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January, 1962Back to Top
Algeria, the Jews, and France
by Our Readers
[Owing to an oversight on our part, Ray Alan was delayed in sending us his reply to several letters which appeared in the November 1961 issue commenting on his contribution to the controversy on “Algerian Independence and the Jews” (June 1961).

Labor and Civil Rights
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Tom Brooks's article on “Negro Militants, Jewish Liberals, and the Unions” [September], is perceptive and thought-provoking. While it contains a number of factual errors, it is emotionally correct.

Schools in New York City
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Georges Clemenceau once said that war is too important a matter to be left to the generals. After reading Nathan Glazer's article—“Is New York City Ungovernable?”—in the September issue, I am more certain than ever that laymen should leave the schools to educators.   Mr.

Morris Hilquit's Socialism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: A curious reprise of recent history was offered in the September issue in the disquisition on Morris Hillquit by your contributing editor, Milton Himmelfarb [“Universalist Elite, Parochial Mass,” In the Community].

Western Values & Total War
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Reading “Western Values and Total War” [October 1961], I am astounded that, apart from one splendid paragraph of Mr.

The Question of Civil Defense-A Debate
by Michael Maccoby
In the hope of contributing to a clarification of the whole question of civil defense by bringing into focus the precise points of disagreement between the two main contending positions, we invited Herman Kahn (perhaps the leading advocate of a more intensified civil defense effort) and Erich Fromm (who has become one of America's most influential spokesmen for disarmament and whose collaborator in the present debate, Michael Maccoby, has been a prominent participant in the peace movement) to argue their respective cases for the readers of COMMENTARY.

City Problems & Jewish Responsibilities
by Nathan Glazer
Nathan Glazer, whose recently completed study of ethnic groups in New York City will soon be published, is spending the current year in Japan.

The Sacco-Vanzetti Case Reconsidered
by James Grossman
In a forthcoming issue of COMMENTARY we will be publishing another view of the Sacco-Vanzetti case by Herbert B. Ehrmann (who served as junior counsel to Sacco and Vanzetti during the last two years of their ordeal and whose book The Untried Case is discussed by Mr.

Two Memoirs
by Isaac Singer
The two pieces below (translated from the Yiddish by Channah Kleinerman) are accounts of actual incidents which Isaac Bashevis Singer remembers from his childhood in Warsaw.

The Trouble With Kennedy
by Hans Morgenthau
Hans J. Morgenthau's column—devoted to discussing a wide variety of subjects bearing on problems of foreign and domestic politics—has been appearing bi-monthly in COMMENTARY since July of last year.

Two Views of “Judgment At Nuremberg”
by Harris Dienstfrey
Judgment at Nuremberg, a three-hour film produced and directed by Stanley Kramer and written by Abby Mann, opened last month and has already provoked more heated discussion than any American movie within memory.

Samuel and Agag
by Martin Buber
The following piece (translated from the German by Maurice Friedman) will be included among the autobiographical fragments in The Philosophy of Martin Buber, edited by Dr.

Soviet Jews; American Orthodoxy
by Milton Himmelfarb
De-Stallnization or Re-Stalinization? When Khrushchev expelled Stalin from his tomb, after the last congress of the Soviet Communist party, most of us were amused.

The Children of Sanchez, by Oscar Lewis
by Edgar Friedenberg
Voices of Poverty The Children of Sanchez. by Oscar Lewis. Random House. 499 pp. $7.50. This book is altogether superb. Professor Lewis does what he undertakes to do dramatically yet unobtrusively, and with a degree of taste and craftsmanship that is unlikely to be fully appreciated however much the work is praised, because the format is unfamiliar to most readers.

The Idea of the Jewish State, by Ben Halpern
by Elie Kedourie
Zionism and the Jews The Idea of the Jewish State. by Ben Halpern. Harvard University Press. 500 pp. $10.00. Mr. Halpern's treatise sets out to be, not a history of the Zionist movement, or even of Zionist thought, but an analysis, as the word goes, of certain Zionist notions in terms of what “social scientists” call a “conceptual framework,” the main lines of which the author indicates in an Appendix entitled “Assumptions, Methods, and Terms.” The book is thus a tricky one for a reviewer to describe and appraise: it contains bits of history, some of them very good, such as the author's appraisal, in Chapter 9, of the true nature and ground of the Palestinians' opposition to Zionism, or his description, in Chapter 6, of Weizmann's policies and activities in the 1920's from the rift with Brandeis until the formation of the extended Jewish Agency.

No Further West, by Dan Jacobson
by Elmer Borklund
Taking in California No Further West. by Dan Jacobson. Macmillan. 127 pp. $3.50. For a variety of reasons, perhaps, Americans are far from being as sensitive or as vulnerable as they once were to the opinions and verdicts of literate visitors.

Education and Attitude Change-The Effect of Schooling on Prejudice Against Minority Groups, by Charles Herbert Stember
by Lewis Coser
Prejudice and Education Education and Attitude Change—The Effect of Schooling on Prejudice Against Minority Groups. by Charles Herbert Stember. Institute Of Human Relations Press.

The Faith of a Heretic, by Walter Kaufmann
by Arthur Cohen
Honest Thinking The Faith of a Heretic. by Walter Kaufmann. Doubleday. 432 pp. $4.95. Walter Kaufmann's latest book, The Faith of a Heretic, rests upon two terms much too casually defined by him.

The Struggle for Algeria, by Joseph Kraft
by Philip Williams
A Protracted Crisis The Struggle for Algeria. by Joseph Kraft. Doubleday. 263 pp. $4.50. The Algerian war has passed its seventh anniversary and is approaching a savage climax.

Reader Letters January 1962
by Our Readers
Western Values & Total War TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Reading "Western Values and Total War" [October 1961], I am astounded that, apart from one splendid paragraph of Mr.

February, 1962Back to Top
Modern Faith
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I sincerely appreciate Dr. Marvin Fox's painstaking and lengthy review of my book A Faith for Moderns [“Rational Religion,” October 1961].

The Ego and Art
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Theodore Solotaroff's piece on Henry Miller and Seymour Krim [“All That Cellar-Deep Jazz,” October 1961], penetrating as it is .

Western Values & Total War
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am disappointed in your discussion on “Western Values and Total War” [October 1961]. [Sidney Hook, H. Stuart Hughes, Hans J.

Buber & Hasidism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: If Gershom Scholem's uninspired intellectualizations [“Martin Buber's Hasidism,” October 1961] do, as he says, reflect the more basic Hasidic literature, then it must be the perpetual transcendence of this literature which makes the Hasidim such delightfully refreshing people.

The American Left and Cuba
by Dennis Wrong
Now that Cuba has become a member of the Soviet bloc and Fidel Castro has proclaimed that he has for some time been a dedicated “Marxist-Leninist,” the response of the American left to the Cuban Revolution may be examined without recapitulating the previously contested evidence for these developments.

Writing for the Movies
by Daniel Fuchs
Dear Editors: Thank you for your kind letter and compliments. Yes, your hunch was right, I would like very much to tell about the problems and values I've encountered, writing for the movies all these years.

Does Communal Education Work? The Case of the Kibbutz

by Bruno Bettelheim
Today, when there exists such widespread dissatisfaction with our educational system, a radically different one might be expected to hold great interest for us—especially one thriving among people like ourselves, of Western background.

The Problem of South Viet Nam
by Joseph Zasloff
A somewhat different version of the present article will be included in The Revolution in World Politics, a collection of papers edited by Morton A.

The Study of Man: Sidney Hook as Philosopher
by Henry Aiken
In an age of analysis, philosophy like everything else has become so technical that its relevance to the conduct of life is obscured even to professional philosophers themselves.

Chagall's Windows
by Edouard Roditi
The twelve stained-glass windows designed by Marc Chagall for the synagogue of the Hadassah Medical Center at the Hebrew University are being dedicated this month in their permanent setting in Jerusalem.

The Death & Life of Great American Cities, by Jane Jacobs
by Herbert Gans
City Planning and Urban Realities1 American Intellectuals have begun to rediscover the city. Not since the days of the muckrakers has there been so much interest in local politics and in the “physical” features of the city—the problems of slums and urban renewal, middle-income housing, the lack of open space, the plight of the down-town business district, and the ever-increasing traffic congestion.

The Wild Goats of Ein Gedi, by Herbert Weiner
by Ernest Stock
Religious Life in the Land of Israel1 When Theodor Herzl first jotted down the notes for his Judenstaat, he envisioned Europe's Jews voyaging to the Promised Land by communities, each guided by its own rabbi.

The Origins of the Second World War, by A. J. P. Taylor
by G. Hudson
An Apologia for Adolf Hitler1 It was Inevitable that sooner or later some historian should produce a serious apologia for Hitler.

Books for Jewish Children
by Robert Alter
On a June afternoon in 1819—so we are informed in a recent historical biography written for Jewish children—a young man with the unabashedly Semitic name of Alfred Mordecai presented himself for examination as a new cadet at West Point. Mordecai? Yes.

Foreign Policy & the American Mind
by Robert Nisbet
William Appleman Williams—professor of history at the University of Wisconsin and the author, most recently, of The Contours of American History—here comments on Robert A.

Reader Letters February 1962
by Our Readers
Buber and Hasidism TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: If Gershom Scholem's uninspired intel- lectualizations ["Martin Buber's Hasidism," October 1961] do, as he says, reflect the more basic Hasidic literature, then it must be the perpetual transcendence of this liter- ature which makes the Hasidim such de- lightfully refreshing people.

March, 1962Back to Top
The Contributions of A.C. Barnes
by Our Readers
To the Editor: “Meanwhile, thank goodness, there is his collection.” So ends Max Kozloff's review (?) of Art and Argyrol and belated funeral dirge for A.

The Adolescent “Savage”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am impelled to write in response to the review of my book by Edgar Z. Friedenberg [The Adolescent Society, November 1961].

Western Values and Total War
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It is regrettable that some of the participants in the stimulating discussion “Western Values and Total War” [October 1961; Sidney Hook, H.

Eichmann, the Law & Logic
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Many thanks for Harold Rosenberg's intelligent, imaginative, and poignant article on the Eichmann Trial [“The Trial and Eichmann,” November 1961]. It fully exemplifies Rosenberg's characteristic aptitude for clarifying the subtle relationships and discordancies between the requirements of drama and the requirements of the law court.

Tariffs, the Kennedy Administration, and American Politics
by Ben Seligman
We are suffering from the intolerable competition of a foreign rival . . . in a condition so far superior to our own for the production of light, that he absolutely inundates our national market with it.

Bernard Malamud's Fiction: The Old Life & the New
by Theodore Solotaroff
I would say that Bernard Malamud has been a writer almost unique in our time. He has found the objects and idiom and viewpoint that allow him to see the will directly and portray its commitment to moral struggle.

The Community of Scholars, 1962
by Paul Goodman
The Relation between school and society has always been uneasy. The community of students and teachers is an instrument of society, but it is also a constituent member of society and has its own aims that tend to conflict with the uses of the world for it.

A Fund-Raiser Comes to Northrup
by Evelyn Rossman
Last winter, a billboard was erected on the lawn of the Conservative temple in Northrup. “The Need Is Great,” it proclaimed.

Earth—A Story
by Sydor Rey
How could a farmer, descended from generations of farmers, speak so enthusiastically of the earth? Shortly after Marceli's arrival in New York, my aunt, related to him through his wife, asked him to dinner, and it was then that I met him.

The Ordeal of Sir Lewis Namier: The Man, the Historian, the Jew
by J. Talmon
I was privileged to know the great historian Sir Lewis Namier, and to enjoy his friendship for some twelve years before he died in 1960.

Love and Power
by Hans Morgenthau
Hans J. Morgenthau's column “Public Affairs” appears in COMMENTARY every other month. Previous pieces have dealt with a wide range of subjects, including the Berlin crisis, the changed meaning of death in the nuclear age, and President Kennedy's first year in office. _____________   The proposition that power and love are organically connected, growing as they do from the same root of loneliness, must appear to the modern mind paradoxical, if not outright absurd.

Perfidy, by Ben Hecht
by Lucy Dawidowicz
Ben Hecht's “Perfidy”1 With each passing year, the bureaucratically organized murder by the Nazis of six million Jews, because they were Jews, becomes increasingly harder to understand.

The Old Men at the Zoo, by Angus Wilson
by John Gross
Elephants and Blind Men The Old Men At The Zoo. by Angus Wilson. Viking. 352 pp. $4.50. The story which Angus Wilson has to tell in his new novel is not very nice.

Sovietish Heimland No. 1
by Isaac Singer
A New Use for Yiddish Sovietish Heimland No. 1, July-August 1961. by Sovetsky Pisatel (Moscow). 128 pp. Philologists tell us that the Diaspora Jews did not have a single, common language of their own, but many languages, borrowed from the Gentile peoples among whom they lived.

Culture and Social Character, edited by Seymour Martin Lipset and Leo Lowenthal
by Harris Dienstfrey
“The Lonely Crowd” at Bay Culture and Social Character. The Work of David Riesman Reviewed. by Seymour Martin Lipset and Leo Lowenthal. The Free Press.

Europe and America, by Solomon F. Bloom
by Robert Nisbet
Shortly after Mr. Nisbet's review was written, Solomon F. Bloom was killed in an accident in New York City. Mr.

Reader Letters March 1962
by Our Readers
Eichmann, the Law & Logic TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Many thanks for Harold Rosenberg's in- telligent, imaginative, and poignant article on the Eichmann Trial ["The Trial and Eichmann," November 1961]. It fully exemplifies Rosenberg's charac- teristic aptitude for clarifying the subtle re- lationships and discordancies between the requirements of drama and the requirements of the law court.

April, 1962Back to Top
Reporting Russian History
by Our Readers
To the Editor: R. H. S. Crossman's snide remarks about my book, The Red Phoenix, in your December issue [“Reading Khrushchev's Mind”], prompt me to request space for the following brief comments: He charges that my first and last chapters “read like lectures given to children” and then quotes my last chapter briefly to convict me of “uncritical pessimsim” and even “extravagant pessimism.” But then after pronouncing this indictment, Mr.

Eichmann's Victims
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I read Elie Wiesel's article [“Eichmann's Victims and the Unheard Testimony,” December 1961] with a mingled sense of fascination and uneasiness.

Love, Birds, Bergman
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Congratulations on Harris Dienstfrey's most searching analysis of Ingmar Bergman [“The Success of Ingmar Bergman,” November 1961]; I think he is exactly right.

Jewish Living
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Eugene B. Borowitz, in his answer to the crucial questions raised by Sidney Morgenbesser [“Letters to the Editor,” November 1961], asserts that “Judaism considers theology agada and not halacha.” It seems to me, however, that one of the questions Borowitz fails to answer (the question that is the most important for the youngest generation of Jewish intellectuals) is that of the relationship between the acceptance of this Covenant and the Jewish life one is to lead.

Graduate Schools, Graduate Students
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Theodore Solotaroff's article on graduate students [“The Graduate Student: A Profile,” December 1961] is superbly perceptive and informed within the limits he set for it: the humanities and the social sciences.

The New Europe
by George Lichtheim
In 1945, when the dust of battle cleared, Europe's former eminence in world affairs was found to be among the casualties of the Second World War.

The Radical Right & the Rise of the Fundamentalist Minority
by David Danzig
Early in February of this year a group of leading Protestant ministers and laymen in Dallas, Texas, were invited to form the core of a local chapter of “Christian Citizen,” a new national organization whose announced aim is to train Christians in the techniques of practical politics.

From My Father's Courtroom
by Isaac Singer
Like “A Gruesome Question” and “Strange Merchandise,” which appeared in our January issue, the two pieces below (translated from the Yiddish by Channah Kleinerman and taken from the volume Mein Taten's Bes-din Shtub—“My Father's Courtroom”) are accounts of actual incidents that Isaac Bashevis Singer remembers from his childhood in Warsaw.

Notes on the American Press
by Benjamin DeMott
What killed the American press? Prickly irascibility. Whose prickly irascibility? Its own. Like every catechism this one has its limits: the press isn't dead yet, and in any event irascibility, even in sick institutions, is easier to think of as a symptom than as a disease.

The Two Israels
by Alex Weingrod
Rioting suddenly broke out in Haifa's Wadi Salib quarter three summers ago when its inhabitants—many of them Moroccan immigrants—raced through Haifa's business section and smashed the windows of European shopkeepers.

The Study of Man: The 20th Century in Its Philosophy
by William Barrett
The earliest newsreels that I have seen date from the beginning of this century. There are scenes of the European capitals: people walking about the streets of Paris in old-fashioned clothes and with the jerky rhythms of ancient photography.

Living Theater
by Lionel Abel
Ever since Jack Gelber's The Connection, damned by the New York newspaper critics, stayed on the boards to win their praise, the Living Theatre, which staged the play, has gone from success to success.

Turmoil at Jews' College
by John Gross
The past few weeks have seen a major rumpus in the Anglo-Jewish community. Internal disputes in the community rarely attract the attention of the general press, but this one has been covered in full by the London Times and Daily Telegraph, and it has had enough picturesque detail to satisfy a Jewish Anthony Trollope, if there were such a thing: a High Court judge interviewed on holiday at Zermatt, the Chief Rabbi embarking on a world tour and saying he doesn't expect to enjoy the journey, the Jewish press abuzz with correspondence, speeches, resolutions, resignations, and every koch leffel in the community helping to stir the controversy.

The Stories of Delmore Schwartz
by Robert Flint
There is no doubt that Delmore Schwartz's first book of stories, The World Is a Wedding, was a considerable, though not popular, success.

The Gray Areas of American Cities
by Abe Gottlieb
The Debate over the creation of a Department of Urban Affairs may finally focus the country's attention upon those vast “gray” areas that now pocket our urban landscape.

The Destruction of the European Jews, by Raul Hilberg
by H. Trevor-Roper
Nazi Bureaucrats and Jewish Leaders1 This is a forbidding book. It is nearly 800 pages long. The pages are double-columned. It has nearly a hundred statistical tables.

Africa: The Politics of Independence, by Immanuel Wallerstein
by Walter Schwarz
After Colonialism Africa: the Politics of Independence. by Immanuel Wallerstein. Vintage Books. 173 pp. $1.25. “They make things far more complicated than they are,” complained an Ambassador from one of the more militant African nations recently; he was speaking of both the West and the East.

Joy to Levine! by Norma Stahl Rosen, and Notes from a Dark Street, by Edward Adler
by Dan Jacobson
Slings and Arrows Joy To Levine! by Norma Stahl Rosen. Knopf. 279 pp. $3.50. Notes From A Dark Street. by Edward Adler. Knopf. 219 pp. $2.95. These two novels are set in New York, and their main characters are Jewish and are physically maimed, in different degrees; otherwise they have little in common.

Children of the Gilded Ghetto, by Judith R. Kramer and Seymour Leventman
by Marshall Sklare
Pointing the View Children of the Gilded Ghetto. by Judith R. Kramer and Seymour Leventman. Yale University Press. 228 pp. $5.00. Our knowledge about American Jewish life would be much the poorer if not for the fact that an occasional graduate student writes his dissertation on a Jewish topic.

The Concept of Jacksonian Democracy: New York as a Test Case, by Lee Benson
by Staughton Lynd
Scientific History The Concept of Jacksonian Democracy : New York as a Test Case. by Lee Benson. Princeton University Press. 351 pp. $6.00. Lee Benson is a sociological gadfly who for some years has been probing the soft and vulnerable places in the body of American historical writing.

Reader Letters April 1962
by Our Readers
Graduate Schools, Graduate Students TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Theodore Solotaroff's article on graduate students ["The Graduate Student: A Pro- file," December 1961] is superbly perceptive and informed within the limits he set for it: the humanities and the social sciences.

May, 1962Back to Top
The Civil Defense Debate
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I hope you will accept my congratulations on “A Debate on the Question of Civil Defense” [Herman Kahn—for: Erich Fromm and Michael Maccoby—against; January].

Hispano-Iberian Jews
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . Albert A. Sicroff [reviewing De Mahomet aux Marranes (From Mohammed to the Marranos) by Léon Poliakov, December 1961] speaks of Spain in the 13th and 14th centuries as being a unified nation and of Spanish Jewry at that time as having a common experience.

Facts & Interpretations
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Lewis Coser in his review of my book, Education and Attitude Change [January], quite correctly points out that the question “Are Jews different from other people?” cannot be taken as a pure measure of prejudice.

Zionist Ideas
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his review of The Idea of the Jewish State [January], Elie Kedourie addresses himself to my “conceptual framework” instead of dealing in the usual way with the material organized within the framework.

Sacco-Vanzetti
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I read with interest your article about the Sacco-Vanzetti case by James Grossman [“The Sacco-Vanzetti Case Reconsidered,” January], and one fact which was touched upon but not emphasized has always seemed to have been very indicative of Sacco's guilt.

Jewish Responsibility
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Nathan Glazer is almost always right, but in “City Problems and Jewish Responsibilities” [January] he was wrong. Specifically, Mr.

Dr. Conant & The Schools
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I hope that those who read Martin Mayer's critical review of James Conant's Slums and Suburbs, in the December 1961 issue, will also take the time to read the book itself.

Vietnam-Another Korea?
by Hans Morgenthau
The involvement of the United States in the Vietnamese war poses acutely two fundamental issues with which American foreign policy has tried to come to terms elsewhere, and which it is likely to have to face in Vietnam and elsewhere in an even more acute form.

Yiddish: Past, Present, and Perfect
by Lucy Dawidowicz
On hearing that the first volume of an unabridged ten-volume Yiddish dictionary has just been published, people ask, “Today?” Their skepticism reflects the common knowledge that Yiddish has fewer speakers today than ever before.

What to Do About Advertising
by Ernest den
Although by nature as visible as can be, and God knows, audible enough, advertising remains shrouded in the mists of myth and controversy.

Isaac Rosenfeld: The Human Use of Literature
by Theodore Solotaroff
“That which dies acquires a life of its own.” The statement, made by Isaac Rosenfeld himself in one of his stories, describes what has happened since the evening of July 12, 1956, when he died suddenly of a heart attack at the age of thirty-eight.

An Apprenticeship—A Story
by Dan Jacobson
It was only for three or four years that David Palling and I were close friends; but when I look back now it sometimes seems that we shared our entire boyhoods.

The Gifted Student and His Enemies
by Edgar Friedenberg
One of the most heavily emphasized themes in current discussions of education in the United States is the search for potential excellence.

The Study of Man: The Science of Thought Control
by Selma Fraiberg
The events of the past thirty years have created a kind of monstrous laboratory for the study of the enslavement of the human ego.

Algerian Jews, and Other Matters
by Milton Himmelfarb
Two Cities Algeria, now that it is about to become independent, has much in common with Central and Eastern Europe in the years before and after the 1914 war—the dissolution of empire, conflict between a dominant minority and a subordinate majority, and the Jews boxed in a corner.

The New Frontier
by Oscar Gass
Mr. Harris here comments on two recent articles by Oscar Gass—“Political Economy and the New Administration” (April 1961) and “The New Frontier Fulfilled” (December 1961) . Seymour E.

Sinclair Lewis: An American Life, by Mark Schorer
by Ellen Moers
The New Sinclair Lewis Sinclair Lewis: An American Life. by Mark Schorer. McGraw-Hill. 867 pp. $10.00. Twenty-five years from now Sinclair Lewis may be remembered as the man whose Nobel Prize speech officially confirmed international awareness of an American, as distinct from an English, literature.

The Jew in a Gentile World, edited by Arnold A. Rogow
by Milton Hindus
Discussing the Jews The Jew in a Gentile World: An Anthology of Writings about Jews by Non-Jews. by Arnold A. Rogow, with an Introduction by C.

Who Governs? Democracy and Power in an American City, by Robert A. Dahl
by Lewis Coser
“Influence” in New Haven Who Governs? Democracy and Power in an American City. by Robert A. Dahl. Yale University Press. 355 pp. $7.50. A few years ago, in a much discussed study of power in a major Southern city, Community Power Structure, Floyd Hunter found that a small and unified group of top businessmen constituted the city's “power elite”—and he suggested by implication that similar situations probably obtained elsewhere.

Hitler's Secret Book, with Introduction by Telford Taylor
by H. Trevor-Roper
The Master idea of Hitler Hitler's Secret Book. by Salvator Atlanasio. Introduction by Telford Taylor. Grove Press. 216 pp. $5.00. That Hitler had written an unpublished sequel to Mein Kampf, concerned mainly with foreign policy, was known from two sources before the discovery of the typescript now published.

Courage to Change: An Introduction to the Life and Thought of Reinhold Niebuhr, by June Bingham
by Daniel Callahan
The Figure of Niebuhr Courage to Change: An Introduction to the Life and thought of Reinhold Niebuhr. by June Bingham. Scribner's. 414 pp.

Reader Letters May 1962
by Our Readers
Dr. Conant & the Schools TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I hope that those who read Martin May- er's critical review of James Conant's Slums and Suburbs, in the December 1961 issue, will also take the time to read the book itself. If they do not, they are likely to be left with an erroneous impression of what Conant's views really are.

June, 1962Back to Top
The Drugged Lake
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Daniel Fuchs [“Writing for the Movies,” February] would have us believe that the Hollywood scene involved a group of lovable Damon Runyan characters and an intellectual element, striving together through heartbreak and success to achieve artistic and financial rewards.

In Criticism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Harris Dienstfrey's dissenting opinion on Judgment at Nuremberg [“Two Views of Judgment at Nuremberg” January; Harris Dienstfrey, Jason Epstein] is the worst bit of petulant and flatulent movie criticism I've read in a long time.

Faith and Truth
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Arthur A. Cohen takes a strange position indeed in his review of Walter Kaufmann's The Faith of a Heretic [January], when he takes the author to task for his treatment of theologians.

Orthodox Issues
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Telling of responsa by Orthodox rabbis which “deal with a recurrent question whether a refrigerator may be opened on the Sabbath,” Milton Himmelfarb [“In the Community,” January] asks how “men like those who edit and write for Tradition believe unambiguously that such questions are serious.” Himmelfarb's reasoning goes like this: We know that work on the Sabbath is prohibited by divine command, but this does not refer to the refrigerator.

More on Civil Defense
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . . Suppose that the Kahn and the Fromm-Maccoby positions on the kind of attack we might experience are equally accurate as statements of probability and that these are the only two possibilities in a war.

Science, Literature & Culture: A Comment on the Leavis-Snow Controversy
by Lionel Trilling
F. R. Leavis, who is widely regarded as England's most important literary critic, recently launched a violent attack on C.

The Ineffectuality of Some Intelligent People
by Paul Goodman
When we treat man as he is, we make him worse than he is. When we treat him as if he already were what he potentially could be, we make him what he should be.—GoetheAt their meeting in 1960, the American Association for the Advancement of Science resolved that it was the duty of scientists to inform the public of the dangers of bomb-testing and heard C.

Gentile Zionism & the Balfour Declaration
by R.H.S. Crossman
The Balfour Declaration was issued on November 2, 1917, and took the curious form of a letter from the British Foreign Secretary, Arthur James Balfour, to Lord Rothschild.

The New American Cinema
by Harris Dienstfrey
The intention of the makers of this film was to create a situation whereby one might comply with James Agee's tender request: “The films I most eagerly look forward to will not be documentaries but works of pure fiction, played against and into, and in collaboration with unrehearsed and uninvented reality.” —Robert Frank and Alfred Leslie, makers of Pull My Daisy, a movie. There is an independent film movement in the United States today, and it goes by the name of the “New American Cinema.” The title is the invention of the movement's prime publicist, Jonas Mekas, a movie critic, the editor of his own occasional journal (Film Culture), and himself one of the new film makers.

The Cold War & the African States
by Walter Schwarz
Lists of diplomatic missions in the new African states make fascinating and somewhat disturbing reading. There are Nationalist (but not Communist) Chinese embassies in the Cameroons Federation and in what was once the French Congo (Brazzaville), Communist (but not Nationalist) Chinese ones in Ghana, Guinea, and Mali.

Eulogy for an American Boy
by Wallace Markfield
The Rabbi, a large moon-faced man with bifocals and only the smallest of beards, announced, “Please rise, the entire congregation.” While he prayed in swift sonorous Hebrew, ushers passed bunches of booklets from pew to pew.

Gertrude Stein
by F.W. Dupee
There used to be something known to all readers as “Steinese.” Steinese was the peculiar literary idiom invented by Gertrude Stein around 1910 and made familiar to a large American public by her admirers and non-admirers alike.

A Jew's American Dilemma
by Loren Baritz
In order to understand some of the problems which I, as a Jew, face or feel in America today, I find it helpful to think of the stretch of time from 1890 to 1945 as one moment in the history of Jews.

As Europe Stands By
by Francois Bondy
As a European, whenever I read that “the West” ought to understand this-or-that aspect of Soviet policy, or be aware of this-or-that danger, or be ready to seize such-and-such an opportunity, I wonder who exactly is being exhorted.

The Image: or What Happened to the American Dream, by Daniel J. Boorstin
by Staughton Lynd
Producing our Illusions The Image: or What Happened to the American Dream. by Daniel J. Boorstin. Atheneum. 315 pp. $5.00. All social science assumes that men do not fully understand the reasons why they act as they do.

On the Trial of Jesus, by Paul Winter
by W.D. Davies
The Jews and Jesus On the Trial of Jesus. by Paul Winter. Walter de Gruyter (Berlin). 216 pp. $7.00. The theme with which this book deals is not merely of academic interest: few events have had more momentous consequences than the trial of Jesus of Nazareth.

The Social Basis of American Communism, by Nathan Glazer
by Dennis Wrong
The Composition of the CP The Social Basis of American Communism. by Nathan Glazer. Harcourt, Brace & World. 244 pp. $5.50. What social groups contributed the most members to the American Communist party from its beginnings in the early 20's to its decline in the mid-50's? What accounts for the unequal susceptibilities of different groups to Communist appeals? To what extent were the Communists successful in recruiting members from such groups as native-born industrial workers and Negroes, which for doctrinal reasons were the main targets of their organizing drives? What shifts occurred in the social composition of the party's membership as American society underwent major changes? How did the party revise its preferences for members from particular groups when its general line shifted between revolutionary “left” and popular front “right” positions? Nathan Glazer addresses himself to these essentially sociological questions in The Social Basis of American Communism.

Les Controverses des Statuts de
by Ellis Rivkin
Purity of Blood in Spain Les Controverses des Statuts de “Pureté de Sang” en Espagne du XVe au XVIIe Siécle. (The Disputes over the “Purity of Blood” Statutes in Spain, from the 15th to the 17th Century). by Albert A.

Radical Innocence: Studies in the Contemporary American Novel, by Ihab Hassan
by Robert Alter
Archetypal Criticism Radical Innocence: Studies in the Contemporary American Novel. by Ihab Hassan. Princeton University Press. 362 pp. $6.00. The impulse behind Ihab Hassan's ambitious study of the younger American writers is admirable, but the book he has written about this generation of novelists is in many ways unsatisfying.

Boys in White: Student Culture in Medical School, by Howard S. Becker & Others
by Edgar Friedenberg
Pragmatic Idealists Boys in White; Student Culture in Medical School. by Howard S. Becker, Blanche Geer, Everett C. Hughes and Anselm L.

Reader Letters June 1962
by Our Readers
More on Civil Defense To THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: .... Suppose that the Kahn and the Fromm-Maccoby positions on the kind of attack we might experience are equally ac- curate as statements of probability and that these are the only two possibilities in a war. Now the probability of either of these even- tualities occurring is the same as that in- volved in the toss of a coin, 50 per cent.

July, 1962Back to Top
Academia
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Paul Goodman's essay, “The Community of Scholars” [March], will strike a sympathetic note with those students (and faculty) whose sense of adventure has not yet been smothered by safe attitudes. In this connection I would like to point out the paradoxical role of the trustees in relation to the “community of scholars.” Ultimate responsibility for university policy rests with these men who are chosen, not because of any outstanding abilities as educators, but rather because of their ability to raise money either through personal fortunes and/or corporate or government nexuses.

Child-Rearing in the Kibbutz
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to tell you that the recent issues of COMMENTARY have been superb. Bruno Bettelheim's article in the February issue, “Does Communal Education Work?—The Case of the Kibbutz,” is required reading for all my students in The Family course. Erich Rosenthal Queens College Flushing, New York _____________   To the Editor: .

Cuba and Its Impact
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Congratulations on publishing Dennis H. Wrong's excellent post mortem, “The American Left and Cuba” [February]. This concise, meticulously fair article says all that would seem necessary to say in describing the impact of Cuba's Communist dictatorship on the various tendencies of America's new Left.

Cities and Planners
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Herbert J. Gans, in his essay-review of Jane Jacobs's The Death and Life of Great American Cities [“City Planning and Urban Realities,” February], manages a remarkable appraisal.

More on Sacco-Vanzetti
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I thoroughly enjoyed. . . James Grossman's article . . . [“The Sacco-Vanzetti Case Reconsidered,” January]. I have been making a study of the case and his article has helped considerably.

Straightening the Record
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am grateful to Mr. Richard Crossman for his friendly references in your June issue to my book The Balfour Declaration, but I feel bound to draw attention to the fact that his description of his article as “a summary of the astonishing story” I have to tell may lead to the reader's attributing to me statements of fact and expressions of opinion for which I am not responsible.

Love and Power
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I read with interest Professor Morgenthau's observations on the fixed constellation in which the human attributes of solitude, love, and power often appear [“Love & Power,” March].

The New American Liberalism
by R.H.S. Crossman
What is the condition of liberalism in the United States today? There are many far more competent than I am to describe the American scene and far worthier to pass judgment on the American Left.

Man, Work & the Automated Feast
by Ben Seligman
Automation is said to have ancient beginnings. To be sure, the technology from which it stems goes back several centuries, at least.

Israeli Writers & Their Problems
by Robert Alter
The recent American reissue of A Whole Loaf,1 Sholom J. Kahn's anthology of Israeli fiction, raises a number of questions about the kind of literature that is being created in Israel.

West Germany Today
by George Lichtheim
It takes only an hour and a half for the plane to carry one from London to West Germany: time enough for an adjustment to one's usual perspective.

This Way for the Gas
by Tadeusz Borowski
Everybody is naked in the camp. Though the delousing is finished and our clothes are back from the tanks of the Ozone-2 that efficiently kills lice in clothing and humans in ovens.

Who Is Fagin?
by Steven Marcus
Fagin is back in the news. The English musical play, Oliver!, which is scheduled to open in New York next season, will almost certainly stir up the same kind of protest from various Jewish groups that the film of Oliver Twist did a decade ago.

The Perils of Political Empiricism
by Hans Morgenthau
American foreign policy has in the past suffered from one major defect: the belief that a great power could somehow escape the risks and liabilities of foreign policy.

Rabbinical Responsa in the USSR
by Judah Sayer
In the spring of 1960, a friend of mine, an American who made frequent trips to the Soviet Union, entrusted to me a curious sheaf of Hebrew manuscripts.

Pigeon Feathers and Other Stories, by John Updike
by Alfred Chester
Twitches and Embarrassments Pigeon Feathers and other Stories. by John Updike. Knopf. 279 pp. $4.00. Updike writes very well; he can handle long and complicated syntax with nonchalant grace; he is always johnny-on-the-spot with the sharp image, the sensual observation, the neat, immediate response; he can appear to say one thing, which he isn't saying at all, in order to conceal from you the fact that he is saying something quite else; he can, in short, create a surface that gives you some illusion of depth.

My Life in Court, by Louis Nizer
by David Bazelon
A Breed Apart My Life in Court. by Louis Nizer. Doubleday. 524 pp. $595. No matter how much the nine out of ten lawyers who never go to court may deny it, and no matter what legal entrancements they may find to occupy themselves meanwhile, the pure, true, and transcendent legal event is a trial.

Altneuland, by Theodor Herzl
by Leonard Greenbaum
Herzl's Utopia Altneuland. by Theodor Herzl. Translated from the original German by Lotta Levensohn. Preface by Emanuel Neumann. Block Publishing Company and Herzl Press.

The Muckrakers, 1902-1912, Edited by Arthur & Lila Weinberg
by Eric McKitrick
Crusading Journalists The Muckrakers, 1902-1912. by Arthur and Lila Weinberg. Simon & Schuster. 449 pp. $7.50. It has been argued that the uniqueness of the “Progressive Era” as a time of muckraking has been somewhat overplayed.

Education & the Working Class, by Brian Jackson and Dennis Marsden
by Roger Owen
On the Way Up Education and the Working Class. by Brian Jackson and Dennis Marsden. Routledge & Kegan Paul. 268 pp. 28 shillings. Anyone living in England cannot fail to have noticed that, in the postwar period of increased social mobility, interest in social differences and their manifestations has become more and not less acute.

Works and Days and Other Poems, by Irving Feldman
by Ralph Mills
A Natural Poet Works and Days and other Poems. by Irving Feldman. Atlantic-Little Brown. 121 pp. $3.95. Irving Feldman belongs neither to the camp of academic poets—though he is on a college faculty—nor to the clamoring throngs who propose hysteria and free association as ingredients of art.

Reader Letters July 1962
by Our Readers
Love and Power TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I read with interest Professor Morgen- thau's observations on the fixed constellation in which the human attributes of solitude, love, and power often appear ["Love & Power," March].

August, 1962Back to Top
Praise
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I should like to say to you that Mr. George Lichtheim's essay [“The New Europe,” April] is both brilliantly perceptive, in my opinion, and brilliantly written. William S.

Zionist Rescue Efforts
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I awaited your review of Ben Hecht's Perfidy [March] with some eagerness because I had hoped for the kind of responsible, detailed treatment for which COMMENTARY is justly famed.

Sir Lewis Namier
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Professor Talmon's penetrating study of Namier [March] . . . is likely to become definitive, and I would therefore like to fill out some incidental details.

Knowledge and Anxiety
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Henry David Aiken [“Sidney Hook as Philosopher,” February] contends that the most recently written papers in Hook's The Quest for Being evidence a certain intellectual rigidity—to wit, allegiance to the belief that all human knowledge is scientific knowledge.

Two Views
by Our Readers
To the Editor: With restraint, yet with devastating documentation, a British historian demolishes a colleague's attempt to rescue the criminal Nazi regime from the terrible guilt of having caused World War II.

Saul's Tragedy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Martin Buber says in “Samuel and Agag” [January] “I believe that Samuel had misunderstood God.” Further on: “Nothing can make me believe in a God who punishes Saul because he did not murder his enemy.” Thus Buber rationalizes his belief in God from his personal viewpoint, obviously conditioned by the emotions of man today.

Jewish Resistance
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his review of Raul Hilberg's book The Destruction of the European Jews [“Nazi Bureaucrats and Jewish Leaders,” April 1962], Professor H.

Can the Alliance for Progress Work?
by Daniel Friedenberg
Recently I attended a meeting of liberals and socialists called together to discuss the Alliance for Progress. The question being argued was just what, in the long run, would be accomplished through the granting of huge sums of money—$20 billion, to be exact—by the United States to the governments of the Latin American countries.

Scholars Convene in Jerusalem
by Milton Himmelfarb
Last summer a World Congress of Jewish Studies was held at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, the third since 1947.

The Anatomy of “Playboy”
by Benjamin DeMott
At first glance, the magazines—Gent, Dude, Nugget, Playboy, and the rest—seem about as remarkable as bananas in a fruit store. The widely publicized key feature is a foldout naked babe.

American Pragmatism Reconsidered: I. Charles Sanders Peirce
by Henry Aiken
The present article is the first in a series of three, and will be followed by analyses of the contributions of William James and John Dewey to American pragmatic thought   _____________   The time is long past since Charles Peirce somewhat querulously complained that he was a philosopher of whom “the critics have never found anything good to say.” In fact, even as applied to his own contemporaries, Peirce's remark must be regarded as purest hyperbole.

On the Mountain—A Story
by Joseph Papaleo
Tasca the Lawyer Came to the Mauro house a few weeks before Election Day. Mrs. Mauro, drowsy on her sunny porch of October, did not react to his importance as she might have; her reveries had removed her. “Paul.

The Jewish Need for Theology
by Eugene Borowitz
The Christian, particularly the Protestant, often thinks of religion as the ability to affirm a creed, a given content of belief, as well as the life, individual and communal, which flows from this faith.

Grandeur and Misery of Guerrilla Warfare
by H. Hughes
My title paraphrases that of Clemenceau's war memoirs. It is intended to suggest the central ambiguity of guerrilla fighting—its combination of petty and even squalid means with a level of personal heroism far above what is customary in orthodox combat.

Edmund Wilson's Civil War
by Robert Warren
One of the figures treated by Edmund Wilson in his Patriotic Gore1 is Francis Grierson. As a child, Grierson, whose real name was Jesse Shepherd, had lived in a log cabin in Sangamon County, Illinois, but at twenty, in 1869, he stormed Paris.

Deaths for the Ladies (and other disasters), by Norman Mailer
by Dwight Macdonald
Art, Life & Violence Deaths for the Ladies (and other disasters). by Norman Mailer. Putnam. $4.00; paperback, $1.95. the         one great thing about norman (man) is that he doesn't repearepearepearepeat himself said the cricricricricritic I was going to let it go at that, as Time did, but then I thought of a few more things to say.

Political Justice, by Otto Kirchheimer
by C. Magrath
Law & Politics Political Justice: The Use of Legal Procedure for Political Ends. by Otto Kirchheimer. Princeton University Press. 452 pp. $8.50. Beginning with the succinct observation that “Every political regime has its foes or in due time creates them,” Professor Otto Kirchheimer of Columbia University and the New School for Social Research has written a learned treatise on what he calls political justice—the manipulation of the modern state's legal machinery by power holders, and, conversely, by power challengers.

Judaism as a Philosophy: The Philosophy of Abraham Bar Hiyya, by Leon Stitskin
by Jerome Eckstein
A Jewish Aristotelian Judaism as a Philosophy: The Philosophy of Abraham Bar Hiyya. by Leon D. Stitskin. Block. 251 pp. $4.50. An interest and importance that it might otherwise not have had is given to this work by the “imprimatur” it bears of the Yeshiva University—the first time the school has chosen to extend such special approval to any publication.

Public Opinion and American Democracy, by V. O. Key Jr.
by Paul Kecskemeti
“Objectivity” and Value Public Opinion and American Democracy. by V. O. Key, Jr. Knopf. 566 pp. $7.50. How do political systems work? In trying to answer this question, the exponents of classic political theory, from Aristotle to Montesquieu, looked at the global, institutional features of political societies and developed hypotheses accounting both for the differences between systems and for the stability or decay within any given system.

Young Germany 1900-1960, by Walter Z. Laqueur
by George Mosse
The Splendid Failure Young Germany 1900—1960. by Walter Z. Laqueur. Routledge & Kegan Paul. (Basic Books in October, $6.00) The world's rotten bones tremble with fear of the Red War.

David Knudsen, by George P. Elliott
by Theodore Solotaroff
The Fallout of the Age David Knudsen. by George P. Elliott. Random House. 399 pp. $4.95. This is a luminous and important novel that deserves much better than the perfunctory or hostile reviews that it received when it was published six months ago and the virtual silence that has followed.

Reader Letters August 1962
by Our Readers
Jewish Resistance To THE EDIrTOR OF COMMENTARY: In his review of Raul Hilberg's book The Destruction of the European ews ["Nazi Bureaucrats and Jewish Leaders," April 1962], Professor H.

September, 1962Back to Top
Campaign in Northrup
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The reappearance of Evelyn N. Rossman in the pages of COMMENTARY [“A Fund-Raiser Comes to Northrup,” March] produced ambivalent feelings in this reader.

Advertising
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Miss America Pulverizes Professor Van Den Haag [“What to do About Advertising,” May]                     Say! I am wedded to each cliché And hate you for trying to take them away Pink glare is nicer than naked day; For my soap op'ry let ESSO pay (plus Mademoiselle and Holiday !)                      Natch! Whatever highbrow perfessers say, Singing commercials are quite okay; While “Offenbach's Toccata in A” To me is simply a bale of hay. Out of the air-waves kindly stay— We don't need YOUR type in the USA!                     Just go away! (I regret that Miss A.

The Cinema and Art
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Harris Dienstfrey's “The New American Cinema” [June] disturbed me. I've always regarded the articles appearing in COMMENTARY to be exceptionally well-written ones, by people who are very knowledgeable in their field.

Schorer and Lewis
by Our Readers
To the Editor: While reviewing Mark Schorer's book on Sinclair Lewis in COMMENTARY [“The New Sinclair Lewis,” May] Miss Ellen Moers quotes a sentence of mine: “Between Mark Schorer the cultivated literary man and Sinclair Lewis the writer of natural talent, there is a great distance.

Sacco-Vanzetti Continued
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Your January 1962 issue carried an article by James Grossman entitled “The Sacco-Vanzetti Case Reconsidered.” It is incomprehensible to me how a person of Mr.

The Paper Economy
by David Bazelon
In our October issue, Mr. Bazelon will examine the major American economic institutions and the people who run them, and in November he will conclude this series with an analysis of the social and political issues arising from the conflict between “paper” and production._____________ In time, immutable rules of conduct enforced under progressively changing conditions should logically result in a muddle.—Thorstein Veblen_____________ There are immense changes under way in our social economy, as everybody senses; but through this whole earthquake alteration of circumstance, our ideas about the structure of our society have hardly mellowed, much less developed in a rough tandem with events.

The Jewish Future in Algeria
by Jean Daniel
It has generally been assumed, both by the great majority of Algerian Jews themselves and their co-religionists in other countries, that there can be no safe future for the Jews in the new Algerian Republic.

What Happened in the 30's
by William Phillips
For the last two decades almost everyone has been trying to forget what happened in the 30's; now, suddenly, everyone is trying to remember.

Yentl the Yeshiva Boy A Story
by Isaac Singer
After her father's death, Yentl had no reason to remain in Yanev. She was all alone in the house. To be sure, lodgers were willing to move in and pay rent; and the marriage brokers flocked to her door with offers from Lublin, Tomashev, Zamosc.

School Prayers & the Founding Fathers
by Leonard Levy
What was the original intention of the First Amendment's injunction against laws “respecting an establishment of religion”? That question is being asked once again in the wake of the recent Supreme Court decision against the nonsectarian prayer prescribed by the New York State Board of Regents for daily recitation in the schools.

Franco's Spain & the New Europe
by Ray Alan
Headlines In the Spanish press reported cautiously on July 11: “Reorganization of the Spanish government; General Muñoz Grandes named vice-president.” Most Anglo-American papers, from the New York Times down, proclaimed: “Franco names successor.” More accurately, the Paris Monde put the word “successor” in quotes. Spaniards displayed little overt interest in the shuffle and were unimpressed by the revamped cabinet's policy statement—written, officials agreed, with an eye on the European Economic Community.

American Pragmatism Reconsidered: II. William James
by Henry Aiken
The present article, second in a series, will be followed by an analysis of the contributions of John Dewey to American pragmatic thought.

Yom Kippur in Nineveh
by Milton Himmelfarb
Reading the Torah is the heart of the synagogue service. That, even more than prayer, was what the synagogue was invented for, probably during the Babylonian Exile 2,500 years ago.

Six Crises, by Richard Nixon
by D. Brogan
The Problems of Richard Nixon1 This is a book of great if temporary interest, but also of permanent value. It tells us what we always want to know, some of the scuttlebutt about recent events and about some important recent events.

Jewish Wit, by Theodor Reik
by Marion Magid
Jewish Wit Psychoanalyzed Jewish Wit. by Theodor Reik. Gamut Press. 242 pp. $2.45. It would be ironic indeed if Jewish wit had outdistanced its persecutors for centuries, only to succumb in the end to the heavy hand of psychoanalysis.

The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (November 1961); and Daedalus (Winter 1962)
by Bennett Berger
The Youth Field The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, November 1961 (“Teen-Age Culture,” by Jessie Bernard). Daedalus, Winter 1962 (“Youth: Change and Challenge,” by Stephen Graubard). Business is booming in the study of youth.

The Reconstruction of American History, edited by John Higham
by Staughton Lynd
The New American Historians The Reconstruction of American History. by John Higham. Harper Torchbook. 244 pp. $1.60. This low-priced paperback conveniently introduces the general reader to the current shoptalk of American historians.

Letting Go, by Philip Roth
by Irving Feldman
A Sentimental Education Circa 1956 Letting Go. by Philip Roth. Random House. 630 pp. $5.95. Young men must grow up, must lose their illusions about themselves and their circumstances.

Reader Letters September 1962
by Our Readers
Sacco-Vanzetti Continued TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Your January 1962 issue carried an article by James Grossman entitled "The Sacco- Vanzetti Case Reconsidered." It is incom- prehensible to me how a person of Mr. Grossman's standing could ever over his sig- nature express so much that is illogical, un- realistic, and unfair in his conclusion that Sacco was guilty but that Vanzetti was in- nocent. The trial of Sacco and Vanzetti in Ded- ham, Massachusetts was a travesty of jus- tice.

October, 1962Back to Top
In the Community
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Milton Himmelfarb's “In the Community” [May] makes a needed observation in the item “Blessings.” . . . It has long puzzled me why secular Jewish organizations should be found bringing court actions to bar any kind of prayer or Bible reading in schools.

Rosenfeld and Reich
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to thank COMMENTARY for Theodore Solotaroff's poignant article, “Isaac Rosenfeld: The Human Use of Literature” [May].

From One Reader to Another
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In her letter [“Letters,” June 1962] attacking Harris Dienstfrey's review of Judgment at Nuremberg (or is she attacking Mr.

The Two Israels
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I picked up Dr. Weingrod's article on “The Two Israels” [April] expecting to find a thoughtful, penetrating analysis of the social and cultural difficulties facing the Jews of Israel as a result of the ingathering of the exiles.

A Point
by Our Readers
To the Editor: My comment refers to William Barrett's splendid article “The Twentieth Century in its Philosophy” [April]. Though I am not an idealist, my interest was aroused by the proposition the author quoted from F.

More on Northrup
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As the Rabbi of the Conservative temple in a community that bears a remarkable resemblance to Northrup. .

Some Intelligent People
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I appreciated Mr. Goodman's insights in “The Ineffectuality of Some Intelligent People” [June]. These people are potential allies of the bomb banners and Hiroshima protesting groups.

“Ship of Fools” & the Critics
by Theodore Solotaroff
Whatever the problems were that kept Katherine Anne Porter's Ship of Fools1 from appearing during the past twenty years, it has been leading a charmed life ever since it was published late last March.

Am I a Traitor?
by Albert Memmi
The mass exodus of Jews from Algeria in recent months has raised the crucial question as to whether there can ever again be any significant Jewish life in the new nationalist states of North Africa.

The Scarcity Makers
by David Bazelon
David T. Bazelon here continues his discussion, begun last month, of our “Paper Economy.” The series will conclude in November with an analysis of the political issues involved. America's massive and bountiful corporations are the institutional bedrock of the Paper Economy under which we live, yet their very existence was for many years neglected, if not denied, by conventional thinking.

Neo-Freudianism & Erich Fromm
by Edgar Friedenberg
Of all the psychoanalytic theorists who have tried to formulate a system better suited than Freud's to problems of contemporary life, none has been more productive or influential than Erich Fromm.

What the Russians Mean
by Robert Daniels
The prevailing image of the Soviet Union and its aims among American publicists and politicians is that of a single-minded international conspiracy, guided step by step by the writings of Marx and Lenin and determined to establish by force a world-wide revolutionary Communist dictatorship.

Three Generations—A Memoir
by Shlomo Bickel
Three generations: in each three brothers, one of them a rebel. In the first and third generation he was named Eliezer; in the second, he had missed that name by the space of a day.

American Pragmatism Reconsidered: III. John Dewey
by Henry Aiken
Henry David Aiken, professor of philosophy at Harvard, here completes his series on American pragmatism. The previous articles, on Charles Sanders Peirce and William James, appeared in our August and September issues, respectively.

The Public Happiness, by August Heckscher
by Richard Schickel
Soft Advice, Hard Problems The Public Happiness. by August Heckscher. Atheneum. 344 pp. $5.75. If everyone where as humane, sweet-tempered, rational, and liberal-minded as August Heckscher there would have been no need for him to write this book.

The Welensky Story, by Garry Allighan
by Roger Owen
Case for the White Rhodesian The Welensky Story. by Garry Allighan. Macdonald. 308 pp. 30 shillings. This new biography of Sir Roy Welensky was written “with every possible assistance” from its subject, the Prime Minister of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland.

Down There on a Visit, by Christopher Isherwood
by Harris Dienstfrey
Personal, Secret Journey Down There on a Visit. by Christopher Isherwood. Simon & Schuster. 318 pp. $4.75. Despite all that Christopher Isherwood achieves in his new novel—with its lucid, barely tense prose and its complex structure—Down There on a Visit is a curiously thin and, in a sense, even an unfinished book.

The Amateur Democrat, by James Q. Wilson
by Robert Lekachman
Political Parties & Ideology The Amateur Democrat. by James Q. Wilson. University of Chicago Press. 378 pp. $6.95. What should we expect of our political parties? Would an ideal Democratic party be simply an enlargement to national size of New York City's Village Independent Democrats or their reform neighbors farther uptown? Such a party would presumably combine the Manhattan reformer's fierce passion for internal party democracy, public discussion of candidates, and reform of political machines, with his equally intent sympathy for liberal social and economic programs.

Reader Letters October 1962
by Our Readers
Some Intelligent People To THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I appreciated Mr. Goodman's insights in "The Ineffectuality of Some Intelligent People" June]. These people are potential allies of the bomb banners and Hiroshima protesting groups....

Some Recent Jewish Books
by Milton Himmelfarb
Schocken Paperbacks In the past year or two paperback reprints of many first-rate books have been published. I shall list here some of Schocken Books' paperbacks, and in subsequent issues those of other publishers. _____________   The Essence of Judaism, by Leo Baeck (287 pp., $1.85). A classic by a towering figure of the Indian summer of German Jewry.

November, 1962Back to Top
The Two Cultures
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . Reviewing the critical literature on The Two Cultures, including Professor Trilling's, “Science, Literature & Culture” [June], I still think the central issue has not been met at all.

More on Goodman
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am surprised that a journal of COMMENTARY's standards should allow such a careless, irresponsible, and unchecked opening paragraph as Mr.

The Future of Yiddish
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Lucy S. Dawidowicz's article, “Yiddish: Past, Present & Perfect” [May] gave me great pleasure. Her analysis and understanding, but more than that, her love of the subject, of Yiddish and yiddishkayt, are reflected in every line.

The Gifted Student
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . Having diagnosed a fundamental malady, Professor Friedenberg [“The Gifted Student & His Enemies,” May] is guilty of the psycho-sociological animus which emaciates so much of our thinking and renders it facile.

China and the United States
by Oscar Gass
When you shall these unlucky deeds relate, . . . Nothing extenuate, Nor set down aught in malice. —Othello I. War and Revolution, 1941—49 Chiang Kai-shek and his Kuomintang regime were swept from the mainland of Asia in 1949 because of their failure in all that relates to the building of an army.

Jewish Resistance to the Nazis
by Oscar Handlin
Even after the extermination camps were liberated and the full extent of the Nazi murders began to emerge, the world at first refused to acknowledge that so many millions could have been systematically slaughtered.

The Politics of the Paper Economy
by David Bazelon
David T. Bazelon here completes his three-part series on our Paper Economy; parts I and II appeared in September and October respectively.

The Future of Jewish Giving
by Marshall Sklare
Jewish philanthropy—so high is its reputation—has come to serve as a model for scholars, professional workers, and civic leaders who are concerned with the methods and problems of charitable fund-raising.

Cuba-The Wake of Isolation
by Hans Morgenthau
On December 1, 1961, Mr. James Reston wrote in the New York Times that “obviously, the United States would not tolerate a Communist regime in Cuba, no matter how freely elected, if that regime allied itself to Moscow and exercised its sovereign rights to maintain a Soviet military base on that island.” Obviously, the United States is tolerating exactly that situation now, and the administration is certainly subject to the criticism of inconsistency.

Up in Massachusetts
by John Phillips
Edward M. (“Ted”) Kennedy is exactly thirty years old. He is a robust politician. A happy face at a street-corner rally, Teddy Kennedy climbs on top of his high truck-mounted platform, and with his searchlights cutting the night sky as at a Hollywood première, he sings “Sweet Adeline” for the people.

Pale Fire, by Vladimir Nabokov
by Alfred Chester
Nabokov's Anti-Novel Pale Fire. by Vladimir Nabokov. Putnam. 315 pp. $5.00. The novel is having a hard time. Never mind best seller lists, copy writers, and Sunday book review sections, only one or two works of fiction have been anything like wildly anticipated during the last few years: perhaps Franny and Zooey (which everyone had already read in the New Yorker), perhaps the final volumes of Durrell's Alexandria.

Portrait of a Jew, by Albert Memmi
by Dan Jacobson
Reflections on an Old Truth Portrait of a Jew. by Albert Memmi. Orion Press. 326 pp. $4.95. Portrait of a Jew deals with my life as a Jew.

Latin America Between the Eagle and the Bear, by Salvador de Madariaga
by Samuel Shapiro
The View from the Café Latin America Between the Eagle and the Bear. by Salvador De Madariaga. Praeger. 192 pp. $4.50. A fixture of every Latin American university is the near-by cafe where politically-minded students and professors gather to talk, organize factions, and settle the issues of the day.

Memoirs of a Special Case, by Chaim Raphael
by Julius Gould
A Moving Equilibrium Memoirs of a Special Case. by Chaim Raphael. Little, Brown. 207 pp. $4.00. There probably is a standard recipe for the contemporary Jewish memoir: one part diluted schmaltz, one part youthful rebellion, one part emancipated success; any topping can then be imposed—father-hatred, mother-fixation, anti-Semitism can all be recollected in tranquillity.

Contemporaries, by Alfred Kazin
by Lionel Abel
Alfred Kazin, Essayist Contemporaries. by Alfred Kazin. Little, Brown. 509 pp. $7.50. I must first of all take up an unwarranted and, I think, malicious attack on Alfred Kazin's new book of essays, Contemporaries.

Reader Letters November 1962
by Our Readers
The Gifted Student To THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: . . Having diagnosed a fundamental malady, Professor Friedenberg ["The Gifted Student & His Enemies," May] is guilty of the psycho-sociological animus which emaci- ates so much of our thinking and renders it facile.

December, 1962Back to Top
On Israeli Writers
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Robert Alter in his article [“Israeli Writers and Their Problems,” July] presents some interesting comments, but a consideration of more writers, particularly the “in between generation,” would have shed more light.

A Question of Poverty
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In . . . his review of Norman Mailer's Deaths for the Ladies [“Art, Life & Violence,” August], Dwight Macdonald refers to John K.

A Jew's Dilemma
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Loren Baritz faces his survival as an American Jew [“A Jew's American Dilemma,” June] with a sense of guilt for those who stayed in Europe to die.

Pigeon Feathers Fly
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Alfred Chester's review of John Updike's Pigeon Feathers and Other Stories [“Twitches and Embarrassments,” July] deserves praise as a particularly sharp piece of criticism, which articulated the misgivings I have always felt about Updike's work. On the other hand, it is old sport, and not really fair, to blame the New Yorker for the sad state of American letters.

Rabbinical Responsa
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Judah Sayer's observations on “Rabbinical Responsa in the USSR” [July] . . . omit the most pertinent recent example of living Jewish law under fire: the body of responsa which has come from the death camps of Nazi Europe.

Automated Feast
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Seligman's interesting article on automation [“Man, Work & the Automated Feast,” July] was marred by several paragraphs which tried to explain digital and analog computers.

The Television Problem
by Richard Schickel
No business institution in our history has ever found itself under such unrelenting and ferocious attack as television. Criticism of the industry, though centered in what is generally called the middle-brow community, nevertheless cuts across all social, economic, political, and intellectual divisions, forming a kind of unprecedented cultural popular front.

An Appointment with Hate
by Elie Wiesel
Seventeen years after I had left it—left, as we say, forever—I went back to Germany. I returned, last summer, not to exorcise a few aging, probably dated demons, but rather to make a kind of pilgrimage to the sources.

Europe, De Gaulle & the Deterrent
by Ronald Steel
The marriage of convenience that is the Atlantic alliance has been subject to much of the strain and discord common to unions where romance takes a back seat to logic.

Integration & the Negro Mood
by Harold Isaacs
American Negroes have been rediscovering Africa. In doing so, they are not regaining their identity as long-lost Africans but reshaping their identity as Americans.

A Note on Chivalry
by Meyer Liben
1. Introduction, With Jokes Jokes. Ha! Ha! I am amongst those willing to become a captive audience (or whatever the singular of the word “audience” is), if only the joke is funny (not unfunny) and it is told well, either in the elegant or the embroidered style.

Responses & Reactions
by Norman Mailer
Martin Buber's two-volume collection, Tales of the Hasidim,1 has probably had a greater impact on non-Jewish writers—whether theologically inclined or theologically indifferent—than any other Jewish book of recent times.

The Study of Man: On Talcott Parsons
by Bennett Berger
Talcott Parsons is, among other things, one of those sociologists who write very badly—I would be tempted to say barbarously if the word were not already so overworked with reference to sociologists.

Cuba & the Peace Movement
by Nathan Glazer
Shortly before the President's October 22 speech declaring a quarantine on shipment of arms to Cuba and demanding the removal of Soviet missiles from that country, the New York Times reported on a dozen or more candidates for Congress around the country who were running, to a greater or lesser extent, on a “peace” platform, and who were accordingly being supported by some of the groups that form what is generally called the “peace movement.” (The most prominent of these candidates—and the only one receiving national publicity—was H.

Moscow's Jews
by Chanan Ayalti
It was long after midnight when I returned to the hotel. The supervisor dozed behind her little table in the lobby of the 18th floor.

F. Scott Fitzgerald: Reveille at Taps
by Ellen Moers
The gold in F. Scott Fitzgerald lies in his short stories, and they should be mined. He wrote about one hundred and sixty of them, half of which have never been reprinted from the magazines in which they originally appeared.1 In the atmosphere of tender regret engendered by Andrew Turnbull's graceful biographical tribute, much satisfaction has been voiced over our own ability to worship Fitzgerald when our distant ancestors of the 1940's ignored him.

American Photographs, by Walker Evans
by George Elliott
Things of this World American Photographs. by Walker Evans. Museum of Modern Art (distributed by Doubleday). 195 pp. $7.50. This book, a reissue of the original edition of 1938, contains 87 photographs taken in the years 1929 to 1937.

The Arab World Today, by Morroe Berger
by Elie Kedourie
Habits of Despotism The Arab World Today. by Morroe Berger. Doubleday. 480 pp. $5.95. The ordinary reader today sees the Arabs most frequently as part of the underdeveloped world: poor, turbulent, given to coups d'état, and perpetually at odds with their Israeli neighbors.

Mental Health in the Metropolis, by Leo Srole et al.
by Edgar Friedenberg
Manhattan Madness Mental Health in the Metropolis, The Midtown Manhattan Study (Volume I). by Leo Srole, Thomas S. Langner, Stanley T. Michael, Marvin K.

Diamond, by Brian Glanville; and Sol Myers, by Judah Stampfer
by Jacob Sloan
Cultural Lag Diamond. by Brian Glanville. Farrar, Strauss & Cudahy. 441 pp. $5.50. Sol Myers. by Judah Stampfer. Macmillan. 215 pp. $3.50. These novels are lively and readable, though neither the British Diamond nor the American Sol Myers is unusual in tone or theme.

Rocking the Boat, by Gore Vidal; The Age of Happy Problems, by Herbert Gold; A Radical's America, by Harvey Swados
by F. Dupee
Pieces of the Hour Rocking the Boat. by Gore Vidal. Little, Brown. 300 pp. $5.75. The Age of Happy Problems. by Herbert Gold. Dial Press. 236 pp.

Reader Letters December 1962
by Our Readers
Automated Feast TO THE EDrrOR OF COMMENTARY: Mr. Seligman's interesting article on auto- mation ["Man, Work & the Automated Feast," July] was marred by several para- graphs which tried to explain digital and analog computers.




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