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January, 1964Back to Top
Who is a Jew?
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Marc Galanter criticizes the Brother Daniel decision [“A Dissent on Brother Daniel,” July], holding that an apostate is not a Jew under the Law of Return, because: (1) the Israeli Court looked to the “ordinary meaning” of the word Jew, whereas the word Jew is used in a variety of ways; and (2) the Court passes without mention the noble aspects of Judaism and defines the past exclusively in terms of suffering and persecution at the hands of the Catholic Church. [But] there is nothing unusual or arbitrary about judicial reliance on popular or current usage in defining terms.

The Deed Defended
by
To the Editor: An author rarely serves himself by commenting on an unfavorable review, but Werner J. Dannhauser's report on my book, The Deed [July '63], is so manifestly unfair and imbued with such surprising ill will, that I must ask an opportunity to reply.

New York's Irish
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I find Mr. Moynihan's article [“The Irish of New York,” Aug. '63] so contradictory as to be completely confusing, containing many statements with which one could take issue: he says, for example, .

Movies vs. Films
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In a single article, Manny Farber [“The Fading Movie Star,” July '63] . . . managed to list ten or twelve of the worst ham performers ever to appear on screen as his nostalgic favorites and to reject the same number of the best of our current actors.

Laborites and Reformers
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Lewis A. Coser's review of C.A.R. Crosland's The Conservative Enemy [Aug. '63] is somewhat severe in its criticism of the assessment of the national mood by the leaders of the British Labor party's right wing. As Mr.

Growing Old
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am writing to say that Anzia Yezierska's “A Thousand Pages of Research” [July '63], was very good and deeply moving and, as nothing else I have read, to the human point in describing our new breed of “longevites.” .

From the Couch . . .
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Dr. Wheelis's essay [“To Be A God,” Aug. '631 was tremendously moving . . . and brought into focus the seldom explored .

Ethnic Clichés
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . It seems that we repeat our ethnic clichés. Now, according to Nathan Glazer [“The Puerto Ricans,” July '63], it's the Puerto Rican who is gay and light-spirited though slumbound.

Depressed Area Aid
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . As an industrial sociologist long concerned about unemployment and economic development, and as the one in charge of the Area Redevelopment Administration's field operations in distressed areas, I want to thank you for publishing Dan Wakefield's article, “In Hazard” [Sept.

A Rabbi's Dilemma
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Perhaps Rabbi Weiner ought to make up his mind. One moment he is ashamed of being a Reform Rabbi, and the next he is aggressively proud of it [“A Mission to Israel,” August '63]; one moment he feels at home only in the small Hasidic shul and finds the Liberal service “sterile,” and the next moment he is advocating importation of mens' clubs and ladies' auxiliaries to Israel.

The Warren Commission: An Editorial
by N.P.
As this is being written in early December, the Warren commission, appointed by President Johnson to investigate the assassination of President Kennedy and to “satisfy itself that the truth is known as far as it can be discovered,” has just held its first meeting.

Five Years of Castro's Cuba
by Theodore Draper
On the fifth anniversary of Fidel Castro's regime, it is clearer than ever before that his crucial problem is and has been economic.

A Matter of Faith
by Dan Jacobson
I was having supper later than usual, that evening, on my own; my wife was upstairs, putting the children to bed.

P.S. 165
by Richard Schickel
P.S. 1651 is a New York City elementary school with classes ranging from kindergarten to the sixth grade. A five-story, gray stone building surmounted by a stubby Gothic tower in the late Victorian mode, it stands in the middle of the block between Broadway and Amsterdam Avenues on Manhattan's upper West Side.

Reflections on Trotsky
by George Lichtheim
Revolutions give rise to myths, and these myths then help to shape the course of later revolutions. In the 19th century, revolutionaries everywhere saw analogies to what had been happening in France between 1789 and 1799 (or, if they were Bonapartists, between 1789 and 1814).

Public Affairs: The Coming Test of American Democracy
by Hans Morgenthau
What is disquieting in our present condition is the contrast between the gravity of the two great domestic problems that require solutions—race relations and unemployment—and the complacency permeating the thoughts and actions of government and public alike. After dictating that sentence, I was informed of President Kennedy's assassination.

How Many Israels?
by Milton Himmelfarb
The Moroccan Vote When Disraeli spoke of England as two nations, the rich and the poor, he was not denounced for it.

Observations: A New Deal for the Arts
by Paul Goodman
The recent closing of the Living Theater in New York for default on rent and taxes reminds us strongly of the plight of such enterprises in our society.

Peretz Off-Broadway
by Irving Howe
In early November “The Theatre of Peretz,” a dramatization of nearly a dozen stories by the classical Yiddish writer, was presented at a small off-Broadway house.1 The production was obviously a labor of love and, one would guess, a defiance of the laws of economics.

Beyond the Melting Pot, by Nathan Glazer and Daniel P. Moynihan
by Daniel Bell
The Ethnic Group Beyond the Melting Pot. by Nathan Glazer and Daniel P. Moynihan. Joint Publication of M.I.T. and Harvard University Presses. 360 pp.

Poetry: A Closer Look, by James M. Reid, John Ciardi, and Laurence Perrine
by Irving Feldman
Learning Poems Poetry: A Closer Look. by James M. Reid, John Ciardi, and Laurence Perrine. Harcourt, Brace and World. 117 pp. $3.50. Last year one young candidate for Miss America, being quizzed by the emcee about her beliefs, spoke of the collaboration between man and the Holy Spirit in fostering a “superior product.” (She was using “product” in its contemporary sense: not something that has been produced but something that is to be sold.) Poetry: A Closer Look is such a “superior product.” It is a palpably physical thing, a sort of “kit” constituted by the variety of colors, thicknesses, textures, and layouts of which paper is capable—not unlike the paper fiddle-faddle (or “trip menu”) placed on the backs of bus seats to keep the passengers' hands busy and their minds empty.

The Conditions of Human Growth, by Jane Pearce and Saul Newton
by Edgar Friedenberg
Validation and Tenderness The Conditions of Human Growth. by Jane Pearce, M.D., and Saul Newton. Citadel Press. 444 pp. $6.95. The only American psychoanalyst to formulate a distinct theoretical system, Harry Stack Sullivan, died in 1949.

The Promised End, by Stanley Edgar Hyman
by Frank Kermode
Of M?ths and Myths The Promised End: Essays and Reviews, 1942-1962. by Stanley Edgar Hyman. World. 380 pp. $6.50. Mr. Hyman is an efficient and indefatigable expositor—a man resembling in some ways the Babel character he discusses, who, turning to natural knowledge, assimilated it with the same fury he used on the Talmud.

Reader Letters January 1964
by Our Readers
Ethnic Cliches TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: . . .It seems that we repeat our ethnic cliches. Now, according to Nathan Glazer ["The Puerto Ric- ans," July '63], it's the Puerto Rican who is gay and light-spirited though slumbound ....

February, 1964Back to Top
Visions of History
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am filled with admiration for Rabbi Arthur Hertzberg's deft assault on my book Jews, God and History (“Writing Jewish History,” September '63) without even reviewing its contents.

Symposium
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Congratulations on your symposium “America and the World Revolution” [October '63]! The discussion is the most penetrating and illuminating consideration of the problem I have read.

Praise
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Allow me to praise the interview with Isaac Bashevis Singer by Joel Blocker and Richard Elman [November 1963].

In Hazard
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Dan Wakefield's piece on Hazard, Kentucky [“In Hazard” September '63], suffers from a familiar journalistic problem: plenty of color and not much depth.

Buber's Hasidism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Those who have read my essay criticizing Martin Buber's presentation and interpretation of Hasidism [“Martin Buber's Hasidism,” October 1961] will be able to judge for themselves to what extent his article [“Interpreting Hasidism,” September, 1963] constitutes an answer to the considerations I advanced.

Bruce's Comedy
by
To the Editor: Regarding Albert Goldman's far-fetched notions about Lenny Bruce [“The Comedy of Lenny Bruce,” October '63] : . .

Arendt on Eichmann
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Norman Podhoretz is to be congratulated for having written the first critique of Hannah Arendt's book on Eichmann worthy of any serious attention [“Hannah Arendt on Eichmann,” September 1963].

Pius XII, the Jews, and the German Catholic Church
by Guenter Lewy
This month, the New York production of Rolf Hochhuth's play Der Stellvertreter is scheduled to open under the title The Deputy.

The Meaning of Negro Strategy
by David Danzig
In May of 1963, the world was abruptly made aware that a new minority community had emerged as a significant and self-conscious force in American society.

The New Statesman & the English Left
by John Mander
The New Statesman recently marked its fiftieth birthday, and here in London the happy event has been duly and decorously celebrated.

Soviet Economic Developments
by Oscar Gass
This is the second in a series of three articles by Oscar Gass dealing with the changes that have taken place in the Soviet Union under the rule of Nikita Khrushchev and the further transformations that may reasonably be anticipated in the coming years.

New York Politics & the Liberal Party
by Bernard Rosenberg
Ever since 1944, when the Liberal party, but recently a minority within another minority party, delivered 330,000 votes for Franklin D.

Remembering Jewish History
by Alfred Kazin
Although Jews are always much concerned with “history”—in the sense that traditionally they expect much of it—very few Jews, in my experience, know very much about their own history even in modern times.

Free Will (Again)
by Henry Aiken
For a decade and more, the most active school of philosophy in English-speaking universities has been the “linguistic philosophy” that stems from the later writing and teaching of Ludwig Wittgenstein.

The Presidential Papers, by Norman Mailer
by Midge Decter
Mailer's Campaign The Presidential Papers. by Norman Mailer. Putnam. 302 pp. $5.00. Norman Mailer's Presidential Papers is a collection of much of his occasional writing of the last few years.

Invisible Latin America, by Samuel Shapiro
by Keith Botsford
Rising Expectations Invisible Latin America. by Samuel Shapiro. Beacon. 180 pp. $3.95. I see a grim period ahead, in which all good Americans, God save us, are going to have to worry about Latin America as we were once taught to worry about the starving children of China.

The State of the Unions, by Paul Jacobs
by Lewis Coser
A Hard Look at Labor The State of the Unions. by Paul Jacobs. Atheneum. 303 pp. $5.00. Paul Jacobs is one of the handful of labor reporters who write with a sense of intimate knowledge.

The Scientific Intellectual, by Lewis S. Feuer
by John Maddox
Such were the Joys The Scientific Intellectual. by Lewis S. Feuer. Basic Books. 441 pp. $10.00. For decades now, but especially since the first Sputniks went into orbit, the slogan, “Science Can Be Fun” has been used by teachers and others of missionary bent to attract the interest of indifferent children and even to persuade fully grown adults that they should keep up on such matters as the Expanding Universe or the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

The Trial of Charles de Gaulle, by Alfred Fabre-Luce; and A Modern French Republic, by Pierre Mendes-France
by J. Weightman
De Gaulle and After The Trial of Charles de Gaulle. by Alfred Fabre-Luce. Translated by Antonia White. Praeger. 270 pp. $4.95. A Modern French Republic. by Pierre Mendès-France. Translated by Anne Carter.

Challenge to Affluence, by Gunnar Myrdal
by Ben Seligman
The Underclass Challenge to Affluence. by Gunnar Myrdal. Pantheon. 172 pages. $3.95. Before I start to talk about this wonderful little book—wonderful because it speaks bluntly of fundamental issues—I want to get some things off my chest.

Time of Arrival and Other Essays, by Dan Jacobson
by George Elliott
The Sense of Fact Time of Arrival and Other Essays. by Dan Jacobson. Macmillan. 198 pp. $3.95. Toward the end of “After Notting Hill,” one of the essays in this collection, Dan Jacobson makes the observation quoted below.

Reader Letters February 1964
by Our Readers
Arendt on Eichmann TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Norman Podhoretz is to be con- gratulated for having written the first critique of Hannah Arendt's book on Eichmann worthy of any serious attention ["Hannah Arendt on Eichmann," September 1963]. It is disturbing to have to add that he drives his case so far that it ends in absurdity.

Two Stories
by Isaac Babel
Froim Grach In 1919 Benya Krik's men ambushed the rear guard of the White Army, killed all the officers, and captured some of the supplies.

March, 1964Back to Top
Be Fruitful and Multiply
by
To the Editor: Milton Himmelfarb's “The Vanishing Jews” [September '631], indicates that American Jewry is not doing as well as we would like to believe.

New Left Reviewed
by
New Left Reviewed To the Editor: I'm tempted by Jonathan Miller's attack on the English New Left—which dominates his dismissal of Bernard Kops's admittedly distasteful autobiography, The World Is a Wedding [Nov.

U.S. Forgein Policy
by
To the Editor: In his article “The Impotence of American Power” [November' 63] Hans J. Morgenthau does his usual splendid job of pointing out how foolishly we are behaving.

Race and Class
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Reading Leslie A. Fiedler's article “Race—The Dream and the Nightmare” [October 1963], I found myself reacting as I did to James Baldwin's celebrated New Yorker piece.

Explaining Deviance
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In concluding his otherwise favorable review of Howard S. Becker's Outsiders [November' 63], Harris Dienstfrey finds the author's analysis of deviants inadequate because it avoids “any investigation of the reasons they come to behave as they do.” It seems to me that in imputing to Becker the assumption that deviance “needs no causal explanation,” Mr.

Germany's Jews Today
by Our Readers
To the Editor: A reviewer is entitled to his opinions, tastes, and possibly prejudices, but surely he has no right to misrepresent the contents of the book under review; to alter its meaning by misquoting; to denounce the author for opinions and conclusions which are not to be found there (nor in his other writings) .

Liberalism & the Negro: A Round-Table Discussion
by Nathan Glazer
This is the third round-table discussion COMMENTARY has held in recent years on vital questions of the day. Like the first (“Western Values and Total War,” October 1961) and the second (“America and the World Revolution,” October 1963), the present discussion was wholly spontaneous, lasted for three hours, and took place before an invited audience which was given an opportunity to participate during the last hour.

A Wedding in Brownsville
by Isaac Singer
The wedding had been a burden to Dr. Solomon Margolin from the very beginning. True, it was to take place on a Sunday, but Gretl had been right when she said that was the only evening in the week they could spend together.

Maurice Samuel & Jewish Letters
by Robert Alter
FOR MORE than three decades, Maurice Samuel has been a kind of one-man educational movement in American Jewish life. Anyone with even a passing interest in the East European Jewish milieu, Yiddish and Hebrew literature, Zionism, the future of American Jewry, the nature of anti-Semitism, the role of Judaism in the West, is likely to have read at least one of Samuel's books.

The Oswald Affair
by Leo Sauvage
On the day after the murder of President Kennedy, a New York lawyer, commenting on the case against Lee Harvey Oswald as it had been revealed up to that point, was quoted in the Journal American as saying that “The District Attorney has a suspect, but not much more.” As a Frenchman, I thought it a strange coincidence that this lawyer's name should have been Emile Zola Berman.

Peace in Our Time?
by Hans Morgenthau
That the cold war should come to an end is indeed a rational wish shared by the overwhelming majority of people on both sides of the Iron Curtain.

Auteur! Auteur!
by Marion Magid
Observations Auteur! Auteur! by Marion Magid Some months ago at the Donnell Branch of the New York Public Library, a symposium was held on the art of film criticism.

Once Upon a Droshky, by Jerome Charyn; and Seven Days of Mourning, by L. S. Simckes
by Theodore Solotaroff
Jewish Camp Once Upon a Droshky. by Jerome Charyn. McGraw-Hill. 222 pp. $4.95. Seven Days of Mourning. by L. S. Simckes. Random House. 113 pp. $3.95. A few years ago, I belonged to an informal circle at the University of Chicago.

Law, Liberty, and Psychiatry, by Thomas S. Szasz
by George Elliott
The Free Criminal Law, Liberty, and Psychiatry. by Thomas S. Szasz. Macmillan. 281 pp. $7.50. The subject of this book is the unfortunate marriage of law and psychiatry in the United States.

The Press and Foreign Policy, by Bernard C. Cohen; and National Leadership and Foreign Policy, by James N. Rosenau
by Ronald Steel
Foreign Interests The Press and Foreign Policy by Bernard C. Cohen. Princeton University Press. 279 pp. $6.00. National Leadership and Foreign Policy by James N.

The Religious Press in America, by Martin E. Marty & Others
by Warren Coffey
Faith and the Issues The Religous Press in America. by Martin E. Marty, John G. Deedy, Jr., David W. Silverman, and Robert Lekachman. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

The Education of American Teachers, by James Bryant Conant
by R. Baker
From Ed. to Education The Education of American Teachers. by James Bryant Conant. McGraw-Hill. 275 pp. $5.00. It is mainly through the guidance of James Bryant Conant that middle America has been coming to terms with current educational predicaments.

Reader Letters March 1964
by Our Readers
Germany's Jews Today TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: A reviewer is entitled to his opinions, tastes, and possibly prej- udices, but surely he has no right to misrepresent the contents of the book under review; to alter its meaning by misquoting; to de- nounce the author for opinions and conclusions which are not to be found there (nor in his other writ- ings) ....

April, 1964Back to Top
Peretz Performed
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I should begin by pointing out that I translated two of the pieces for Isaiah Sheffer's production, “The Theatre of Peretz,” which Irving Howe so thoroughly roasts [“Peretz Off-Broadway,” January], and that therefore the remarks which follow are made from an utterly partisan point of view.

Race & Economics
by Our Readers
To the Editors: I have just read Hans J. Morgenthau's terrifyingly frank, brilliant piece [“The Coming Test of American Democracy,” January].

Praise
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Robert Hellman's “Death in America” [November '63] is by all odds the best story you have published in several years.

Teaching Anti-Communism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am very grateful for publication of Alan F. Westin's “Anti-Communism and the Corporations” [December 1963]. It gives this reader a lot of information that he is very glad to have. I don't know any way in which, with due regard for free speech and so forth, we can deal through legislation with the use of Birch Society-type “in-plant” and “out-of-plant” programs supported by corporations. I do believe that there is a legitimate objective teaching of facts about Communism, but I do not believe it can be done fairly, even if facts are pretty objectively stated by corporations which insist on identifying democracy and individual liberty with capitalism, miscalled free enterprise.

Schools or Prisons?
by Our Readers
To the Editor: When I came upon the article, “The Modern High School: A Profile” by Edgar Z. Friedenberg [November 1963], I visualized perhaps a discussion of how the present-day high school is trying to serve the needs of all kinds of students, or .

The Faith Defended
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Philip Roth's answer to his critics [“Writing About Jews,” December '63] is a long overdue assessment of Jewish bourgeois gentility in American life.

The Revolt Against Ideology
by Henry Aiken
Can it any longer be doubted that, on all sides of the Iron Curtain, the age of Leviathan is upon us? And for serious men does there remain any significant form of activity that is politically indifferent? We still profess loyalty to the ideal of “free inquiry,” but the fact is that, directly or indirectly, governments supply the major resources, and politics most of the incentives, for our scientific research.

These Are the Times: On Being A Southern Liberal
by Ronnie Dugger
I've been an integrationist (if you want a label) as long as I have had social ideas, but in Texas in the 40's and 50's I was not called on to practice my ideas much, you understand.

Intermarriage & the Jewish Future
by Marshall Sklare
American Jews have always had a reputation for resisting intermarriage, and they still serve as a model in this respect for other ethnic and religious groups who worry about their future in a pluralist society.

Stirrings in West Germany
by Norman Birnbaum
IT IS EASY enough to find something plau- sible to say about Western Germany; what is hard is to say something convincing.

Isaac Bound
by Medad Schiff
You will die. This is as sure to happen as tomorrow's sunset. In less than so many years (or so many minutes) you will neither see nor hear nor touch nor taste nor smell nor think nor desire, nor will there be any possibility of your regaining consciousness, for decomposition will have set in, that is to say you will stink more and more pungently until the survivors dispose of your carcass, if there be any (with modern technique there is no telling, but you do stand a good chance of effusing a horrible smell when you are no longer able to participate in the sensation). You may retort that the same applies to me.

Looking for Genet
by Alfred Chester
Jean Genet wrote Our Lady of the Flowers1 in the middle of World War II, and just about the time when Hitler was at his most triumphant.

Letter from Formosa
by Peter Schmid
There are encounters in which a fleeting gesture, a smile, or a momentary blankness of expression can suddenly assume for the observer a symbolic intensity which is far more revealing than the occasion seems to justify.

The Tradition of McClure
by Ellen Moers
The mass magazine has a bad name in this country, as a vulgarizing and corrupting influence on American letters. It goes against all our current prejudices to admire any medium dedicated to reaching a large, undistinguished (read: poor and uneducated) public.

The Meaning of Jewish History, by Jacob Bernard Agus
by David Daiches
Dialectical Judaism1 by David Daiches The hebrew patriarchs discovered the one true God by their own disinterested virtue and thus founded a rudimentary Jewish religion; Moses, in leading the Israelites out of Egyptian slavery, led them to the Sinaitic revelation (the central fact in Jewish history) and the association of monotheism with ethical norms and a precise legal and ritual code; the Hebrew Prophets emphasized the ethical and universalistic aspects of that code and in so doing revealed the true potential of the Jewish religion; the breakdown of the Jewish state, the return from Babylon, and the subsequent codification of Jewish records by Ezra were further stages in the emergence of Judaism as a religion in the modern definition of the word; the fight of the Maccabees against Hellenistic assimilation was a glorious moment in Jewish history and presented a worthy model for later Jewish nationalist and Zionist movements; the destruction of the Temple and the final ending of the Jewish state made it necessary for the Jewish people to preserve themselves in dispersion among the nations with the invaluable help of the elaborate codification and expansion of Biblical law found in the Talmud; Christianity, originally a Jewish heresy, in maintaining the absurd belief in the divinity of Jesus and the doctrine of the Trinity, was inevitably led to malign and persecute the good, pious, scholarly Jews of the Middle Ages; with the 18th-century Enlightenment came release of the Jews from the ghetto and from many of the medieval restrictions and torments, which was a Good Thing and resulted in modern Jews being able to lead full lives as equal and respected members of the Gentile society in which they found themselves, while at the same time keeping themselves separate and different by practicing all the rituals laid down for Jews and associating with Gentiles in only a limited degree; nevertheless, anti-Semitism is endemic in the Christian world and may always crop up again, so that we need Zionism as a protection, and we praise Theodor Herzl for having demonstrated that if Jews can settle as a nation in their ancient homeland they will then be respected like all other nations; at the same time a great new revival of the Jewish spirit will go forth out of Zion which will give new strength and religious illumination to those Jews who will (inevitably) remain in an increasingly enlighted Diaspora. That was the version of Jewish history that I learned as a child, pretty much the standard version prevailing among moderately Orthodox Jews of the West in the early years of this century.

Utopia & Its Enemies, by George Kateb
by Dennis Wrong
Re-Imagining Society Utopia and its Enemies. by George Kateb. Free Press. 244 pp. $5.50. Although world-wide change is wiping the slate clean for us, we seem paralyzed and incapable of imagining an attractive future.

The Will, by Harvey Swados
by Irving Howe
The Real World The Will. by Harvey Swados. World. 343 pp. $4.95. No one, reading Harvey Swados's latest novel, is likely to cry out, “Wild, man!” Sick wisdom, strange-loving burlesque, comic nihilism, hellerish fantasy, high-spirited nausea, so'thern jokes, olde-Yiddish vaudeville—these elements of recent fiction, taken in some quarters to be the last word in literary rebellion, are not to be found in The Will.

One-Dimensional Man, by Herbert Marcuse
by Edgar Friedenberg
Unitruth One-Dimensional Man. by Herbert Marcuse. Beacon. 260 pp. $6.00. Professor Marcuse's new work is a considerable contribution to our already extensive literature on the alienation of Western man.

Memoirs of a Revolutionary: 1901-1941, by Victor Serge
by Hilton Kramer
Conscience & Revolution Memoirs of a Revolutionary: 1901-1941. by Victor Serge. Translated and edited, with an Introduction, by Peter Sedgwick. Oxford University Press.

Reader Letters April 1964
by Our Readers
The Faith Defended TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Philip Roth's answer to his crit- ics ["Writing About Jews," Decem- ber '63] is a long overdue assess- ment of Jewish bourgeois gentility in American life.

May, 1964Back to Top
Trotsky
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his profound “Reflections on Trotsky” [January], George Lichtheim accepts Isaac Deutscher's idea that Bruno Rizzi's La bureaucratisation du monde (1939) contained the first hint of what is now called the “managerial revolution.” He thus gives credence to the Trotskyist legend about Rizzi's having sired an idea which in reality goes back to Michael Bakunin.

Ethnic Distinctions
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Glazer and Moynihan's Beyond the Melting Pot deserves a better fate than Daniel Bell's combination of sporadic praise and extended asides about “what's new in sociological research” [January].

The Warren Commission
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It is understandable that persons from foreign lands might consider the Kennedy assassination a “treasonous political conspiracy,” but it is indeed surprising that an American editor should entertain this thought.

Religion in Israel
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Milton Himmelfarb's comments on my Ammot article, “Political and Social Attitudes in Israel” have just reached me [“How Many Israels?,” January].

Of Banality and Romanticism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Irving Howe's reply [“Letters from Readers,” February] to criticism of his “Hannah Arendt and the New Yorker” is in itself as apt a commentary on Mr.

Public vs. Private School
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Richard Schickel's warm and sympathetic report [“P.S. 165,” January] struck a familiar note, since I taught, in the 40's, under remarkably similar circumstances at P.S.

Cuba's Economy
by
To the Editor: An article titled “Five Years of Castro's Cuba” [Theodore Draper, January] promises at least passing mention of the Revolution's achievements in the fields of health, education, housing, social services, culture, and recreation.

Vietnam-Resistance or Withdrawal?
by Oscar Gass
To resist or to withdraw: these are the alternatives. And they are alternatives which can be variously structured. Then they will commend themselves variously to informed, reasonable, fallible men. Neutralization, unification, independence: these are, I believe, in reference to Vietnam today, false slogans.

Jewish Writing in England
by Dan Jacobson
Not very long ago I was invited to appear on a Brains Trust at a Jewish function in London. One of the questions put to the members of the panel was: “When do we know, as readers, that a work is ‘Jewish’?” I offered what seemed to me a very simple rule-of-thumb answer; I said that if we were reading a work about Jews by a Jewish writer, then we could pretty safely assume that the work was Jewish.

Up from Apathy-The Woodlawn Experiment
by Charles Silberman
In recent years a growing number of liberals—reflecting the wistful American notion that with enough money any problem can be solved—have been pushing for a federal “crash program” to remove the disabilities and deprivations that bar Negroes from full participation in American society.

The Illusionless Man & the Visionary Maid
by Allen Wheelis
Once upon a time there was a man who had no illusions about anything. While still in the crib he had learned that his mother was not always kind; at two he had given up fairies; witches and hobgoblins disappeared from his world at three; at four he knew that rabbits at Easter lay no eggs; and at five on a cold night in December, with a bitter little smile, he said goodbye to Santa Claus.

Senator Fulbright's New Foreign Policy
by Hans Morgenthau
Senator William Fulbright of Arkansas is among the ablest and most responsible members of the Senate. His is one of an impressively large group of eminent Senators whose individual, excellence has been overshadowed by the dismal spectacle which, due to antiquated procedures and its domination by an anti-democratic minority, the Senate as a collective deliberating body generally presents to the world.

Catacombs & Khazars
by Milton Himmelfarb
Blessed Is the Man Cyprus is in the news and His Beatitude Makarios III is in the news pictures, with his archiepiscopal vestments and beard, and yet the one thing that people do not seem to talk about when they talk about him is that he is an archbishop.

The Strangely Polite
by Midge Decter
The most memorable comic elements in Stanley Kubrick's brilliant and impudent new movie, Dr. Strangelove, Or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb, are an assortment of visual gags: two airplanes copulating in mid-air in accompaniment to the screen credits; an infantry battle raging in the focus of a KEEP OFF THE GRASS sign; two hydrogen bombs mottoed “Hi There” and “Dear John”; Peter Sellers in a vaudeville-style battle with a right arm uncontrollably intent on raising itself in a Nazi salute; Slim Pickens flying through the air waving his ten-gallon hat astraddle a bomb; and several others.

The Nerve of Gunter Grass
by George Steiner
Günter Grass is an industry: 300,000 copies of The Tin Drum sold in Germany; more than 60,000 in France; the American edition passed 90,000 in hardcover, well over 100,000 in paperback.

Jefferson and Civil Liberties, by Leonard W. Levy
by Eric McKitrick
The First Democrat Jefferson and Civil Liberties: The Darker Side. by Leonard W. Levy. Belknap, Harvard. 225 pp. $4.50. A recent skirmish in the New York Review, featuring hard words and hard feelings, is good evidence that Mr.

Jacob Epstein, Sculptor, by Richard Buckle
by Hilton Kramer
The Higher Conformity Jacob Epstein, Sculptor. by Richard Buckle. World. 488 pp. $25.00. Nothing serves a gifted, ambitious artist working within the received conventions of his time quite so well as a reputation for being scandalous and “advanced.” The reputation brings in the intelligentsia, and the conventional quality of the work brings in the money.

Mark the Glove Boy, by Mark Harris
by Jules Feiffer
Nixon and the Fat Lady Mark the Glove Boy. by Mark Harris. Macmillan. 147 pp. $3.95. Mine would be the “lead” article in the California Issue.

Peace Agitator, by Nat Hentoff
by Harris Dienstfrey
The Radicalism of A. J. Muste Peace Agitator. by Nat Hentoff. Macmillan. 269 pp. $5.95. A. J. Muste—Abraham Johannes—the well-known pacifist, has been an active American radical for over fifty years.

Du Ghetto a L'Occident [
by S. Temkin
France's Lower East Side Du Ghetto A L'occident [“From the Ghetto to the West”]. by Charlotte Roland. Editions de Minuit (Paris). 292 pp.

Reflections on Modern History, by Hans Kohn
by Werner Dannhauser
The Brink of Moderation Reflections on Modern History. by Hans Kohn. Van Nostrand. 360 pp. $8.75. The title of this book is promising. Modern history, that nightmare from which we are trying to awaken, certainly calls for reflection.

Reader Letters May 1964
by Our Readers
Cuba's Economy TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: An article titled "Five Years of Castro's Cuba" [Theodore Draper, January] promises at least passing mention of the Revolution's achieve- ments in the fields of health, educa- tion, housing, social services, cul- ture, and recreation.

June, 1964Back to Top
Cuban Scoop
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am immodest enough to reclaim my own brainchild. Reviewing Samuel Shapiro's Invisible Latin America [February], Keith Botsford mentioned, in passing, “Theodore Draper's thesis on the middle-class origin of the Cuban Revolution.

Poverty and Affluence
by
To the Editor: Ben B. Seligman's review of Gunnar Myrdal's Challenge to Affluence [February] points out that there is now general agreement that the economy is performing badly but that attempts to analyze the fundamental causes and to propose solutions are greeted with “a gravelly grunt disguised as semi-scholarly criticism.” Unfortunately, neither “liberals” nor “conservatives” seem prepared to come to grips with the implications of the emerging cybernated era in which machine power and machine skill will be combined in an abundance productive system with effectively unlimited capacity.

A Dissent
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his response to Alan F. Wes-tin's article “Anti-Communism & the Corporations” [“Letters from Readers,” April], Arthur McDowell cites the Socialist activities of his youth, and his current connection with Dr.

Pius XII and the Jews
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have read Guenter Lewy's informative article, “Pius XII, The Jews, and the German Catholic Church” [February] with the greatest interest.

The Cold War in Perspective
by George Lichtheim
In August of this year it will be half a century since European civilization went over the brink. All anniversaries have something arbitrary about them, but so long as we don't take them too seriously and avoid playing with sacred numbers, it is permissible to use them as mental signposts.

New Light on the Dead Sea Scrolls
by Cecil Roth
Until a very short while ago, the origin of the Dead Sea Scrolls seemed destined to remain one of the insoluble mysteries of history—at least so far as a small minority of skeptics was concerned, for majority opinion aligned itself very early and never saw any reason why its comfortable conclusions should be disturbed.

Schools, Slums, and Montessori
by Martin Mayer
The scandal of modern education for slum children has lately become a matter of national discussion and worry. Since the Second World War, the gap has steadily widened between the educational accomplishments of middle-class children and of working-class children (particularly of Negro working-class children).

Boris
by Deirdre Levinson
Before you land at the Johannesburg airport, you write out a brief confession on the questionnaire provided, making, besides a simple admission of guilt incident to their sumptuary laws, a clean breast of your origins.

Automation and the State
by Ben Seligman
In 1944, MARK I—an electromechanical digital computer with over 760,000 parts and 500 miles of wire—was completed. It was a rather slow machine: addition or subtraction took one-third of a second and computing a logarithm to twenty decimal places took an unconscionable one-and-one-half seconds (as compared with today's speed of several millionths of a second).

On the Eclipse of God
by Emil Fackenheim
In one of his writings Martin Heidegger quotes with approval, as applying to the present, these words of the early 19th-century German poet Hoelderlin: “Alas, our generation walks in night, dwells as in Hades, without the Divine.” When Hoelderlin wrote those words, there cannot have been many people who agreed with him, for it was an age which thought of itself as about to reach the very summit of religious enlightenment.

Irving Howe-The Socialist Imagination
by Theodore Solotaroff
Over the past decade or so there have seemed to be two Irving Howes. One, of course, is the literary scholar and journalist: the author of the fine critical biography of Sherwood Anderson, the intricate interpretation of Faulkner, the erudite and mostly objective book on Politics and the Novel.

Letter from Peru
by Norman Gall
The peasantry itself . . . cannot function independently in the political arena. It is deeply cleft into layers with sharply conflicting economic interests.

The Mythmakers, by Bernard Nossiter
by Robert Lekachman
Liberalism & The Economy The Mythmakers. by Bernard Nossiter. Houghton Mifflin. 244 pages. $4.00. Bernard Nossiter's fine book exemplifies both the virtues and the limitation of the new mood of liberal economic thought.

The Rise of Reform Judaism, by W. Gunther Plaut
by Marvin Fox
Assimilating the Law The Rise of Reform Judaism: A Sourcebook Of Its European Origins. by W. Gunther Plaut. World Union for Progressive Judaism, Ltd.

Sprightly Running, by John Wain
by Angus Wilson
Merrie England Sprightly Running. by John Wain. St. Martin's Press. 265 pp. $5.00. When I read this slice of Mr. Wain's autobiography in England a while ago, I was overwhelmed by the quite unexpected way in which my own experience and outlook coincided with his.

The Americans, by Oscar Handlin; and The First New Nation, by Seymour Martin Lipset
by Staughton Lynd
The American Way The Americans: A New History of the People of the United States. by Oscar Handlin. Little, Brown. 434 pp. $6.95. The First New Nation: the United States in Historical and Comparative Perspective. by Seymour Martin Lipset. Basic Books.

The Three Christs of Ypsilanti, by Milton Rokeach
by George Elliott
Delusions The Three Christs of Ypsilanti: A Narrative Study of Three Lost Men. by Milton Rokeach. Knopf. 336 pp. $5.95. The book opens with a promising epigraph.

Reader Letters June 1964
by Our Readers
Pius Xll & the Jews To THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I have read Guenter Lewy's in- formative article, "Pius XII, The Jews, and the German Catholic Church" [February] with the greatest interest.

July, 1964Back to Top
Lee Harvey Oswald
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Léo Sauvage's article “The Oswald Affair” (March) is the type of journalism one sees far too infrequently in the press and on television, and no wonder: such searching questions and such curiosity have been steadily losing a place of honor in this country for years.

The Cold War
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . Hans J. Morgenthau asserts that the present Sino-Soviet conflict and the consequent weakening of Soviet control over its allies imply that the Soviets are now in a relatively weak bargaining position, and he advises the West to exploit this situation in order to obtain Soviet concessions [“Peace In Our Time?” March].

Factories or Temples?
by
To the Editor: R. S. Baker concludes his review of Dr. Conant's latest book, The Education of American Teachers [March] with a pitch too fat to pass by.

Utopians and Economists
by Our Readers
To the Editor: An economic analysis by Oscar Gass is always instructive, and delightful to read. But let me urge him to restrain his continual impulse to take (unnecessary) passing shots at Utopians and anarchists, whom he does not understand.

Jewish Alienation
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to express my appreciation of Robert Alter's essay on me [“Maurice Samuel & Jewish Letters,” March].

Liberals and Others
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Of the several inaccuracies in “New York Politics and the Liberal Party” by Bernard Rosenberg [February], the following warrant correction: The implication that the Liberal party took no stand on the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom last August until the President did so is unfounded and actually contrary to fact.

New Statesmanship
by Our Readers
To the Editor: John Mander does not quite do justice to Kingsley Martin's position on British foreign policy in the 30's.

Negro Strategy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It is unfortunate that David Danzig's otherwise thought-provoking article [“The Meaning of Negro Strategy,” February] was marred, especially in its closing passages, by a totally erroneous picture of the policies and performance of the AFL-CIO. While Mr.

The Dering Case: A Surgeon at Auschwitz
by Mary Ellmann
From April 13 until May 6 of this year, the London newspapers reported what must be the strangest libel case ever brought to court, even in a city more inured to libel proceedings than most—Dering v.

Man with a Hoe, 1964
by Paul Jacobs
The park on the border of the Skid Row area in this California farm town is filled with men (and one or two women) sprawled out on the grass or sitting under the few trees.

Napoleon Street
by Saul Bellow
Dear Nachman, he wrote. I know it was you I saw on 8th St. last Monday. Running away from me.

Christian Schools & Israeli Children
by Herbert Weiner
Before arriving in Israel last January I was aware that there had been a resurgence of controversy over alleged efforts by Christian missionaries to convert Jewish children, but I did not attribute much significance to it.

Listening to Pedro Martinez
by Keith Botsford
Since the Industrial Revolution, the belief has developed that a “true” history should reflect a multitude of voices: kings, cardinals, and philosophers no longer suffice when everyone makes history.

On Being a Music Critic
by B. Haggin
As I recall my beginning as a music critic, I read, then I heard, or I heard and then read; in either case I found that what I heard was not described correctly by what I read; and at some point I began to express my disagreement in writing.

Hutchins of Chicago
by Robert Nisbet
Though the public still hears from Robert M. Hutchins as head of the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions and perennial critic of the higher vocationalism of our colleges and universities, he is perhaps best known for his years at the helm of the University of Chicago.

Two Scenes of English Life
by Clancy Sigal
I had spent the day at the Old Bailey. Trevor, nineteen, was up on a charge of affray, of kicking a policeman in the head during a jazz riot in a local fair-ground.

Chagall-An Innocent in Paris
by Hilton Kramer
The School of Paris, which only yesterday loomed as the unrivaled citadel of modern art, has gradually slipped into history.

The Geography of Intellect, by Nathaniel Weyl and Stefan Possony
by Martin Mayer
Race and Ability The Geography of Intellect. by Nathaniel Weyl And Stefan Possony. Regnery. 356 pp. $7.95. We could use, right at this moment, a hard, strong statement of the racist case.

Golda Meir: Woman With a Cause, by Marie Syrkin
by Alfred Sherman
Zionism and After Golda Meir: Woman with a Cause. by Marie Syrkin. Putnam. 320 pp. $5.95. Golda Meir's life story is intrinsically exciting, quite apart from its special Jewish interest.

The Wasted Americans, by Edgar May
by Herbert Gans
The Poverty Problem The Wasted Americans. by Edgar May. Harper & Row. 227 pp. $4.50. Americans have often been described as impulsive consumers of material goods whose tastes change with frequent regularity.

The Wapshot Scandal, by John Cheever
by Cynthia Ozick
America Aglow The Wapshot Scandal. by John Cheever. Harper & Row. 309 pp. $4.95. In one of John Cheever's Shady Hill stories, a man comes home to his suburb after a plane trip.

Man and His Government, by Carl Joachim Friedrich; and Human Nature and Politics, by James C. Davies
by Bernard Crick
The Politics Of Textbooks Man and his Government: an Empirical theory of Politics. by Carl Joachim Friedrich. McGraw-Hill. 737 pp. $13.50. Human Nature and Politics. by James C.

The Making of the English Working Class, by E. P. Thompson
by Ben Seligman
Those Dark, Satanic Mills The Making of the English Working Class. by E. P. Thompson. Pantheon. 848 pp. $15.00. To a generation reared on classical economic history, it was something of a shock to be told a few years ago that the agony of the Industrial Revolution was a myth.

Reader Letters July 1964
by Our Readers
Negro Strategy TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: It is unfortunate that David Danzig's otherwise thought-provok- ing article ["The Meaning of Negro Strategy," February] was marred, especially in its closing passages, by a totally erroneous picture of the policies and performance of the AFL-CIO.

August, 1964Back to Top
N.B.
by Our Readers
To the Editor: We were very pleased to see George Lichtheim's reference to The Challenge of Modernization by I. R. Sinai in his article “The Cold War in Perspective” [June].

Intermarriage
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to take exception to Marshall Sklare's assertion in his article “Intermarriage and the Jewish Future” [April] that the findings of my study of Jewish intermarriage in Iowa point to the disappearance of the Jewish communities in that state by the end of the century.

By Any Other Name...
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As one who has long read and enjoyed the Carolina Israelite, I was glad to see, from his letter on Philip Roth's brilliantly argued essay [“Letters from Readers,” April], that Mr.

Jewish Survivalism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I wish to thank David Daiches for his perceptive review of my book, The Meaning of Jewish History [April], and to answer his two questions.

The White Liberal
by Our Readers
To the Editor: James Baldwin, arguing in your symposium on “Liberalism and the Negro” [March], seemed to be fighting the wrong battle.

The Negro & the Democratic Coalition
by Samuel Lubell
Of the key elements in the American electorate, Negroes have consistently been the most loyal of voters. Over the past half century, when major shifts of power have occurred from one party to another, Negroes have generally lagged one election behind the rest of the nation.

Rightists, Racists, & Separatists: A White Bloc in the Making?
by David Danzig
If 1963 signaled the emergence of the Negro community as a significant force in American society, 1964 may well come to be regarded as the year in which white reaction to the civil rights revolution began to make itself felt on a national scale.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964
by Alexander Bickel
At a news conference in 1962, John F. Kennedy coined the phrase, “sound public constitutional policy.” It was an entirely original conception, a hybrid of constitutional law and public policy.

The Yoke of the Torah
by Mordechai Amer
I was born in Morocco, in the village of Uled Musur which sits high up on a cliff. Below the village flows a river that can be reached only by descending a steep, winding path.

Antitrust in America
by Richard Hofstadter
During the decades of rapid industrialization that closed the 19th century, it was Americans alone among the peoples of the industrial West who believed deeply enough in the principle of competition to try to protect it by statute.

Europe & the United States
by Raymond Aron
Goethe, if we can take his own word for it, wrote on the night of the battle of Valmy: “Von hier und heute fängt eine neue Epoche in der Weltgeschichte an” (“Here, today, a new epoch of world history begins”).

Breakthrough?
by David Daiches
“With the coming of age of the children of Jewish immigrants, we find that quite a few of them are taking their place in the front ranks of American literature.

Spanish Anti-Semitism Today
by Ray Alan
The man at the next table was once a notorious Belgian fascist. The magazine he is reading contains a glowing feature on the life and work of Adolf Hitler.

The Great Treasury Raid, by Philip M. Stern; and The Cold War & the Income Tax: A Protest, by Edmund Wilson
by David Bazelon
Some Deductions The Great Treasury Raid. by Philip M. Stern. Random House. 361 pp. $5.95. The Cold War and the Income Tax: A Protest. by Edmund Wilson. Farrar, Straus.

Order of Battle: A Republican's Call to Reason, by Jacob K. Javits
by Andrew Hacker
How to Carry New York Order of Battle: A Republican's Call to Reason. by Jacob K. Javits. Atheneum. 328 pp. $5.95. Jacob Javits's Republicanism has confounded his constituents since he first ran for Congress in 1946.

The Scarperer, by Brendan Behan
by Thomas Curley
If You Don't Weaken The Scarperer. by Brendan Behan. Doubleday, 158 pp. $3.95. They took me to the cell, and beat me in the face, slaps but not punches.

The Morning After: A Study of Independence, by Brian Crozier
by Roger Owen
The New Nations The Morning After: A Study of Independence. by Brian Crozier. Oxford University Press. 290 pp.$7.50. Last January in East Africa there were three army mutinies and a successful revolution.

Science: The Glorious Entertainment, by Jacques Barzun
by A. Louch
Idols of the Lab Science: the Glorious Entertainment. by Jacques Barzun. Harper & Row. 307 pp. $6.00. A person reading Jacques Barzun's new book might well have misgivings about sending his children to college at all.

Reader Letters August 1964
by Our Readers
The White Liberal TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: James Baldwin, arguing in your symposium on "Liberalism and the Negro" [March], seemed to be fighting the wrong battle.

September, 1964Back to Top
Anglo-Jewish Writing
by Our Readers
To the Editor: If proof were needed that it is almost impossible for anyone who was not brought up in it to understand the nuances of the English social system, Mr.

The Role of Ideology
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I emphatically disagree with Henry David Aiken's contention [“The Revolt Against Ideology,” April] that “free enterprise is everywhere a dead issue save in the mythology of fundamentalist Republicanism” and that “the welfare state is accepted by all as an irremovable reality.” .

Family Feud
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am disturbed by Erica Mann's comments [“Letters from Readers,” May] on Irving Howe's article [“Hannah Arendt & the New Yorker,” October '63], particularly her agreement with what she calls Hannah Arendt's “implied view that human character is largely socially determined.” I reject the implication that we can forfeit personal responsibility for our actions by blaming them on .

More on Intermarriage
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I read Marshall Sklare's article [“Intermarriage & the Jewish Future,” April] with special interest, for both my husband and I are third-generation Jews from Iowa, and Mr.

Vietnam Background
by Our Readers
To the Editor: While not, like Oscar Gass, an expert on everything from China to Vietnam and Russia, I may stake out a modest claim to being—in spite of my “generally disappointing book” (in its fourth printing in six months)—something of a student of Vietnamese affairs.

The Negro & the New York Schools
by Midge Decter
During the school year 1963-64, there were 1,038,516 children attending public school in New York City, of whom 264,616—or a fraction more than 25 per cent—were Negro, and 177,544—or about 17 per cent—were Puerto Rican.

The Trial of Jesus
by Paul Winter
There may still be people who think, or pretend to think, that no such person as Jesus of Nazareth ever existed.

German Diary
by George Lichtheim
Frankfurt am Main, May: Goethe's native city for the past five months has been the locale of the long-delayed Auschwitz trial, and since February this has been capped by the regular performance at the local municipal theater of Hochhuth's The Deputy (here known, of course, as Der Stellvertreter).

The World of Wilhelm Reich
by Philip Rieff
That he would be ridiculed and persecuted seemed to Wilhelm Reich but one of the high prices he would have to pay for the range and depth of his advance beyond the analytic attitude as it had been developed by Freud.

Is Congress Obsolete?
by Ronald Steel
On entering the House of Representatives at Washington one is struck with the vulgar demeanor of that great assembly. The eye frequently does not discover a man of celebrity within its walls.

Goldwater-The Romantic Regression
by Hans Morgenthau
While talking to Senator Goldwater in September 1963—questioning him, arguing with him, sizing him up—I could not banish from my mind the memory of a similar encounter I had with Senator Taft in June 1952, a few weeks before the Republican Convention rejected his bid for the Presidential nomination.

Rome & Jerusalem
by Milton Himmelfarb
Their Problem, Our Problem We had an outbreak of Jewish self-respect this summer. Orthodox rabbis in their convention, Reform rabbis in theirs, the National Community Relations Advisory Council, the World Jewish Congress assembled in Jerusalem—all were scornful of active Jewish interest in having the Vatican Council issue a declaration on Christian relations with the Jews and Judaism.

Jewish
by Meyer Liben
1. Warm March is a murderous month, its chill penetrates bone. Mufflers, upturned collars, fur-lined gloves, earlaps are of no avail.

The Inner Eye: Selected Essays, Volume II, by Hayim Greenberg, edited by Shlomo Katz
by David Daiches
Hayim Greenberg's Legacy The Inner Eye: Selected Essays, Volume II. by Hayim Greenberg. Edited by Shlomo Katz. Jewish Frontier Association. 317 pp. $4.95. This second volume of Hayim Greenberg's essays in English (three volumes have also appeared in Yiddish), ranges in time from 1922 until 1952, the year before his death, and in subject from problems of Jewish identity and the related question of Zionism to reflections on religion, history, philosophy, and politics; and to reminiscences of writers and events in Russia, Germany, France, and America over a period of about forty years.

Racial Crisis in America, by Lewis Killian and Charles Grigg; Race, the History of an Idea in America, by Thomas F. Gossett; and
by Jervis Anderson
A Record of Injustice Racial Crisis in America. by Lewis Killian and Charles Grigg. Prentice-Hall. 144 pp. $4.50. Race, the History of an idea in America. by Thomas F.

Political Power: USA/USSR, by Zbigniew Brzezinski and Samuel P. Huntington; and A Strategy of Interdependence, by Vincent P. Roc
by Robert Daniels
Conflicts & Affinities Political Power: USA/USSR. by Zbigniew Brzezinski and Samuel P. Huntington. Viking. 461 pp. $7.50. A Strategy of Interdependence: a Program for the Control of Conflict Between the United States and the Soviet Union. by Vincent P.

Bohemian versus Bourgeois, by Cesar Grana
by J. Weightman
La Vie Bohème Bohemian Versus Bourgeois, French Society and the French Man of Letters in the Nineteenth Century. by Cesar Graña. Basic Books.

Reader Letters September 1964
by Our Readers
Vietnam Background TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: While not, like Oscar Gass, an ex- pert on everything from China to Vietnam and Russia, I may stake out a modest claim to being-in spite of my "generally disappoint- ing book" (in its fourth printing in six months)-something of a stu- dent of Vietnamese affairs.

October, 1964Back to Top
Cell 772, or Life Among the Extremists
by Willie Morris
Soon after the word was circularized that President Eisenhower was in the employ of the Kremlin, Senator Goldwater said that all the people he knew who were members of the John Birch Society were fine, decent people.

Three Tales
by Isaac Singer
There were three in the circle: Zalman the glazier, Meyer the eunuch, and Isaac Amshinover. Their meeting place was the Radzyminer study house where they visited daily to tell each other stories.

The New Italy & Its Politics
by H. Hughes
Just over a decade ago, when the De Gasperi era in Italian history came to an end, it seemed as though the country had settled into a semi-permanent postwar equilibrium.

The Masada Dig
by Daniel Gavron
Friday, October 18, 1963 In the morning I set out from Arad, the desert town that serves as supply base for the expedition.

On Becoming a Writer
by Ralph Ellison
In the beginning writing was far from a serious matter; it was a reflex of reading, an extension of a source of pleasure, escape, and instruction.

The Jacobs Affair
by Alfred Sherman
The fundamentalist tenet that God actually dictated the whole Torah—including the Talmud—verbatim and in its authorized text to Moses on Mount Sinai would seem an unlikely matter over which the passions of contemporary Jews could be inflamed.

Mortal Statistics
by Kathleen Nott
If you go to Sweden to ask questions, as I did a few years ago, you may well find that there is one question that some Swedes will try to get in first.

Ideology-A Debate
by Daniel Bell
The following exchange was occasioned by Henry David Aiken's article, “The Revolt Against Ideology,” which appeared in the April COMMENTARY.

The Black Jews of Harlem: Negro Nationalism and the Dilemmas of Negro Leadership, by Howard Brotz
by Nathan Glazer
Negro Independence The Black Jews of Harlem: Negro Nationalism and the Dilemmas of Negro Leadership. by Howard Brotz. Free Press. 144 pp. $4.50. It is unfortunate that Howard Brotz decided to give his book so limited a title as The Black Jews of Harlem.

The Cart and the Horse, by Louis Kronenberger
by Robert Langbaum
The Liberal Target The Cart and the Horse. by Louis Kronenberger. Knopf. 212 pp. $4.95. Drama critic, critic of literature generally, and 18th-century scholar (he is the author, for example, of the fine biography, Marlborough's Duchess), Louis Kronenberger has long been known for a style and attitude reminiscent of the 18th century—for neatly balanced and elegantly epigrammatic sentences, for urbanity, and for a humorously tolerant worldliness.

The Conscience of a Conservative and Why Not Victory?, by Barry Goldwater
by Malcolm Muggeridge
Goldwater: An English View The Conscience of a Conservative. by Barry Goldwater. Macfadden. 127 pp. paperback, $.50. Why Not Victory? by Barry Goldwater. Macfadden. 131 pp.

Anti-Semitism: A Concise World History, by James Parkes
by Ben Halpern
From Prejudice to Genocide Anti-Semitism: A Concise World History. by James Parkes. Quadrangle. 192 pp. $5.00. It is a rare thing when the title of a book describes it not only accurately but modestly as well.

Politics in a Pluralist Democracy: Studies of Voting in the 1960 Election, by Lucy S. Dawidowicz and Leon J. Goldstein
by Daniel Moynihan
Ethnicity and Power Politics in a Pluralist Democracy: Studies of Voting in the 1960 Election. by Lucy S. Dawidowicz and Leon J.

Reader Letters October 1964
by Our Readers
Dr. Strangelove TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Midge Decter seems to be one of those critics who resent a genu- ine whopping success ["The Strangely Polite Dr.

November, 1964Back to Top
Errata
by Our Readers
<p>Because of the London postal strike, Paul Winter did not see galley proofs of his article, &ldquo;The Trial of Jesus&rdquo; (September) and was unable to correct the following typographical errors:</p> <blockquote> <p>On page 39, the sentence beginning, &ldquo;In chapters 13-26 of the Acts .

Antitrust
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Richard Hofstadter's article [“Antitrust in America,” August] exhibits his usual incisiveness . . . but certain subsidiary propositions contained in it cry out for clarification.

Protest & Rejoinder
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I naturally do not intend to discuss Alfred Sherman's review of Marie Syrkin's book, Woman with a Cause [July].

Montessori Today
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . Martin Mayer's estimate of Montessori as an educator is obviously not based on observations of classroom use of these materials but is a theoretical evaluation based on educational research concerning learning processes [“Schools, Slums, and Montessori,” June].

In Defense of Dr. Hayek
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . I am not acquainted with the capabilities of Mr. E. P. Thompson and he may indeed be brilliant.

Cold War Controversy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: George Lichtheim has scanned the current literature of the cold war and attempted to place that literature—and the cold war itself—in some perspective [“The Cold War in Perspective,” June].

For the Record
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Since I was abroad during the past academic year, my attention has just been called to the letter of Mr.

Religious Authority & Mysticism
by Gershom Scholem
It is sometimes said that mystics, with their personal striving for transcendence, live outside of and above the historical level, that their experience is unrelated to historical experience.

Legislating in Texas
by Willie Morris
A provincial legislature is a fertile source for a writer. So many crimes are committed there daily in an atmosphere of a service club social, and the human flaws are so accessible.

"I'm Sorry, Dear"
by Leslie Farber
And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons.—GenesisLust is more abstract than logic; it seeks (hope triumphing over experience) for some purely sexual, hence purely imaginary, conjunction of an impossible maleness with an impossible femaleness.—C.

Street of the Prophets
by Gloria Goldreich
It is cold in Jerusalem in the winter. Winter comes late in October and shoulders its way in stubbornly throughout the hilled city.

Population Myths
by Dennis Wrong
In recent years the rapid growth of world population has come to loom as one of the great problems of the age.

The Literature of the Holocaust
by A. Alvarez
In the twenty years since the war ended the flood of literature on the Nazi atrocities has never slackened; gradually, however, its style has changed and its direction.

"In New York You Get Swallowed by a Horse"
by Oscar Lewis
We had been talking of this and that when I asked him, “Have you ever been in New York, Hector?” “Yes, yes, I've been to New York.” “And what did you think of life there?” “New York!

Tevye on Broadway
by Irving Howe
Sholem Aleichem was a genius, Zero Mostel is a genius. Add the two together and the result ought to be extraordinary, a union of talents and souls, the comic master of a vanishing tradition and the virtuoso of stage expressiveness.

Television & Canadian Culture
by Neil Compton
Montreal is the best place in the world in which to watch television. With the aid of a community cable or rooftop antennae, Montrealers can tune in the programs not only of three Canadian networks (two English and one French), but also of three American ones from stations in northern New England.

To an Early Grave, by Wallace Markfield
by Marion Magid
Mocking Heroics To an Early Grave. by Wallace Markfield. Simon & Schuster. 256 pp. $4.50. Like a number of recent examples of the urban-picaresque mode, To an Early Grave seems less a novel than a theatrical performance.

The Act of Creation, by Arthur Koestler
by Kathleen Nott
The Bloom and The Buzz The Act of Creation. by Arthur Koestler. Macmillan. 728 pp. $8.95. Arthur Koestler's immense and splendid work may itself be regarded as a creative act—in terms of his own comprehensive formula.

The Radical Tradition, by R. H. Tawney
by George Kateb
The Moral Society The Radical Tradition. by R. H. Tawney. Pantheon. 214 pp. $4.95. R. H. Tawney, who died two years ago, was the last of the great English socialist intellectuals.

The Recurrent Pattern, by Nathan Rotenstreich
by Werner Dannhauser
Philosophy and Judaism The Recurrent Pattern: Studies in Anti-Judaism in Modern Thought. by Nathan Rotenstreich. Horizon. 125 pp. $4.50. Modern thought, according to Professor Rotenstreich, has not done justice to Judaism.

Economic Growth and Employment Opportunities for Minorities, by Dale L. Hiestand
by Robert Lekachman
That Slow Steady Progress Economic Growth and Employment Opportunities for Minorities. by Dale L. Hiestand. Columbia University Press. 127 pp. $6.00. Everybody seems to know the general course of 20th-century employment opportunities for Negroes in America.

Reader Letters November 1964
by Our Readers
For the Record To THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Since I was abroad during the past academic year, my attention has just been called to the letter of Mr.

December, 1964Back to Top
The Crisis of Faith
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It appears as though the attempt of Emil L. Fackenheim to de-eclipse God has eclipsed man [“The Eclipse of God,” June]. In positing the tautology that only he who believes is a believer, we have a reductio ad absurdum.

Men & Machines
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Ben B. Seligman's article, “Automation and the State” [June] is a concise summary of the problem of structural unemployment caused by the automation of the mechanical processes hereto accomplished by unskilled workers.

Scholars & Scrolls
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . How amazed I was to find that Cecil Roth's “New Light on the Dead Sea Scrolls” [June] was but the reflection of shadows he has already cast in many journals since 1958.

The Role of Social Workers
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his review of Edgar May's The Wasted Americans [July] Herbert Gans takes some familiar potshots at professional social workers .

Breakthrough?
by Our Readers
To the Editor: David Daiches, reviewing Breakthrough: A Treasury of Contemporary American-Jewish Literature [August], which I co-edited with Irving Malin, finds so much that is praiseworthy that it may seem ungracious to quarrel with his reservations.

The Proper Study of Men
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . In reviewing Milton Rokeach's The Three Christs of Ypsilanti: A Narrative Study of Three Lost Men [June], George P.

Negroes and Jews: The New Challenge to Pluralism
by Nathan Glazer
If today one re-reads the article by Kenneth Clark on Negro-Jewish relations that was published in COMMENTARY almost nineteen years ago,1 one will discover that tension between Negroes and Jews is neither of recent origin nor a product of the civil rights revolution.

Is There A Tragic Sense of Life?
by Lionel Abel
For Merry Abel, 1940-1964, in memoriam Our Estimate of Writers with the “Tragic Sense” We set a particular value on those writers of plays—sometimes of novels—who give expression to what has been called the “tragic sense of life.” Do we overvalue them? The truth is, I think, that we value them in a very special way.

The Strange Death of Tory England
by John Mander
A generation ago, in an interesting book, George Dangerfield told the sad story of what he called “The Strange Death of Liberal England.” The collapse of a great political tradition is a solemn thing.

Converts
by I. Singer
It was early on a hot morning, when the only ones in Warsaw's Saxony Gardens are old usurers, consumptives, and people without the price of a meal.

The Strength of Robert Frost
by Alfred Kazin
Between 1954 and 1958, first in Northampton, then at Amherst, I saw Robert Frost often in the setting of a New England college town.

A Matter of Conscience
by Jules Feiffer
Last autumn my wife and I made an early return from a delayed honeymoon trip to Europe in order to register for the national elections, a detail we engaged in on differing levels of seriousness: for she was registering in order to vote, and I was registering as the first step in my usual principled position—which was to not vote at all.

Zangwill in Retrospect
by John Gross
Israel Zangwill was born a hundred years ago this year, but in England his centenary has slipped by with barely a murmur.

Was Lenin Necessary?
by Leonard Schapiro
It is a hundred years since Communism became a practical aim, and nearly fifty years since the October revolution in Russia claimed to be putting that aim into practice.

Herzog, by Saul Bellow
by Theodore Solotaroff
Napoleon St. and After Herzog. by Saul Bellow. Viking. 341 pp. $5.75. Herzog is a lovely book, so crammed with wit and thoughtfulness and feeling that one can go on reading it over and over.

Reminiscences, by Douglas MacArthur
by Marcus Cunliffe
A Long Gray Line Reminiscences. by Douglas Macarthur. McGraw-Hill. 438 pp. $6.95. Most reviewers have treated this as a Them, not an Us book.

The Uses of the University, by Clark Kerr
by Harold Taylor
The Academic Industry The Uses of the University. by Clark Kerr. Harvard University Press. 140 pp. $2.95. The argument of Mr. Kerr's book is that the American university is the center of the knowledge industry in this country.

Mississippi: The Closed Society, by James W. Silver; and A Time to Speak, by Charles Morgan, Jr.
by Joseph Epstein
Two Southern Liberals Mississippi: The Closed Society. by James W. Silver. Harcourt, Brace & World. 243 pp. $4.75. A time to Speak. by Charles Morgan, Jr. Harper & Row.

Worship and Ethics: A Study in Rabbinic Judaism, by Max Kadushin
by Marvin Fox
Moral Reason Worship and Ethics: A Study in Rabbinic Judaism. by Max Kadushin. Northwestern University Press. 329 pp. $8.50. This book is an attempt to give a new understanding of rabbinic ethics, a field of study which has been sadly neglected by serious scholars.

Congress: The Sapless Branch, by Joseph S. Clark; and The Senate Establishment, by Joseph S. Clark & Others
by David Bazelon
Non-Legislative Arts Congress: The Sapless Branch. by Joseph S. Clark. Harper & Row. 268 pp. $4.95. The Senate Establishment. by Joseph S. Clark and Other Senators. Hill and Wang.

Reader Letters December 1964
by Our Readers
The Proper Study of Men TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: . . . In reviewing Milton Rok- each's The Three Christs of Ypsi- lanti: A Narrative Study of Three Lost Men [June], George P.




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