence” [H. Stuart Hughes, March], I was especially pleased with its sober, judicious consideration of the issues as contrasted with the attitude taken by some other reviewers of my book, On Thermonuclear War. I do believe that the final solution has to be some sort of international authority; in fact, I make the explicit point on page 6 of my book that even a bad world government may be preferable to an uncontrolled arms race.

Is New York City Ungovernable?
by Nathan Glazer
Anyone studying the city of New York (as I have done for the past year or so) is likely to run across certain facts that cast a rather strange light on the present confusion in its politics.

Foreign Policy & the American Mind
by Robert Nisbet
Robert A. Nisbet here contributes the fourth in our series of re-appraisals—written from differing points of view—of the key problems that confront American foreign policy in the 60's. It is only too clear that behind the tactical and strategical problems of our relations with the rest of the world—not to emphasize the occasional humiliations—lie some major difficulties of perspective.

The “Normalization” of Israel
by Mati Meged
During the past year, as the result of a number of crucial public controversies, Israelis have been forced to confront some of the basic contradictions underlying their political and social order.

Negro Militants, Jewish Liberals & the Unions
by Tom Brooks
Much of the civil rights progress that has been achieved in recent years can be attributed to the effective cooperation of Jewish and Negro anti-discrimination agencies.

English Poetry Today
by A. Alvarez
In 1932 the critic F. R. Leavis proclaimed that T. S. Eliot and Ezra Pound had between them brought about a significant reorientation of literature.

The New Map of Christianity
by David Danzig
In his article “Christianity in a ‘Post-Western’ Era” (January), David Danzig discussed some of the consequences for Christianity of the decline in Western prestige and power.

Death in the Nuclear Age
by Hans Morgenthau
In this new bi-monthly department (which was inaugurated in our July number with a piece on the Laotian crisis entitled “Asia: The American Algeria”), Hans J.

Fertility, Social Action, Socialism
by Milton Himmelfarb
Population Fizzle In the latest volume of the American Jewish Year Book Erich Rosenthal shows that American Jews have stood aside from the baby boom.

Toynbee's Epistle to the Jews
by Jacob Agus
In accepting our invitation to comment on the significance of Toynbee's new analysis of Judaism, Rabbi Agus wrote: “I wish to state that to absorb the lessons of Toynbee's analysis is by no means tantamount to an acceptance of all his proposals.” A detailed exposition of his own views on the questions raised in the present article will appear in his forthcoming book, The Meaning of Jewish History.   Some time ago it became known that Professor Arnold Toynbee was at work on a kind of postscript volume to his A Study of History, in which he was attempting to rethink some of his earlier theories and judgments in the light of the criticisms advanced against them.

The N.Y. Daily News
by Murray Kempton
The New York Daily News, shadow though it be, is for some of us the closest available instrument for an immediate reflection of the real life of our society.

Curtains, by Kenneth Tynan
by John Gross
The Theater of Kenneth Tynan1 Five hundred pages of collected Tynan, decked with a sumptuousness normally reserved for the Living Thoughts of major philosophers and the memoirs of field marshals: even the faithful must quail a little, confronted with the wisdom of the master in such bulk.

Great Western Mystics, by David Baumgardt; Nine Gates to the Chassidic Mysteries, by Jiri Langer
by Isaac Singer
The Poetry of Faith Great Western Mystics: Their Lasting Significance. by David Baumgardt. Columbia University Press. 99 pp. $3.00. Nine Gates to the Chassidic Mysteries. by Jiri Langer. Translated by Stephen Jolly.

The Transformation of Russian Society, edited by Cyril E. Black
by Elisha Greifer
Going Modern   The Transformation of Russian Society. by Cyril E. Black. Harvard University Press. 695 pp. $9.75. It would do Karl Marx's heart good to discover how much American scholarship and journalism is being devoted to the change from what used to be called “feudalism” to whatever it is that follows.

Dawn, by Elie Wiesel
by Irving Feldman
After the Death Camps Dawn. by Elie Wiesel. Translated from the French by Frances Frenaye. Hill and Wang. 90 pp. $3.00. Readers of COMMENTARY may recall Mr.

Firsthand Report, by Sherman Adams
by Joseph Kraft
Inside the Void Firsthand Report. by Sherman Adams. Harper. 481 pp. $5.95. From the far outside, American politics looks like a struggle between the two parties.

Ahad Ha-Am-Asher Ginzberg, by Leon Simon
by Ezra Spicehandler
A Jewish Humanist Ahad Ha-am—Asher Ginzberg. by Leon Simon. Jewish Publication Society. 348 pp. $4.50. In 1955 there appeared in Hebrew a definitive study of Ahad Ha-Am's career written by Sir Leon Simon and the late Joseph Heller.

Principles, Politics, and Fundamental Law, by Herbert Wechsler
by C. Magrath
Legal Neutralism Principles, Politics, and Fundamental Law. by Herbert Wechsler. Harvard University Press. 171 pp. $4.25. This volume is to be commended for rescuing four important essays by one of the eminent figures in American constitutional law from the obscurity of the professional journals.

Contemporary Europe, by H. Stuart Hughes
by George Lichtheim
A Comprehensive History Contemporary Europe: A History. by H. Stuart Hughes. Prentice-Hall. 502 pp. $10.00. It seems to have become the prerogative of American historians to see Europe as a whole.

Reader Letters September 1961
by Our Readers
Defense and Deterrence TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Aside from the obvious objective merits of "The Strategy of Deterrence" [H. Stuart Hughes, March], I was especially pleased with its sober, judicious consideration of the issues as contrasted with the attitude taken by some other reviewers of my book, On Thermonuclear War. I do believe that the final solution has to be some sort of international authority; in fact, I make the explicit point on page 6 of my book that even a bad world government may be preferable to an uncontrolled arms race.

October, 1961Back to Top
Our National Purpose
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Philip Green's “National Purpose and New Frontiers” [June] relies upon some interesting assumptions. First, he believes there are “real” social conflicts in America which are not adequately expressed by the present diffuse pattern of voluntary associations and interest groups.

Warshow and Trilling
by Our Readers
Warshow and Trilling To the Editor: After reading Lionel Trilling's recent article [“The Mind of Robert Warshow,” June] one feels that Trilling has revealed more of himself than of Warshow.

Costs of American Scholarship
by Our Readers
p>To the Editor: Although I cannot claim to keep up with all the related material being published today, it seems to me that Leo Marx [“The American Scholar Today,” July] has made a comprehensive appraisal of the intellectual problem of recent times.

Jewish Identity
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Nothing I have read on the vexed problem of Jewish identity since Sartre's famous essay seems to me as honest and intelligent as Daniel Bell's article in your June issue [“Reflections on Jewish Identity”]. Perhaps I can add a footnote. Bell analyzes the problem of ambivalent or diminishing identity from the point of view of the Jew in America and in American society.

Western Values & Total War
by Sidney Hook
Last May, in observance of its fifteenth anniversary year, COMMENTARY invited Sidney Hook, H. Stuart Hughes, Hans J. Morgenthau, and C.

Martin Buber's Hasidism
by Gershom Scholem
There can be no doubt that the contribution of Martin Buber to the Western world's knowledge of the Hasidic movement has been a most distinguished one.

“All that Cellar-Deep Jazz&rdquo
by Theodore Solotaroff
The times seem to have caught up with Henry Miller, not only in the sexual sophistication that permits the recent publication of Tropic of Cancer, but in the further respect of often seeming as disordered and self-destructive as he was claiming modern life to be in the early 1930's.

The British Way of Life-And the Common Market
by George Lichtheim
Great events do not invariably occur to the accompaniment of thunderous displays of passion; not at any rate in Britain.

The Kibbutz in Crisis
by Gerda Luft
Despite the Fact that the Israeli kibbutz is in some ways an ideal place to live and work—that it offers absolute social security and even in many cases a relatively high standard of physical comfort—the collective settlements have for some years now been suffering from a shortage of manpower.

Six American Poets
by Harold Rosenberg
Ginsberg's “Kaddish” is a take-off on the Jewish prayer for the dead, not as it is printed in the prayer book but as it might occur in the mind of a contemporary mourner.

A Faith for Moderns, by Robert Gordis
by Marvin Fox
Rational Religion A Faith for Moderns. by Robert Gordis. Bloch. 316 pp. $5.00. One of the Merits of the existentialist emphasis in current theological discussions is its avoidance of apologetics.

The Political Kingdom in Uganda, by David E. Apter
by Walter Schwarz
Africa—In Theory The Political Kingdom in Uganda. by David E. Apter. Princeton University Press. 498 pp. $10.00. Decolonization In Africa proceeds no less importantly in the fields of scholarship and culture than in politics, but the process is slower.

Mila 18, by Leon Uris
by Midge Decter
Popular Jews Mila 18. by Leon Uris. Doubleday. 539 pp. $4.95. The career of Mr. Leon Uris tells a curious literary and cultural story.

The Burden of Southern History, by C. Vann Woodward; The Confederacy, by Charles P. Roland
by Samuel Shapiro
That Tragic Land The Burden of Southern History. by C. Vann Woodward. Louisiana State University Press. 205 pp. $3.50. The Confederacy. by Charles P. Roland. University of Chicago Press.

The Structure of Science, by Ernest Nagel
by Raziel Abelson
Unifying the Sciences The Structure of Science. by Ernest Nagel. Harcourt, Brace and World. 618 pp. $10.00. In the early part of this century, the leading American philosophers were visionaries.

Reader Letters October 1961
by Our Readers
Jewish Identity TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Nothing I have read on the vexed prob- lem of Jewish identity since Sartre's famous essay seems to me as honest and intelligent as Daniel Bell's article in your June issue ["Reflections on Jewish Identity"]. Perhaps I can add a footnote. Bell analyzes the problem of ambivalent or diminishing identity from the point of view of the Jew in America and in Ameri- can society.

November, 1961Back to Top
One View of Social Service
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Milton Himmelfarb's “somewhat condensed” excerpts from my book Social Work and Jewish Values in your August issue [“Some Recent Jewish Books”] more than somewhat distorted my views.

Jewishness & Younger Writers
by Our Readers
Jewishness & Younger Writers To the Editor: Mr. Benjamin DeMott [“Letters from Readers,” August] interprets your recent symposium as another “indication” that the “new generation” of American intellectual Jews cannot relate themselves to the Jewish traditions that nourished Isaac Bashevis Singer, Isaac Peretz, and Sholom Aleichem.

Whose Canada?
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The title of Mr. Mordecai Richler's article, “Their Canada and Mine” [August], is an apt one, yet the meaning is somewhat hazy.

The End of Diplomacy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “Foreign Policy and the American Mind” [September], Robert A. Nisbet writes: “It is a truth often uttered that war is an extension of foreign policy.” That is not a truth.

Israel and Others
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am grateful to COMMENTARY for the amount of review space allotted to my book Israel: A Blessing and a Curse [Lucy S.

Criticizing Mass Culture
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Louis Kronenberger implies by his title [“Fashions in Vulgarity,” July] that he is investigating something whose form changes but whose essence doesn't, like clothes.

On Aid to Parochial Schools
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Messrs. van den Haag and Handlin [“A Debate on Federal Aid to Parochial Schools,” July] have succeeded in discussing aid to religious schools at great length without touching on a single one of the major social questions involved, viz.: Do existing religious schools differ from public schools in desirable ways? Would subsidies tend to improve their quality or merely increase their size? Would the availabilitiy of subsidies encourage the proliferation of private schools segregated on the basis of religion, class, intellect, and race? If so, would the no longer representative public schools be able to fulfill their traditional functions? Would social fluidity and intergroup communication be reduced? Would the range of value systems and styles of living known to the individual child be broadened or narrowed? In the light of our experience with pressure groups and European experience with pressure groups and with religious school subsidies, what effects might be anticipated in our political life? .

Covenant Theology
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Many thanks to Eugene B. Borowitz and COMMENTARY for the article “Crisis Theology and the Jewish Community” (July).

Kudos
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Hugh Nissenson's article, “Israel During the Trial” [July], was fascinating . . . and said much with few words.

The Senseless Death
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Hans J. Morgenthau presents his outline of apocalyptic despair [“Death in the Nuclear Age,” September] from a point of view which to the modern mind would appear completely sound, realistic, and logically irrefutable.

Reformers and a Liberal
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Daniel P. Moynihan's article on New York Democratic bosses and reformers in your June issue [“‘Bosses’ and ‘Reformers’”] is an interesting attempt to deal with the contest between these forces in terms of an ethnic and religious conflict, Jewish reformers versus Irish Catholic regulars. However, Mr.

Algeria, the Jews, and France
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Although I had no intention of intervening in the very interesting debate on Algeria [Ray Alan, Joseph Barry, Samuel Blumenfeld, “Algerian Independence & the Jews,” June], Mr.

Toward a Democratic Utopia
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Paul Goodman's reference to our discussion on my alleged sociological opposition to Utopian planning [“Utopian Thinking,” July] requires some correction—for I did not say what he attributes to me—and some comment—for this sociologist, at least, is in favor of making Utopian ideas work. Let me use the illustration from my studies in Levittown to describe my disagreement.

The Trial and Eichmann
by Harold Rosenberg
“In this harsh world draw thy breath in pain to tell my story,” the dying Hamlet begged his friend Horatio.

Beyond Berlin Is There a New “Balance of Forces”?
by Theodore Draper
Theodore Draper here contributes the fifth in our series of articles advancing different points of view on the key problems of foreign policy in the new circumstances of the 60's.

The Success of Ingmar Bergman
by Harris Dienstfrey
Two facts define the phenomenon of Ingmar Bergman: the twenty-one films he has made since 1945 (he wrote fourteen himself, of which eleven were original screenplays), and the striking popularity he has commanded since 1957 in the United States.

“Nine Deliberative Bodies” A Profile of the Warren Court
by C. Magrath
In his undelivered Godkin Lectures, published posthumously in 1955 under the title The Supreme Court in the American System of Government, Justice Robert H.

The Example of Lipi Lippmann A Story
by Dan Jacobson
In Lyndhurst, if a Gentile spoke enviously to a Jew about how rich the Jews of Lyndhurst were, how clever they were, how well they did in business, the reply was often made, “Well, it's not really true about all the Jews.

A Humanistic Guide to Foreign Aid
by E. Schumacher
Economic misery is something altogether different from mere poverty; it is a scandal and signifies a breakdown of the natural order, for it prevents men from being human.

The End of an Illusion
by Hans Morgenthau
In this new bi-monthly department, which was inaugurated in our July number, Hans J. Morgenthau, the director of the Center for the Study of American Foreign Policy at the University of Chicago, will discuss a wide variety of issues bearing on problems of foreign and domestic politics. _____________   A great historian has said that history should make us not clever for one day but wise forever.

Israel's Conservative Voters
by Gerda Luft
The first government of Israel was a temporary one, put together in 1948, immediately after the formation of the state; since then, five national elections have been held.

An American as Art Collector
by Max Kozloff
Unlike James Whistler, who wrote a book on the subject, Albert C. Barnes never understood how to make enemies gently.

Feiffer, Steinberg, and Others
by David Segal
The comic strip made its first appearance in Hearst's New York Journal during the circulation war he and Pulitzer conducted in the 1890's; and it has developed since then into one of the staples of mass media entertainment.

The Adolescent Society, by James S. Coleman; Values and Ideals of American Youth, edited by Eli Ginzberg
by Edgar Friedenberg
Hot-Rods and Questionnaires The Adolescent Society. by James S. Coleman. The Free Press. 337 pp. $6.95. Values and Ideals of American Youth. by Eli Ginzberg. Columbia University Press.

The Religious Factor, by Gerhard Lenski
by Marshall Sklare
Religion and Social Behavior The Religious Factor. by Gerhard Lenski. Doubleday. 381 pp. $5.95. Dr. Gerhard Lenski, with the publication of The Religous Factor, has ably fulfilled the expectations of his colleagues, who believe him to be one of the few scholars capable of making a substantial contribution to that underdeveloped discipline in American social science: the sociology of religion. The bulk of The Religious Factor is devoted to testing the correctness of the view of many scholars that religion has a comparatively minor influence on politics, on economics, and on most other secular areas of modern life—a view growing out of a secularist bias.

The New Country, translated by Henry Goodman
by Eugene Goodheart
Tender-Minded Fiction The New Country: Stories from the Yiddish about Life in America. by Henry Goodman. Yiddisher Kultur Farband. 520 pp. $4.75. My Reaction to these “stories from the Yiddish about life in America” is complicated by a fact of my adolescence.

The Making of the President 1960, by Theodore H. White
by Martin Mayer
Politics and Reportage The Making of the President, 1960. by Theodore H. White. Atheneum. 400 pp. $6.95. An American Presidential election must be the ideal subject for a book.

The Traditional Prayer Book for Sabbath and Festivals, edited by David de Sola Pool; Weekday Prayer Book, edited by Gershon Hada
by Robert Alter
The New Prayer Books The Traditional Prayer Book for Sabbath and Festivals. by David de Sola Pool. University Books by arrangement with Behrman House.

Reader Letters November 1961
by Our Readers
Toward a Democratic Utopia TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Paul Goodman's reference to our discus- sion on my alleged sociological opposition to utopian planning ["Utopian Thinking," July] requires some correction-for I did not say what he attributes to me-and some comment-for this sociologist, at least, is in favor of making utopian ideas work. Let me use the illustration from my stud- ies in Levittown to describe my disagree- ment.

December, 1961Back to Top
“Mila 18” and Objectivity
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Your choice of Midge Decter to review Mila 18 [“Popular Jews,” October] is bewildering. How objective can a reviewer be about the author of Mila 18 if she “adamantly refused to read Exodus for two years”? Midge Decter refers to Uris's work as “pornographic” and “hard-core trash,” and yet she confesses to sitting through the night to finish his novel in one reading.

Israeli Jews, American Jews
by Our Readers
To the Editor: After a short visit to Israel where “normalization” was everywhere noticeable but resurgent personal idealism harder to detect, I am encouraged by Mati Meged's article [“The Normalization of Israel”] in the September issue.

The Policies of A Nuclear Age
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would expect despair from a neighbor who is trapped by the neuroses of old age and sits all day on his porch, talking to himself about uncertainty and the atom bomb.

Toynbee, Pro and Con
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Rabbi Jacob B. Agus has placed us in his debt by his discussion on “Toynbee's Epistle to the Jews” [September].

The American Jewish League Against Communism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In Alan F. Westin's article, “The John Birch Society,” in your August issue, it is stated: “[Welch] indicates that it [the John Birch Society] has been endorsed by the American Jewish League Against Communism (a Jewish right-fundamentalist group).” The American Jewish League Against Communism (of which I am Chairman of the Board, having previously been President) has never endorsed any organization.

Competing With Russia
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Wayland and Elizabeth Young in their article on disarmament [“Disarmament vs. Arms Control,” August] state: “Only those who despair of the West's ability to compete constructively with Communism can still put their trust in the arms race.” No mention is made of Soviet despair of its ability to compete constructively with the West.

Canada's Jewish Community
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have been vitally interested in the career of Mordecai Richler [“Their Canada and Mine,” August] for the past few years, but have often felt varying measures of discontent with his work.

Scientists, Poets, Students
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Although I was entertained by Edgar Z. Friedenberg's report in the August issue [“Why Students Leave Science”], I believe any serious reader will object to his drawing either explicit or implicit conclusions based upon the “study” as performed.

The New Frontier Fulfilled
by Oscar Gass
Things and actions are what they are, and the consequences of them will be what they will be: why then should we desire to be deceived? —Bishop Butler Fifteen Sermons, No.

At Ease in Zion
by Alfred Kazin
September 1960 Alfred north Whitehead, that singularly clear mind, observed that even in Jesus' evasive “Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's,” one sees that the Jews had no independent state to govern; “the absence of such responsibility has been a characteristic of the Jews for centuries.

The Graduate Student: A Profile
by Theodore Solotaroff
Now that college education is becoming a commonplace in American life, the graduate student seems to have preempted what novelty and prestige remain in being a student.

Idiots First A Story
by Bernard Malamud
The thick ticking of the tin clock stopped. Mendel, dozing in the dark, awoke in fright. The pain returned as he listened for it.

James Baldwin as Spokesman
by Dan Jacobson
In his first book of essays, Notes of a Native Son, James Baldwin can be said to have tried to fix within himself an area of experience which he could feel was truly his own, to do with as he liked; a clearing or a camp-site in which he could enjoy the privacy that any man is entitled to.

Reading Khrushchev's Mind
by R.H.S. Crossman
Is faulty intelligence about the secrets of the Communist bloc the main reason for the fact that we are losing the cold war? In the case of Cuba, a blatant effort was made to shift the blame from the White House to the Central Intelligence Agency and to suggest that, if Mr.

Eichmann's Victims & the Unheard Testimony
by Elie Wiesel
Last month, we published an article by Harold Rosenberg which attempted to determine how far the Eichmann Trial had achieved its main purpose—that of telling the world the story of what actually happened to the European Jews under the Nazis.

The Study of Man: “The Long Revolution” and the British Left

by Leo Marx
Americans who do not follow the debates of the British left may find it difficult to understand why The Long Revolution1 caused such a stir in England.

A Week in Warsaw
by Lewis Coser
From this side of the Iron Curtain, Communist bloc countries tend to look alike. We have all become accustomed to a model of Communism in which ideology is the single most important distinguishing mark, and perhaps such is indeed the proper model for most members of the Eastern bloc.

Slums and Suburbs, by James Bryant Conant
by Martin Mayer
The Educational Goals of James B. Conant1 James Bryant Conant, formerly president of Harvard, has been speaking and writing about public schools for nearly two decades.

De Mahomet aux Marranes, by Leon Poliakov
by Albert Sicroff
Spain and its Jews De Mahomet aux Marranes (From Mohammed to the Marranos). By Léon Poliakov. Calmann-Lévy (Paris). 374 pp. 16.90 NF. As with so many developments which set Spain apart from the rest of Europe, the course of Jewish history in that country owes its peculiarity to the presence there of Islam.

Marxism, by George Lichtheim
by Dennis Wrong
Theory and Practice Marxism: An Historical and Critical Study. By George Lichtheim. Praeger. 412 pp. $8.50. Not many of the scores of books on Marxism that have appeared in the last few decades are likely to remain of enduring interest.

Fighter and Prophet: The Jabotinsky Story, by Joseph B. Schechtman
by Elias Cooper
A Controversial Figure Fighter and Prophet: The Jabotinsky Story; The Last Years. by Joseph B. Schechtman. Thomas Yoseloff. 643 pp. $7.50. Vladimir Jabotinsky once told his Jewish audience in Poland: “I have spoiled your children, taught them to break discipline (and sometimes windows), tried to persuade them that the true translation of kometz aleph-o is not ‘learn to read’ but ‘learn to shoot.’” The author of this remarkable statement was in the decade preceding the Second World War the enfant terrible of the Zionist movement, feared and often vilified—to the point of being called “Vladimir Hitler”—by his fellow Zionists.

The Nation's Safety & Arms Control, by Arthur T. Hadley; Arms Control, Disarmament & National Security, edited by Donald G. Bren
by Gordon Craig
“The Clattering Train” The Nation's Safety and Arms Control. by Arthur T. Hadley. Viking. 160 pp. $3.00. Arms Control, Disarmament and National Security. by Donald G.

Reader Letters December 1961
by Our Readers
Scientists, Poets, Students TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Although I was entertained by Edgar Z. Friedenberg's report in the August issue ["Why Students Leave Science"], I believe any serious reader will object to his drawing either explicit or implicit conclusions based upon the "study" as performed.




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