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January, 1974Back to Top
Oil
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Walter Laqueur and Edward Luttwak [“Oil,” October 1973] gloss over a major implication of M. A. Adelman's work: the United States, by shoring up the internation oil cartel, bears almost sole responsibility for the continuing Middle East crisis. Monopoly oil profits fuel warfare in the Middle East, both by giving oil-producing countries the means to fight one another and Israel and by tempting Western countries to intervene on behalf of the oil companies.

The Philosopher
by Our Readers
To the Editor: With regard to Milton Himmelfarb's inference [“Gentlemen and Scholars,” October 1973] from Aristotle's Politics (1253a) that we are “to regard the philosopher .

Prisons and Attica
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Roger Starr [Letters from Readers, September 1973, in a discussion of Mr. Starr's article, “Prisons, Politics & the Attica Report,” March 1973] asks whether I didn't “abandon .

Plato, Marx & Kaufmann
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Werner J. Dannhauser's review of Walter Kaufmann's Without Guilt or Justice [Books in Review, September 1973] represents the worst disservice imaginable to anyone interested in philosophy in the broadest sense.

On Jealousy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Leslie H. Farber's “On Jealousy” [October 1973] . . . eloquently describes human suffering caused by the “obsession” of jealousy.

Egalitarianism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Just when I think that the last word has been written about social policy, COMMENTARY presents another viewpoint for my enlightenment. Charles Frankel's analysis of John Rawls's A Theory of Justice [“The New Egalitarianism and the Old,” September 1973] opened up for me an avenue of thinking about equality and inequality at a time when I thought the “well” had run dry.

The State of the Novel
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Alfred Kazin's Bright Book of Life: American Novelists and Storytellers from Hemingway to Mailer deserves a closer reading than it has so far received.

Watergate and the Legal Order
by Alexander Bickel
Months ago, when the scandals of the Nixon administration were fewer and relatively simpler, there was some self-serving talk of a commonalty of error among the Watergate perpetrators, as the arresting officers might have called them, and the radical Left of the 1960's.

Is Israel Losing Popular Support?
by Earl Raab
Perhaps the clearest lesson of the Yom Kippur war is that Israel is now almost absolutely dependent on the United States for its very existence.

Prisoners of War
by Joan Colebrook
May 4-May 12, 1973 A trip to New York City, to see what light may be thrown by recent returnees from Vietnam upon a kind of psychological warfare peculiar to the 20th century. The spring sun illuminates the grass in Central Park and the frail green of the city's trees—but it can hardly be said that the world political situation receives enough clarification.

Family Reunion
by Leslie Farber
Social critics often decry the absence of ritual in our culture, noting that our hunger for ritual leads us to devise all manner of pomp and circumstance, some of it as foolish as a conclave of Shriners in funny hats, some of it as ominous as a troop of Ku Klux Klanners in hoods.

The World of I.L. Peretz
by Irving Howe
It is customary to speak of three figures—Mendele Mokher Sforim, Sholem Aleichem, and I. L. Peretz—as the founders of modern Yiddish literature, but for those readers who must encounter them mainly through the rough lens of English translation, they are by no means equally accessible or attractive.

That Old-Time Religion
by James Hitchcock
Developments in American popular religion in the past five years seem designed to confound anyone's confidence in his own prophetic powers.

O'Neill Reconsidered
by Jack Richardson
I first saw Long Day's Journey into Night in Paris. The time was the late 50's and some sort of international theater festival was being put on by the French government, the purpose of which was, I believe, to bring together productions that were currently on the stages of various countries and treat them to a month or so of multi-lingual repertory.

Season's End
by William Pechter
Around September every year, I begin to recognize the symptoms. My palms sweat. I'm nervous, irritable. Above all, I'm filled with a powerful premonition that I'll soon be seeing more movies than I want to, and enjoying them less.

Economics and the Public Purpose, by John Kenneth Galbraith
by Rudolf Klein
Orthodox Unconventionality Economics and the Public Purpose. by John Kenneth Galbraith. Houghton Mifflin. 334 pp. $10.00. Success must be very frustrating for Professor Galbraith.

The Oath, by Elie Wiesel
by Leon Wieseltier
History as Myth The Oath. by Elie Wiesel. Random House. 283 pp. $7.95. Elie Wiesel has been working at his fiction of suffering for a quarter of a century.

Responses, by David Cairns
by B. Haggin
Listening to Music Responses by David Cairns. Knopf. 288 pp. $8.95. The music critic is the professional listener, presumed to have an equipment of perception, judgment, and taste which the nonprofessional listeners who read him don't have, and which he uses to make them aware of what they might miss in a piece of music or a performance.

Roberto Clemente: Batting King, by Arnold Hano
by Edward Grossman
Pride of the Pirates Roberto Clemente: Baiting King. by Arnold Hano. Laurel Leaf Library. 186 pp. $0.95. What comes to mind first, and most vividly, is the way, during his last years, Roberto Clemente would roll and jerk his head preparatory to stepping into the batter's box.

Family and Community in the Kibbutz, by Yonina Talmon
by Marshall Sklare
Collective Living Family and Community in the Kibbutz. by Yonina Talmon. Harvard University Press. 266 pp. $12.00. With certain exceptions, academic interest in the kibbutz has by and large not been impelled by a desire to understand the internal workings of this institution, still less by a desire to comprehend how it grew out of a Jewish society, or what its role is in the national life of Israel.

Kind and Usual Punishment, by Jessica Mitford
by Marc Plattner
Neo-Abolitionism Kind and Usual Punishment: The Prison Business. by Jessica Mitford. Knopf. 340 pp. $7.95. Scarcely a single social critic has a good word for the American penal system; its glaring defects, virtually all agree, stand in urgent need of change.

Reader Letters January 1974
by Walter Laqueur
The State of the Novel TO THE EDITOR 0F COMMENTARY: Alfred Kazin's Bright Book of Life: American Novelists and Sto- rytellers fro101 Hfefmingway to MAailer deserves a closer reading than it has so lar received.

February, 1974Back to Top
Ethnic Enterprise
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Murray Friedman's review of Ivan Light's Ethnic Enterprise in America [Books in Review, December 1973] and the book itself offer invaluable insights on the failure of black capitalism.

Kissinger & Foreign Policy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Walter Laqueur's article, “Kissinger and the Politics of Détente” [December 1973], raises a number of interesting questions with respect both to the nature of foreign policy and to the particular choices facing American statecraft.

Male and Female
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am so pleased by the accuracy, perception, and integrity of David Gutmann's treatment of my book, The Inevitability of Patriarchy [“Men, Women, and the Parental Imperative,” December 1973], that it is a bit embarrassing to raise even the most minor of points.

The Road to Geneva
by Theodore Draper
In one way or another, every phase of the Arab-Israeli conflict has been linked with the United Nations. The current Geneva conference is but the latest in this tradition—with a difference.

America, Europe, and the Middle East
by Eugene Rostow
The October war in the Middle East was a Pearl Harbor, an explosion which revealed acute tensions between reality and the models for reality which have dominated many minds.

Do the Arabs Want Peace?
by Gil AlRoy
Every Arab-Israeli war is immediately followed, at least in the West, by sharply heightened expectations (soon dashed) of a long-term peaceful solution to the conflict.

The Problem of Euthanasia
by Sonya Rudikoff
Although the death of close friends and relatives may have vanished as a vivid firsthand experience for most of us, almost everyone knows, or knows of, someone who is being kept alive by machines or tubes.

Berrigan's Diatribe
by Robert Alter
Surely one of the most shocking documents of American response to the latest Middle East war is Daniel Berrigan's October 19, 1973 speech to the Association of Arab University Graduates.

The Presidency & Professor Schlesinger
by Michael Novak
“This book,” Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. tells us in the single clear statement of his theme in The Imperial Presidency,1 “deals essentially with the shift in the constitutional balance—with, that is, the appropriation by the Presidency, and particularly by the contemporary Presidency, of powers reserved by the Constitution and by long historical practice to Congress.” Conservatives like James Burnham have long held that Congress is being overrun, outflanked, and overwhelmed by activist Presidents in the service of culturally imperialistic constituencies at home.

A Crown of Feathers, by Isaac Bashevis Singer; A Shtetl and Other Yiddish Novellas, edited by Ruth R. Wisse
by Johanna Kaplan
History into Literature A Crown of Feathers. by Isaac Bashevis Singer. Farrar, Straus & Giroux. 342 pp. $8.95. A Shtetl and other Yiddish Novellas. Edited, with Introductions and Notes, by Ruth R.

Cruel and Unusual Punishment, by Michael Meltsner
by Joseph Bishop
Abolitionism Cruel and Unusual: The Supreme Court and Capital Punishment. by Michael Meltsner. Random House. 338 pp. $8.95. We are a litigious people, and we relish legal argument.

Pentimento, by Lillian Hellman
by Edward Grossman
The Past Refinished Pentimento: A Book of Portraits. by Lillian Hellman. Little, Brown. 297 pp. $7.95. Lillian Hellman's second volume of autobiographical pieces has its ups and downs, but on the whole it is really bad—there's no getting around that.

Stay of Execution: A Sort of Memoir, by Stewart Alsop
by Jane Crain
Life and Death Stay of Execution: A Sort of Memoir. by Stewart Alsop. Lippincott. 306 pp. $8.95. Stewart Alsop is the author of a number of books on contemporary American politics and has been a columnist for Newsweek since 1968.

A Journal of the Plague Years, by Stefan Kanfer
by Paul Warshow
Blacklist A Journal of the Plague Years. by Stefan Kanfer. Atheneum. 306 pp. $7.95. In 1947, with World War II over and the cold war begun, the House Committee on Un-American Activities began investigations into what a former member, the anti-Semitic John Rankin, had called “one of the most dangerous plots ever instigated for the overthrow of the government” in “the greatest hotbed of subversive activities in the United States.” The Committee's investigation into Hollywood still stands, a generation later, as perhaps the supreme paradigm—at once comical and terrifying—of American Yahooism and right-wing hysteria. Among those witnesses to appear before the Committee, there were few liberals and no anti-Stalinist radicals (a breed which, hard enough to find anywhere during this period, seems to have been virtually extinct in Hollywood).

Reader Letters February 1974
by David Gutmann
Male and Female TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I am so pleased by the accuracy, perception, and integrity of David Gutmann's treatment of my book, The Inevitability of Patriarchy ["Men, Women, and the Parental Imperative," December 1973], that it is a bit embarrassing to raise even the most minor of points. However, I think it necessary to make the following point in order to preclude the possibility of mis- conception on the part of those who have read the essay but not the book.

March, 1974Back to Top
Public Opinion and Israel
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As ominous as Arab attitudes may be to the survival of Israel, it seems to me that the historic and universal Jewish capacity for self-deception is a greater hazard.

Evaluating Kissinger
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As one who has always found Walter Laqueur one of COMMENTARY'S most interesting and incisive contributors, I was disturbed by the glibness I found in certain sections of his article, “Kissinger and the Politics of Detente” [December 1973]. Mr.

O'Neill
by Our Readers
To the Editor: No one could guess from Jack Richardson's disparagement of my biography [“O'Neill Reconsidered,” January] that a great majority of the reviewers praised it highly.

Soviet Dissidence
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . In just six pages Lev Navrozov [“On Soviet Dissidence: An Interior View,” November 1973] told me what six-hundred pages of some learned sociopolitical tome with twelve-hundred detailed footnotes wouldn't or couldn't.

1967 and 1973
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Theodore Draper's basic thesis in his provocative article [“From 1967 to 1973: The Arab-Israeli Wars,” December 1973] is that Egypt's political decision to go to war in October 1973 goes back two years, that the Soviet Union was implicated in this decision and was “up to its neck in this war,” and that the “Soviets prepared this war under cover of the détente.” Mr.

The Specter of Eugenics
by Charles Frankel
One of the often noted anomalies of our society is its capacity to develop extraordinary new technologies while failing to find ways to perform elementary services in a minimally decent fashion.

Israel After the War: 1 Peace With Egypt?
by Walter Laqueur
Any discussion of the current prospects for peace between Israel and the Arab countries has to begin by rehearsing the history of the Middle East between the Six-Day War of June 1967 and the Yom Kippur War of October 1973.

Israel After the War: 2 Back to Abnormal
by Hanoch Bartov
Yom Kippur in Israel will never be the same again, at least not for my generation, whose sense of the world came from two decisive experiences: first the Holocaust, then the establishment of the Jewish state.

Israel After the War: 3 The Need for Political Change
by David Vital
Jerusalem David Ben-Gurion was dying before the fighting had stopped, and there were few in Israel—at any rate among the older half of the population—who failed to comment that his death marked the end of an epoch with almost sublime precision.

England in Crisis
by Rudolf Klein
These are exceptionally gloomy and exceptionally perplexing days in Britain. Indeed, the gloom and the perplexity are linked. This is not the first time in the past two decades that Britain has appeared to be on the edge of an abyss of economic stagnation, industrial self-destruction, and social friction.

Literary Terrorism
by Renee Winegarten
“After the national toasts had been given, the first official toast of the day was the Old Man of the Mountains—drunk in solemn silence.

Spinoza and the Colonel
by Milton Himmelfarb
A few Summers ago a Jewish scholar was in Germany, doing research in the family papers of a former colonel in the Wehrmacht.

The Myth of Malcolm Lowry
by George Woodcock
Oscar Wilde once suggested that it was second-rate artists who were most interesting as personalities; in the case of greater artists, he implied, their fascinating eccentricities were subsumed in their work.

“The Exorcist” and its Audience
by William Pechter
Though I saw The Exorcist before it opened, I saw it with an audience which filled a large theater, and I was aware while the film was being shown of sharing in a rare experience: the experience of seeing a film which has its audience reacting as one, completely in the palm of its hand.

Burr, by Gore Vidal
by Jane Crain
Above the Herd Burr. by Gore Vidal. Random House. 430 pp. $8.85. Gore Vidal once described himself as a “border lord” in the “dying kingdom of literature.” While the kingdom may in fact be dying, Vidal's rank in it is of course far more baronial than his modest trope suggests.

Paradise Lost, by Emma Rothschild
by Elliott Abrams
The Greening of Detroit Paradise Lost: The Decline of the Auto-Industrial Age. by Emma Rothschild. Random House. 264 pp. $6.95. For almost as long as anyone can remember, the automobile industry has been the primary symbol of American economic power and technological advancement, even as cars themselves have long been symbols of their owners' prosperity.

The Mask Jews Wear, by Eugene B. Borowitz
by David Singer
A New Disguise The Mask Jews Wear: The Self-Deceptions of American Jewry. by Eugene B. Borowitz. Simon & Schuster. 222 pp. $5.95. Every so often some development on the American-Jewish scene is hailed as yet another indication that American Jewry has come of age.

The Emerging Nations and the American Revolution; Seven Who Shaped Our Destiny, by Richard B. Morris
by Herman Belz
Revolutionary America The Emerging Nations and the American Revolution. by Richard B. Morris. Harper & Row. 238 pp. $6.95. Seven Who Shaped our Destiny: The Founding Fathers as Revolutionaries. by Richard B.

The Seduction of the Spirit, by Harvey Cox
by Alan Mintz
Participatory Theology The Seduction of the Spirit: The Uses and Misuses of People's Religion. by Harvey Cox. Simon & Schuster. 350 pp. $8.95. Harvey Cox's first book, The Secular City, sold a half-million copies and was the most widely discussed book on religion of the 1960's.

The Devil and John Foster Dulles, by Townsend Hoopes
by Edward Luttwak
At the Brink The Devil and John Foster Dulles. by Townsend Hoopes. Atlantic-Little, Brown. 562 pp. $15.00. The full-length biography is a serviceable if somewhat elaborate tool of political exposition, and Mr.

Reader Letters March 1974
by Earl Raab
1967 and 1973 TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Theodore Draper's basic thesis in his provocative article ["From 1967 to 1973: The Arab-Israeli Wars," December 1973] is that Egypt's political decision to go to war in October 1973 goes back two years, that the Soviet Union was implicated in this decision and was "up to its neck in this war," and that the "Soviets prepared this war under cover of the detente." Mr.

April, 1974Back to Top
Liberated Marriage
by Our Readers
To the Editor: David Gutmann, in his response to Nancy Datan's letter [Letters From Readers, February, in a discussion of Mr.

Comprehending the Holocaust
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Did Leon Wieseltier, in his review of Elie Wiesel's The Oath [Books in Review, January 1974] ask himself why Mr.

Religion in a Free Society
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Marshall Sklare's reply to his critics [Letters from Readers, December 1973, in a discussion of Mr. Sklare's article, “The Conversion of the Jews,” September 1973] was, I think, both disingenuous and off the mark. The issue is basically rather straightforward: given the fact that in a democratic society all groups—ethnic, religious, economic, sexual, etc.—are subject to all sorts of ideological activity which seeks to persuade one group to another's outlook and practice, how can these interactions be managed with minimum conflict? With much pain and difficulty American society has solved this problem by letting the marketplace of ideas mediate these encounters. Mr.

World Politics
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I share many of Eugene V. Rostow's internationalist conclusions without necessarily agreeing with the premises from which he starts [“America, Europe, and the Middle East,” February].

Watergate and the Law
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Though I often find Alexander M. Bickel's essays thought-provoking, as well as precise and well-documented in their analyses, his “Watergate and the Legal Order” [January] is distressingly facile and often self-contradictory.

The End of the Postwar Era
by Fritz Stern
In 1959 Norman O. Brown published Life Against Death, an attempt to take Freud's principles beyond Freud, to explain how man had been enchained by his repressions, and how he might be freed from them, to be resurrected into a kind of pan-corporeal sexuality.

Journalism and Truth
by Edward Epstein
The problem of journalism in America proceeds from a simple but inescapable bind: journalists are rarely, if ever, in a position to establish the truth about an issue for themselves, and they are therefore almost entirely dependent on self-interested “sources” for the version of reality that they report.

Is Isolationism Possible?
by Raymond Aron
A small power restricts its ambitions to physical survival and the preservation of its legal independence and its institutions. A great power, over and above physical security, moral survival, and the well-being of its inhabitants, acts to achieve an ill-defined purpose, which I should call the maintenance or creation of a favorable international environment. The meaning and scope of the notion of a favorable environment vary with circumstances.

Sylvia Plath Reconsidered
by John Romano
As a general rule, no writer is responsible for the vagaries of his posthumous literary reputation. His life may come in time to attract and sustain more interest than his work.

Nuclear Strategy: The New Debate
by Edward Luttwak
For many years there has been a broad consensus on strategic policy among academics, professional strategists, and their intellectual clientele in the media, Congressional staffs, and in many parts of the Executive.

Emancipation and Jewish Studies
by Jacob Katz
Modern Jewish experience, to be fully understood, must be viewed under the aspect of emancipation, that process, starting in the late 18th century, whereby the Jews of Western and Central Europe achieved civic and social rights, thus paving the way for their entry into the larger society.

Stalin Under Western Eyes
by Lev Navrozov
A Western scholar studying Russia after 1917 (or China after 1949) is in many ways in a worse position than a historian studying ancient Babylonia or Egypt under the Pharaohs.

Reviewing Plays
by Jack Richardson
When G. B. Shaw retired as drama critic for the Saturday Review, he told his readers that he had come to feel, because of the narrow life led by a theater reviewer, like a goose with one foot nailed to the ground.

Four Reforms, by William F. Buckley, Jr.
by Elliott Abrams
Public Discourse Four Reforms. by William F. Buckley, Jr. Putnam. 128 pp. $4.95. “Give it up” was John Kenneth Galbraith's advice, William Buckley reported in Cruising Speed.

A History of Jewish Costume, by Alfred Rubens
by Anne Hollander
Fashions of the Jews A History of Jewish Costume. by Alfred Rubens. Illustrated. Crown. 221 pp. $15.00. The very idea of Jewish costume seems a little ridiculous at first glance (a caftan and shtreimel? custom-tailored suits? rags? mink?), but Alfred Rubens has made a most satisfying attempt to organize and describe the extraordinary variety of Jewish dress in history.

Mental Institutions in America, by Gerald Grob
by Steven Schlossman
History and Reform Mental Institutions in America: Social Policy to 1875. by Gerald Grob. The Free Press. 458 pp. $10.95. History may not travel in cycles, but interpretations of history generally do.

Closing Time, by Norman O. Brown
by Alan Goldfein
The End? Closing Time. by Norman O. Brown. Random House. 109 pp. $5.95. In 1959 Norman O. Brown published Life Against Death, an attempt to take Freud's principles beyond Freud, to explain how man had been enchained by his repressions, and how he might be freed from them, to be resurrected into a kind of pan-corporeal sexuality.

The Americans: The Democratic Experience, by Daniel J. Boorstin
by David Donald
Social Philosophy The Americans: The Democratic Experience. by Daniel J. Boorstin. Random House. 717 pp. $10.00. After fifteen years and three-quarters of a million words, Daniel J.

Reader Letters April 1974
by David Gutmann
Watergate and the Law TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Though I often find Alexander M. Bickel's essays thought-provok- ing, as well as precise and well- documented in their analyses, his "Watergate and the Legal Order" [.January] is distressingly facile and often self-contradictory.

May, 1974Back to Top
Daniel Berrigan
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As a Catholic who supported Father Berrigan in his resistance to the Vietnam war (even when his spectacular ways were rather jarring), may I say that I admire Robert Alter's restraint in his analysis [“Berrigan's Diatribe,” February].

Yiddish Language
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The confusion in Johanna Kaplan's review of A Crown of Feathers by Isaac Bashevis Singer and A Shtetl and Other Yiddish Novellas edited by Ruth R.

Liberalizing the Churches
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “That Old-Time Religion” [January] James Hitchcock seems to be looking at the top of the triangle instead of at the underlying causes.

Capital Punishment
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am grateful that Joseph W. Bishop, Jr., was able to praise my book, Cruel and Unusual: The Supreme Court and Capital Punishment [Books in Review, February], despite his disapproval of the professional spirit which the book describes.

The USSR & the Middle East
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Three of Eugene V. Rostow's first four paragraphs contain language escalating the Soviet involvement in the October war [“America, Europe & the Middle East,” February].

Israel Between the Wars
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Theodore Draper [“From 1967 to 1973: The Arab-Israeli Wars,” December 1973, and “The Road to Geneva,” February] provides a cogent account of Arab policies and of the contribution of the United Nations to the Middle East stalemate.

Euthanasia
by Our Readers
To the Editor: A confusion occurs at a pivotal point in Sonya Rudikoff's otherwise very informative article, “The Problem of Euthanasia” [February].

The Arab Mind
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Gil Carl AlRoy's article, “Do the Arabs Want Peace?” [February], rests, I think, on evidence supposedly showing the “Arab” to be vengeful and actually incapable of anything but perpetual war.

Was Woodrow Wilson Right?
by Daniel Moynihan
It is fifty years, since Woodrow Wilson died, but it does not seem fifty years: more like two-hundred-fifty. We are uncomfortable with Wilson in the 20th century, he seems more the kind of man who came early rather than late in our national life when of a sudden we were to find that far from being the youngest of governments we had become virtually the oldest.

The Real Solzhenitsyn
by Jeri Laber
The full text of Alexander Solzhenitsyn's Open Letter to the Soviet Leaders was first published on March 3 by the London Times, which described it as “a testament of astonishing power, with uncanny relevance to our own problems in the West.” In its introduction the Times glossed over the authentically reactionary nature of Solzhenitsyn's political statements.

Farewell to Oil?
by Edward Luttwak
With their uncorrupted faith in the sublime dynamics of perfect competition, the editorialists of the Economist in London have been proclaiming a coming age of energy abundance in which oil producers will come hat in hand to sell their stuff at declining prices.

Building Blocks
by Allen Hoffman
I arrived late for the afternoon prayers on Shivah Asar be-Tammuz. On the Seventeenth Day of the month of Tammuz, a fast day, one laments the breaching of Jerusalem's walls by Roman Legions in the final days of the Second Temple.

The Trouble With France
by Walter Laqueur
More than a century ago, Alexis de Tocqueville said that “the French constitute the most brilliant and the most dangerous nation in Europe, and the best qualified in turn to become an object of admiration, hatred, pity, or terror, but never of indifference.” More recently the French have not been especially brilliant or especially dangerous, and have inspired neither terror nor admiration.

Is There a New Anti-Semitism?
by Earl Raab
American Jews have been experiencing “a certain anxiety” since about 1967. General political violence was then at a peak. The 1967 war in the Middle East exposed some unsettling trends on the American Left.

Quotas and Soviet Jewry
by William Korey
Although quotas linked to the proportion of a given ethnic group in the population have governed admission to the universities in the Soviet Union for more than two decades, and although this system has always operated (in the words of one student of Soviet affairs) “to the particularly severe disadvantage of the Jewish population,” in the past few years it has begun to take a greater and greater toll.

Our Best-Known Neglected Novelist
by John Romano
John Hawkes is perhaps this nation's best-known neglected novelist. When The Blood Oranges, his fifth novel, appeared in 1971, a front-page review in the Sunday book section of the New York Times complained of his persisting obscurity.

Cagney & Other Movie Stars
by William Pechter
“He moved more gracefully than any other actor in Hollywood,” Kenneth Tynan said of him, and excluding only Chaplin, Keaton, and Astaire, he couldn't have been speaking about anyone but James Cagney.

The American Condition, by Richard N. Goodwin
by James Wilson
The Rhetoric of CommunityThe American Condition. by Richard N. Goodwin. Double-day. 407 pp. $10.00.The first purpose of philosophy is to clarify; the purpose of rhetoric is to arouse.

Songs of Jerusalem and Myself, by Yehuda Amichai
by Leon Wieseltier
A Hebrew Poet Songs of Jerusalem and Myself. by Yehuda Amichai. Translated by Harold Schimmel. Harper & Row 120 pp. $5.95. yehuda Amichai was born in Germany in 1924, and in 1936 emigrated to Palestine, where he eventually fought in the Palmach during the War of Independence.

Fragments of the Century, by Michael Harrington
by Michael Novak
In Search of Unity Fragments of the Century: A Social Autobiography. by Michael Harrington. Saturday Review Press/E.P. Dutton. 246 pp. $7.95. Almost a decade ago, in 1965, Daniel Callahan edited a brace of autobiographical essays by “young Catholic leaders,” including Andrew M.

H. G. Wells: A Biography, by Norman and Jeanne Mackenzie
by Dan Jacobson
The Public Platform H. G. Wells: A Biography. by Norman and Jeanne Mackenzie. Simon & Schuster. 447 pp. $10.00. H. G. Wells was the son of a professional cricketer and of a housekeeper to a wealthy family.

Charmed Circle: Gertrude Stein & Company, by James R. Mellow; Staying on Alone: Letters of Alice B. Toklas, edited by Edward Bur
by Sonya Rudikoff
The Mama of Dada Charmed Circle: Gertrude Stein & Company. by James R. Mellow. Praeger. 528 pp. $12.95. Staying on Alone: Letters of Alice B.

Plain Speaking, by Merle Miller
by Samuel McCracken
HST Plain Speaking: An Oral Biography of Harry S Truman. by Merle Miller. Putnam. 448 pp. $8.95. It was only to be expected, once the spirit of nostalgia entered politics, that its first victim should be the memory of Harry S Truman.

Reader Letters May 1974
by Robert Alter
The Arab Mind TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Gil Carl AlRoy's article, "Do the Arabs Want Peace?" [February], rests, I think, on evidence sup- posedly showing the "Arab" to be vengeful and actually incapable of anything but perpetual war. Your readers should be presented with more accurate evidence, if not in the interests of political com- fort then at best in the interests of truth.

June, 1974Back to Top
Spinoza's Jewishness
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I must take exception to Milton Himmelfarb's view that Spinoza was an ex-Jew [“Spinoza and the Colonel,” March].

Israel After the War
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I should like to comment on David Vital's article, “The Need for Political Change” [March]. The Zionist movement has made three fatal mistakes, the consequences of which are objectively and comprehensively described in Mr.

Eugenics
by Our Readers
To the Editor: With his usual brilliance and lucidity, Charles Frankel voices in “The Specter of Eugenics” [March] the misgivings felt by many about the uses to which discoveries in the field of biology, particularly genetics, can be put in our imperfect world.

Detente
by Theodore Draper
Not since World War II has there been such an era of ill feeling between Western Europe and the United States as there has been in the past year.

The Truants: “Partisan Review” in the 40's
by William Barrett
Philip Rahv is dead, and Mary McCarthy has given us a moving tribute, a public love-letter to redeem her cruel caricature of him years ago in The Oasis.

Holy Land
by Hillel Halkin
Shortly after the end of the October war, my wife, I, and our six-month-old daughter moved into the house we had built on nearly an acre of land in the hilltop village of Z.

The Fear of Affluence
by John Sisk
In this time of shortage there is, God knows, no shortage of prophets of doom. It is a relief, therefore, when someone like James Reston, with the weight of the Times behind him, can look the grim situation squarely in the face and still see the bright side of it, as he did in one of his columns last November.

Mandelstam's Witness
by Robert Alter
In Memory of Yosef Haefrati, the Gifted Literary Scholar, Killed on the Golan Heights, April 17, 1974. “I am easy in my mind now,” Akhma- tova said to me in the sixties.

Bright Events
by Jack Richardson
Since most of what is to follow will be a happy report, I will begin with a short diatribe so that I will be able to sustain my present theatrical enthusiasm without having to anticipate sour qualifications.

Obedience to Authority, by Stanley Milgram
by R. Herrnstein
Measuring Evil Obedience to Authority. by Stanley Milgram. Harper & Row. 320 pp. $8.95. Writing in 1963 about Eichmann's trial in Jerusalem, Hannah Arendt invoked the banality of evil.

The Question of Palestine 1914-1918, by Isaiah Friedman
by David Vital
The Palestine Issue 1. The Question of Palestine 1914-1918: British-Jewish-Arab Relations. by Isaiah Friedman. Schocken. 450 pp. $12.00. The triumph of 1948 turned Zionism—and Zion—from an affair of a distinct minority of Jews to the concern of all.

There Could Have Been Peace, by Jon Kimche
by Edward Luttwak
2 There Could have been Peace: The Untold Story of why we Failed in Palestine and Again with Israel. by Jon Kimche. Dial.

Battleground: Fact and Fantasy in Palestine, by Samuel Katz
by James Adams
3. Battleground: Fact and Fantasy in Palestine. by Samuel Katz. Bantam. 271 pp. $1.50. This book has little to do with military strategy or tactics, yet Mr.

The Wonder-Worker, by Dan Jacobson
by Johanna Kaplan
Re-Creation The Wonder-Worker. by Dan Jacobson. Atlantic-Little, Brown. 191 pp. $5.95. Dan Jacobson's new novel The Wonder-Worker is a highly unusual, exhilarating book, and in a subtle, understated way ultimately so radical that it is at first difficult to connect with the author's previous works.

The Unwritten War: American Writers and the Civil War, by Daniel Aaron
by John Aldridge
War and Literature The Unwritten War: American Writers and the Civil War. by Daniel Aaron. Knopf. 401 pp. $12.50. Daniel Aaron has written a book about the impact of the Civil War on American writers in order to demonstrate the perfectly valid thesis that the war actually had very little impact on American writers.

The Age of the Avant-Garde, by Hilton Kramer
by Leon Wieseltier
The Work of Art The Age of the Avant-Garde. by Hilton Kramer. Farrar, Straus & Giroux. 565 pp. $15.00. The explosion of artistic talent in this country in the 1940's and 50's, with the accompanying thrill of America's suddenly finding itself at the center of the art world, raised an especially acute question as to the proper role in all this of the art critic.

Reader Letters June 1974
by Mordecai Kaplan
Eugenics TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: With his usual brilliance and lucidity, Charles Frankel voices in "The Specter of Eugenics" [MIarch] the misgivings felt by many about the uses to which dis- coveries in the field of biology, particularly genetics, can be put in our imperfect world.

July, 1974Back to Top
“The Exorcist”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: COMMENTARY is the last publication I would have expected to publish a review of The Exorcist [“ ‘The Exorcist’ & Its Audience,” by William S.

Drama Critics
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I like Jack Richardson's work as a playwright. I did not like his lethargic, inconclusive article about drama critics [“Reviewing Plays,” April].

Apologetics
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his response to Edward W. Said's comment on his article, “Do the Arabs Want Peace?” [February], Gil Carl AlRoy notes [Letters from Readers, May] the symptoms of “a serious phenomenon, long known to Orientalists as ‘apologetics’ ”: an Arab (e.g., Mr.

Sylvia Plath
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Any man who presumes to enter into the psychic innards of experiences which are uniquely feminine, especially the sexual and the maternal, is bound to end up in the quicksand of (for him) the unknowable and the quagmire of a women's-lib counterattack.

Peace in the Middle East?
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Walter Laqueur's article, “Israel After the War: Peace with Egypt?” [March], is finely balanced. Regrettably, however, his references to the sober realities of the conflict are balanced by much wishful thinking and by an accommodation of some of the facts to an apparently preconceived but quite imaginary scenario. Mr.

Did the Press Uncover Watergate?
by Edward Epstein
A sustaining myth of journalism holds that every great government scandal is revealed through the work of enterprising reporters who by one means or another pierce the official veil of secrecy.

Against the Neo-Malthusians
by B. Bruce-Briggs
The past few years have seen a spate of claims that the modern era of population and economic growth is about to be halted by scarcity of resources and environmental pollution.

Israel-With Terrorists
by Joan Colebrook
December 1973 Inside the Athens airport, the baggage of a small group of passengers is being subjected to a minute search by security agents (an opening of screw-top jars, a running of hands along linings, a confiscating of knives, scissors, cans of lighter fluid).

Vonnegut & His Audience
by Edward Grossman
Wampeters, Foma & Granfalloons1 is the name of Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.'s new book, a collection of essays, reviews, speeches, etc.

Crime and the Criminologists
by James Wilson
The “social-science view” of crime is thought by many, especially its critics, to assert that crime is the result of poverty, racial discrimination, and other privations, and that the only morally defensible and substantively efficacious strategy for reducing crime is to attack its “root causes” with programs that end poverty, reduce discrimination, and meliorate privation.

Voices of Orthodoxy
by David Singer
For as long as one can rémember, Orthodoxy has been regarded as the poor relation of American Judaism, a sectarian minority pursuing its own parochial concerns, less numerous, less affluent, altogether less “popular” than its Reform and Conservative counterparts.

Coppola's Progress
by William Pechter
The Conversation is Francis Ford Coppola's sixth film as a director, and something of a departure in a career which seems to grow not more but less easy to pin down.

Choosing Our King, by Michael Novak
by Paul Weaver
Politics as Passion Play Choosing Our King: Powerful Symbols in Presidential Politics. by Michael Novak. Macmillan. 324 pp. $7.95. In 1970 Michael Novak went on leave from his academic post as professor of philosophy and religious studies at Old Westbury to work as a speech writer for Sargent Shriver, who was campaigning that fall for Democratic Congressional candidates.

Enormous Changes at the Last Minute, by Grace Paley
by Jane Crain
“Ordinary” Lives Enormous Changes at the Last Minute. by Grace Paley. Farrar, Straus & Giroux. 198 pp. $6.95. The first collection of Grace Paley's short stories, The Little Disturbances of Man, appeared in 1959, and was greeted with lavish critical enthusiasm.

The Provincials, by Eli N. Evans
by Louis Berg
Regional Portrait The Provincials: A Personal History of the Jews in the South. by Eli N. Evans. Atheneum. 396 pp. $10.95. Eli Evans is clearly the man to have done this very good book—part biography, part history, part sociology—about Southern Jews.

Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History, by Fawn M. Brodie
by David Donald
By Sex Obsessed Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History. by Fawn M. Brodie. Norton. 591 pp. $12.50. The time has come, it seems, to erect a new tombstone for Thomas Jefferson.

Ethnic Conflict and Political Development, by Cynthia H. Enloe
by Murray Friedman
Understanding Pluralism Ethnic Conflict and Political Development. by Cynthia H. Enloe. Little, Brown. 282 pp. $4.95. Ethnic nationalism, with its accompanying toll of racial and religious conflict, would seem to be on the rise everywhere in the world today.

Elsewhere, Perhaps, by Amos Oz
by David Stern
Morality Tale Elsewhere, Perhaps. by Amos Oz. Translated by Nicolas De Lange. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. 309 pp. $7.95. Amos Oz has emerged in recent years as the best known of the younger Israeli novelists and a leading spokesman for the generation of sabras who grew up along with the State of Israel.

The Price of Perfect Justice, by Macklin Fleming
by Joseph Bishop
Judging the Judges The Price of Perfect Justice: The Adverse Consequences of Current Legal Doctrine on The American Courtroom. by Macklin Fleming. Basic Books.

Reader Letters July 1974
by Walter Laqueur
Peace in the Middle East? TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Walter Laqueur's article, "Israel After the War: Peace with Egypt?" [March], is finely balanced.

August, 1974Back to Top
The New Anti-Semitism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have read Earl Raab's “Is There a New Anti-Semitism?” [May] in which he discusses the thesis put forward by Arnold Forster and Benjamin R.

Nuclear Strategy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The arguments presented in “Nuclear Strategy: The New Debate” [April] are weakened by the same sorts of errors for which the author, Edward N.

The Role of the Press
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Edward Jay Epstein's article, “Journalism and Truth” [April], which will be read by the predisposed as proof that journalists are inherently unable to be truthful, opens more speculations than it closes.

The Gathering Storm
by Walter Laqueur
Almost two years ago, in October 1972, Victor Zorza announced in a column in the Washington Post the coming of a new “golden age.” Let the skeptics scoff, Mr.

Notes on American Innocence
by Lev Navrozov
The first American I met outside was a professor of sociology with whom I struck up a conversation on a Roman streetcar—we lived in Rome while waiting for our American visas.

Stefa and Pomeranz
by Amos Oz
Poland. Early winter, 1939. A Jewish schoolmaster by the name of Pomeranz had fled from the Germans and gone into hiding in the forest.

Lawyers at the Bar
by Joseph Bishop
In recent months the legal profession has been under the most severe attack in years—from the press, from the politicians, and even from itself.

Culture and the Abyss
by Samuel Hux
No matter what the range and virtues of English literature, it is not a literature notable for tragedy. Shakespeare and a few others aside, even when we come to the “darker” literature in English—not tragedy precisely, but various misanthropic views, records of personal suffering, testaments of pessimism, or of frenetic ecstasy—more often than not the writer turns out to be not so much “English” as Gaelic.

On Leo Strauss
by Milton Himmelfarb
Leo Strauss died in October 1973, at the age of seventy-four. His name is known chiefly to two groups of scholars whose interests do not normally converge, political scientists and specialists in medieval Jewish thought.

Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery; Time on the Cross: Evidence and Methods-A Supplement, by Robert Will
by Nathan Glazer
<p><strong>A New View of Slavery</strong></p> <p><em>Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery.</em><br /> by Robert William Fogel and Stanley L.

The Future of the Jewish Community in America, edited by David Sidorsky
by Alan Mintz
<p><strong>American Jews</strong></p> <p><em>The Future of the Jewish Community in America.</em><br /> by David Sidorsky.<br /> <em>Basic Books. 324 pp. $11.95.</em></p> <p>Three years ago the American Jewish Committee, sensing a need for a general re-evaluation of policy, established three study-commissions to examine the relations of American Jews with the international community, with American society, and, finally, with each other.

Seduction and Betrayal, by Elizabeth Hardwick
by John Aldridge
<p><strong>Writing About Women</strong></p> <p><em>Seduction and Betrayal: Women and Literature.</em><br /> by Elizabeth Hardwick.<br /> <em>Random House. 208 pp. $6.95.</em></p> <p>Elizabeth Hardwick&#39;s new collection of essays, all first published in the <em>New York Review of Books</em>, is a work of diverse and contradictory features.

Alive, by Piers Paul Read
by William Bennett
71 Days Alive: The Story of the Andes Survivors. by Piers Paul Read. Lippincott. 352 pp. $10.00. There are many opportunities for instruction about the psychology of survival in this story of sixteen Uruguayan young men who lived for 71 clays on the frozen slopes of the Andes following the crash of their plane bound for Chile for a rugby match.

Moses Mendelssohn, by Alexander Altmann
by Jacob Katz
<p><strong>Jewish Emancipation</strong></p> <p><em>Moses Mendelssohn: A Biographical Study.</em><br /> by Alexander Altmann.<br /> <em>University of Alabama Press. 900 pp. $15.00.</em></p> <p>The name of Moses Mendelssohn&mdash;philosopher, man of letters, &ldquo;Father of Jewish Emanicipation&rdquo;&mdash;is undoubtedly familiar to anyone who has even a cursory acquaintance with the highlights of Jewish history.

An Inquiry into the Human Prospect, by Robert L. Heilbroner
by Rudolf Klein
<p><strong>Growth vs. No-Growth</strong></p> <p><em>An Inquiry into the Human Prospect.</em><br /> by Robert L. Heilbroner.<br /> <em>W. W. Norton. 150 pp. $5.95.</em></p> <p>Only a decade or so ago it was still fashionable to look at the competition between the United States and Russia, between a capitalist society based on a market economy and a planned society controlling the means of production and distribution, as a race between two rival economic systems.

The Great School Wars, by Diane Ravitch
by Elliott Abrams
Education & Social Change The Great School Wars. by Diane Ravitch. Basic Books. 449 pp. $12.95. Since 1805, when New York's leading families established the Free School Society, the city's schools have played a social, as well as an educational, role.

Reader Letters August 1974
by Earl Raab
The Role of the Press TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Edward Jay Epstein's article, "Journalism and Truth" [April], which will be read by the predis- posed as proof that journalists are inherently unable to be truthful, opens more speculations than it closes ... If not the present system of truthlessness, what will take its place? Since both the Mob and Mammon feel a certain need for the system as it now stands-its bulk, its timeliness, its variety of inclusion, and even its immensity of exclusion-deconditioning them will be a difficult process.

September, 1974Back to Top
The Definition of Palestine
by
To the Editor: My attention has been directed to an important mistake in my article, “America, Europe, and the Middle East” [February].

Science and Art
by Our Readers
To the Editor: John P. Sisk's “The Fear of Affluence” [June] . . . is staggering in its sweep over historical cases—ranging from medieval anchorites through our founding Pilgrims (both the ascetic and the dissolute ones) to Timothy Leary and Janis Joplin.

American Catholics
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . Michael Novak, in his review of Michael Harrington's Fragments of a Century [Books in Review, May], refers to the fear of the autobiographical mode as “an American-Catholic affliction,” seeming not to recognize that the essays in Daniel Callahan's book to which he refers are almost exclusively by Irish- and German-Catholics, mostly Jesuit-educated, of the same class, and, in essential response, very much of a kind.

Oil
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Edward N. Luttwak's article, “Farewell to Oil?” [May] is generally very well done and rather succinctly explains the economics of certain long-term aspects of the energy situation.

Russian Realities
by Our Readers
1. Solzhenitsyn To the Editor: Jeri Laber's “The Real Solzhenitsyn” [May] raises issues of importance to the understanding of Solzhenitsyn and of our own literary, political, and moral judgments.

Woodrow Wilson
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Daniel P. Moynihan, writing to the query, “Was Woodrow Wilson Right?” [May], quotes the peroration of Wilson's last great speech, the one delivered at Pueblo, Colorado, only a few hours before he suffered the paralytic stroke from which he never entirely recovered.

Kissinger & the Yom Kippur War
by Walter Laqueur
<p>What happened in October 1973? Or rather, what happened in Washington between October 6, 1973&mdash;when fighting erupted on the Suez Canal and the Golan Heights&mdash;and 3:30 A.M.

Delmore: A 30's Friendship and Beyond
by William Barrett
“We were never more free than under the Occupation.” Change the last word to Depression, and you have the truth of the 30's—at least for some of us.

Ethnicity and the Schools
by Nathan Glazer
It is not easy to find the words that would accurately describe the current wave of ethnic feeling which seems now to be sweeping over America.

Erik Erikson's America
by David Gutmann
The name of Erik Erikson has been associated ever since the 1940's with a number of major innovations in the field of psychoanalytic theory.

The Idea of Decadence
by Renee Winegarten
<p>Nowadays, when people actually line up to see an exhibition of paintings by Gustave Moreau or Edvard Munch, or to say goodbye to Berlin for the umpteenth time&mdash;and moreover, wallow in Nazi-period nostalgia or in the picture of bourgeois degradation conjured up by some well-heeled neo-Marxist film director&mdash;it might seem otiose to inquire whether our Western culture, as a whole, is decadent.

Everyman in Chinatown
by William Pechter
Some months ago, in a generally unenthusiastic survey of the highly acclaimed work of some young American directors, I mentioned Terrence Malick's Badlands, one of the great successes of the last New York Film Festival, and a film I hadn't then seen.

Vested Interests
by Ralph Raimi
<p>All my childhood was spent among Communists, in Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A. When I was six I went with my mother to spend a few days in a cabin on the outskirts of a place called Workers Camp, a summer camp for children.

Political Organizations, by James Q. Wilson
by Jeane Kirkpatrick
Interest Groups in America Political Organizations. by James Q. Wilson. Basic Books. 236 pp. $10.95. As recently as a decade ago discussion of American government by political scientists was dominated (though never preempted) by a set of interlocking propositions then called pluralism.

My Life as a Man, by Philip Roth
by John Aldridge
Literary Onanism My Life as a Man. by Philip Roth. Holt, Rinehart & Winston. 330 pp. $8.25. In 1961, Philip Roth published in these pages a remarkable essay entitled “Writing American Fiction” which attracted considerable attention at the time and has since come to be regarded as something of a classic critical statement.

Invitation to the Talmud, by Jacob Neusner
by Jeffrey Marsh
Studying the Tradition Invitation to the Talmud: A Teaching Book. by Jacob Neusner. Harper & Row. 263 pp. $7.95. Sir Moses Montefiore was supposedly once asked by a Gentile friend: “If the commandments of Judaism and Christianity are the same, wherein lies the difference?” “The difference,” he is said to have replied, “is that we obey them.” Though the basic assumption of the questioner was wrong, and the devout philanthropist's response considerably overstated the degree of Jewish religious observance both then and now, the exchange does point up the main distinction between the two religions: Christianity evolved out of the idea that the detailed laws promulgated in the Hebrew Bible had been superseded by a new dispensation emphasizing belief over ritual observance.

Tristes Tropiques, by Claude Levi-Strauss
by Frank Lipsius
Among the Primitives Tristes Tropiques. by Claude Lévi-Strauss. Translated by John and Doreen Weightman. Atheneum. 432 pp. $12.50. There is no trick in matching the name Lévi-Strauss with structuralism.

The Pope's Jews, by Sam Waagenaar; The Vatican in the Age of the Dictators, 1922-1945, by Anthony Rhodes
by Joshua Rubenstein
<p><strong>The Church &#38; the Jews</strong></p> <p><em>The Pope&#39;s Jews.</em><br /> by Sam Waagenaar.<br /> <em>Library Press. 487 pp. $9.95.</em></p> <p><em>The Vatican in the Age of the Dictators, 1922-1945.</em><br /> by Anthony Rhodes.<br /> <em>Holt, Rinehart &#38; Winston.

The Seventh Hero: Thomas Carlyle and the Theory of Radical Activism, by Philip Rosenberg
by Gertrude Himmelfarb
<p><strong>Radical History</strong></p> <p><em>The Seventh Hero: Thomas Carlyle and the Theory oe Radical Activism.</em><br /> by Philip Rosenberg.<br /> <em>Harvard University Press. 288 pp.

Reader Letters September 1974
by William Korey
TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Daniel P. Moynihan, writing to the query, "Was Woodrow Wilson Right?" [May], quotes the peror- ation of Wilson's last great speech, the one delivered at Pueblo, Colo- rado, only a few hours before he suffered the paralytic stroke from which he never entirely recovered. Immediately afterward, Mr.

October, 1974Back to Top
Emancipation
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Jacob Katz's essay, “Emancipation and Jewish Studies” [April], repeatedly associates the process of emancipation with the legal status of the Jewish people.

Science & Authority
by Our Readers
To the Editor: We are caught up by the myths of our time even as we are refuting them. In R.

Watergate
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “Did the Press Uncover Watergate?” [July], Edward Jay Epstein incorrectly identifies Hugh W. Sloan, Jr. as treasurer of the Republican National Committee.

The British in Palestine
by Our Readers
To the Editor: James R. Adams devotes most of his review of my book Battleground: Fact and Fantasy in Palestine [Books in Review, June] to an attack on my thesis that the first cause of the previously nonexistent Palestine Arab nationalist movement was the British authority in Palestine.

Theories of Crime
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The distinction James Q. Wilson makes between “causal analysis” and “policy analysis” [“Crime and the Criminologists,” July] may have some immediate practical value that eludes me, but it is ultimately untenable, and harmful to the very policy research which he advocates to help us reduce crime. The focal problem is not that the sociologists he criticizes (Sutherland and Cressey; Cloward and Ohlin) deal with “ultimate causes” or that “attempts to explain the causes of crime .

Politics & Poetry
by Our Readers
To the Editor: An exchange in your July letters columns concerning “Sylvia Plath Reconsidered” by John Romano [April] raises an issue of such large interest that perhaps you will allow me to add a few words.

Detente
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . Theodore Draper [“Détente,” June] advances important points with great sensitivity to the complexities involved, but he also is tempted to wander afield.

Why Ethnicity?
by Nathan Glazer
Ethnicity seems to be a new term. In the sense in which we use it—the character or quality of an ethnic group—it does not appear in the 1933 edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, and only makes its appearance in the 1972 Supplement, where the first usage recorded is that of David Riesman in 1953.

Guerrillas and Terrorists
by Walter Laqueur
<p>Guerrilla warfare is as old as war itself: according to the Anastasi Papyrus, the Hittite King Mursilis complained, &ldquo;The irregulars did not dare to attack me in the daylight and preferred to fall on me by night.&rdquo; But the term guerrilla is much younger, having first been used in 1809 with reference to &ldquo;irregular war carried on by small bodies of men acting independently.&rdquo; This definition, however broad, is no longer satisfactory, and historians and sociologists have looked, mostly in vain, for looser terms such as civil violence or internal war.

Women and Success
by Sonya Rudikoff
In 1911, when Martha Graham was seventeen, she went with her father to see Ruth St. Denis dance. The occasion inspired her so profoundly that she never lost its meaning: “The rest of her life was to be spent trying to realize in her own person the vision that she saw in Ruth St.

From Plato to Las Vegas
by Jack Richardson
~(3x) x=xI wrote the above formula while I was a student of philosophy in Munich. My enthusiasm for my subject, which had at one time stirred in me a wish to distill and define the universe, was almost exhausted, and I was becoming, due to a spreading positivistic infection, a morbid enemy of speculative thought, determined that if I could not slip past my own refutations into glory, no one else would.~(3x) x=x, however, filled me with a demented sense of possibility.

What Jewish Studies Can Do
by Robert Alter
“At a time of gathering-in, spread out”—a suggestively enigmatic pronouncement of one of the early rabbis—is peculiarly applicable to the present situation of Jewish studies in the American universities, though the other half of that pronouncement might also be kept in mind as a guide to Jewish academic planning: “At a time of spreading-out, gather in.” Since the late 60's there has been a general shrinkage in academic programs, as government support for higher education dwindled and as the college population boom of the earlier 60's began to fade.

Susan Sontag's Israel
by Edward Grossman
<p>Unintentionally and successfully, the Israelis have resisted the efforts of moviemakers to capture the drama of their lives, be it in so-called &ldquo;documentaries&rdquo; or in made-up treatments written for the occasion or based on novels or short stories.

On Liberty and Liberalism, by Gertrude Himmelfarb
by Peter Berger
<p><strong>Mill vs. Mill</strong></p> <p><em>On Liberty and Liberalism: The Case of John Stuart Mill.</em><br /> by Gertrude Himmelfarb.<br /> <em>Knopf. 345 pp. $8.95.</em></p> <p>This book is an intriguing combination of textual criticism, biographical sleuthing, and ideological commentary.

A Musical Season, by Andrew Porter
by B. Haggin
<p><strong>Scholar and Critic</strong></p> <p><em>A Musical Season.</em><br /> by Andrew Porter.<br /> <em>Viking. 288 pp. $8.95.</em></p> <p>&ldquo;Editors,&rdquo; as Bernard Shaw wrote, &ldquo;by some law of Nature which still baffles science, are always ignorant of music&rdquo;; and so &ldquo;an editor who can tell at a glance whether .

Pilgrim at Tinker Creek, by Annie Dillard; Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance, by Robert Pirsig
by Eva Hoffman
Solitude Pilgrim at Tinker Creek. by Annie Dillard. Harper's Magazine Press. 271 pp. $7.95. Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance. by Robert Pirsig. Morrow. 412 pp.

Lincoln Steffens, by Justin Kaplan
by Samuel McCracken
Muckraking Lincoln Steffens. by Justin Kaplan. Simon & Schuster. 380 pp. $10.00. We should not be surprised to find Lincoln Steffens undergoing a modest revival, for there is much in his career and character that is apposite to our own situation and congenial in principle to the political sentiments of today's liberals and radicals.

Three American Moralists, by Nathan A. Scott, Jr.
by John Romano
Amazing Grace Three American Moralists: Mailer, Bellow, Trilling. by Nathan A. Scott, Jr. University of Notre Dame Press. 237 pp. $6.95. There can be no doubt that the liberal, literary intelligence that came to maturity after World War II has declined in prestige and influence during the past decade.

Ladies and Gentlemen-Lenny Bruce, by Albert Goldman
by Dorothy Rabinowitz
<p><strong>Jewish Jokesters</strong></p> <p><em>Ladies and Gentlemen&mdash;Lenny Bruce.</em><br /> by Albert Goldman.<br /> <em>From the Journalism of Lawrence Schiller. Random House. 565 pp. $10.00.</em></p> <p>Several years after Lenny Bruce was found dead in his bathroom, a needle sticking out of his right arm, Albert Goldman set about to write his biography in collaboration with Lawrence Schiller, a man who had, like Goldman, written a good deal on the subject of Bruce while he was alive.

Reader Letters October 1974
by Irving Howe
Detente TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: ... Theodore Draper ["Detente," June] advances important points with great sensitivity to the com- plexities involved, but he also is tempted to wander afield.

November, 1974Back to Top
Orthodoxy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I read David Singer's perceptive, sympathetic, and yet critical appraisal of present-day Orthodoxy [“Voices of Orthodoxy,” July] with extreme interest.

Moving North
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his thoughtful review of Robert W. Fogel and Stanley L. Engerman, Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery [Books in Review, August], Nathan Glazer correctly calls attention to Fogel and Engerman's insistence that “the rehabilitation of the slave-owning South can only lead to the unveiling of a post-Civil War record in both South and North that reduced the Negro, in all measurable ways, below the level he had achieved under slavery.

Justice and the Courts
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Joseph W. Bishop, Jr., in his review of Macklin Fleming's The Price of Perfect Justice [Books in Review, July] applauds Justice Fleming's attack on the power of federal courts to review state court criminal proceedings.

Mandelstam as Poet
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . No purpose would be served by enumerating the annoying linguistic and factual inaccuracies that mar Robert Alter's generally thoughtful and sensitive essay on Osip Mandelstam [“Mandelstam's Witness,” June].

Growth and Population
by Our Readers
To the Editor: On the first page of his article [“Against the Neo-Malthusians,” July], B. Bruce-Briggs refers to Réne Duclos of Rockefeller University.

In Defense of Monogamy
by George Gilder
No way of life has been more glowingly celebrated in recent years than that of the “liberated” single male. Yet the truth is that men without wives in America generally seem to have a far harder time of it than married men—living lives that tend to be not only shorter, but also more destructive, both to themselves and to society.

The Problem of Kenneth Clark
by Hadley Arkes
Kenneth Clark has been so frequently celebrated in public that one scarcely knows by now just which of his burdens may be more difficult for him to bear—the weight of his collected honors or the authority that has been settled upon him by the gracing touch of officiality.

Beggar Moon
by Allen Hoffman
There are too many threads. That's obvious. Our suits have too many threads, isn't one always hanging loose? Our days have too many threads.

Of Graves and Poets
by Eleanor Clark
It is no small part of the beauty of the so-called Protestant Cemetery in Rome that Keats is buried there.

Moliere and Magic
by Jack Richardson
Les Fourberies de Scapin is not one of Molière's great plays. Put together to keep his troupe employed while they waited for the scenery to be prepared for Psyché, the elaborate tragedy-ballet that Louis XIV had ordered, it is a hodgepodge of borrowings and outright thefts.

The Importance of “Duddy Kravitz”
by William Pechter
The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz is a lumpy, styleless film made from a lumpy, styleless novel, yet it seems to me important.

Something Happened, by Joseph Heller
by Edward Grossman
Yossarian Lives Something Happened. by Joseph Heller. Knopf. 569 pp. $10.00. The famous hero of Joseph Heller's spectacularly successful first novel (Catch-22 has sold eight million copies in the thirteen years it took Heller to write this second novel) is residing today in the suburbs of Connecticut.

The Captive Dreamer, by Christian de la Maziere
by Peter Shaw
“Apologue” The Captive Dreamer. by Christian De La Mazière. Translated by Francis Stuart. Saturday Review Press/Dutton. 288 pp. $7.95. Christian De La Mazière is the self-possessed young man in Marcel Ophuls's movie The Sorrow and the Pity who admits to having been a fascist during the war.

Pictures from a Brewery, by Asher Barash; The Agunah, by Chaim Grade
by David Stern
The Casualties of Exile Pictures From a Brewery. by Asher Barash. Translated by Katie Kaplan. Bobbs-Merrill. 270 pp. $6.95. The Agunah. by Chaim Grade. Translated by Curt Leviant.

Religion and Revolution, by Guenter Lewy; Christianity, Judaism, and Revolution, by Wilfried Daim
by James Hitchcock
Radical Faith Religion And Revolution. by Guenter Lewy. Oxford University Press. 694 pp. $17.50. Christianity, Judaism, and Revolution. by Wilfried Daim. Translated by Peter Tirner. Frederick Ungar.

Engels, Manchester, and the Working Class, by Steven Marcus
by Werner Dannhauser
Upgrading Engels Engels, Manchester, and the Working Class. by Steven Marcus. Random House. 271 pp. $8.95. Marx continues to exert influence even—or especially—in countries without experience of revolutions undertaken in his name.

Reader Letters November 1974
by Emanuel Rackman
Growth and Population TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: On the first page of his article ["Against the Neo-Malthusians," July], B. Bruce-Briggs refers to Rdne Duclos of Rockefeller Uni- versity.

December, 1974Back to Top
Ethnicity
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “Ethnicity and the Schools” [September] Nathan Glazer notes that the new ethnicity is to be taken seriously in regard to education, and concludes that racism is an inadequate explanation for the features of contemporary ethnic feeling.

American Innocence
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I found Lev Navrozov's article, “Notes on American Innocence” [August], disappointing and, ultimately, infuriating. Here is a sophisticated, cultured man flaunting his reactionary views and ridiculing liberals (who in his descriptions emerge almost invariably as humorless fanatics) for their astonishing naiveté What Mr.

Weizmann
by Our Readers
To the Editor: David Vital, reviewing Isaiah Friedman's The Question of Palestine 1914-1918 [Books in Review, June], salutes the author justly for his “meticulous” work on the official papers, now open, dealing with the origin of the Balfour Declaration, but goes on to draw some conclusions that run counter, in fact, to the documentation in the book.

The Role of Lawyers
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “Lawyers at the Bar” [August] Joseph W. Bishop, Jr. gives the back of his hand to a statement of mine that the record of the lawyers around Richard Nixon is “appalling” and that there has been “nothing like it” in our history.

Kissinger & th Yom Kippur War
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I want to comment on the implication in Edward N. Luttwak and Walter Laqueur's article, “Kissinger and the Yom Kippur War” [September], that the American Jewish community was restrained in its political representations to our government by Secretary of State Kissinger's “handling” of Simcha Dinitz, Israel's Ambassador to the United States. I write from the vantage point of having served as chairman of the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations representing the collective political position of almost the entire American Jewish community. Within several hours of the outbreak of the Yom Kippur War on October 6, as chairman of the Conference, I sent a telegram to Secretary Kissinger calling on the government “to provide all supportive assistance to Israel in this critical hour.

Culture and the Present Moment: A Round-Table Discussion
by Hilton Kramer
Last September, COMMENTARY, in conjunction with the Humanities Program of the Rockefeller Foundation, held an all-day symposium on the state of high culture in America at the present time.

The Greening of Judaism
by Marshall Sklare
Seldom does the appearance of a book become a major public event, and rarer still is the book that can be singled out as marking a turning point of any kind in public experience; but this, within the world of American Jewry, has been the happy fate of a 319-page volume entitled The Jewish Catalog: A Do-It Yourself Kit,1 a book which within a few months of its publication in 1973 was already being referred to as a classic.

Feminist Fiction
by Jane Crain
Unlike older forms of “woman's fiction,” written not only by and about but primarily for women, a new kind of woman's novel that has been appearing with increasing frequency in recent years, avowedly “feminist” in orientation, has aspired to and won a place for itself in the literary mainstream.

Conversations in Cairo
by Nadav Safran
Sunday A few hours outside Cairo, the captain of our BEA flight makes an announcement over the loudspeaker: fifty pieces of luggage have been left behind at London airport.

Plural Establishment
by Milton Himmelfarb
In two months three substantial articles bearing directly or indirectly on the New Ethnicity have appeared in COMMENTARY: Nathan Glazer's “Ethnicity and the Schools” (September), Glazer and Daniel P.

The Power Broker, by Robert A. Caro
by B. Bruce-Briggs
Master Builder The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York. by Robert A. Caro. Knopf. 1246 pp. $17.95. The sheer size of this book is the first sign that something is amiss.

The Last Exodus, by Leonard Schroeter
by Maurice Friedberg
Soviet Jews The Last Exodus. by Leonard Schroeter. Universe Books. 432 pp. $10.95. Leonard Schroeter's The Last Exodus ranks among the important books of Jewish interest in recent years.

Love-Hate Relations, by Stephen Spender
by Renee Winegarten
Culture and Country Love-Hate Relations: A Study of Anglo-American Sensibilities. by Stephen Spender. Random House. 246 pp. $8.95. Stephen Spender's Love-Hate Relations can be taken in at least two ways.

Karl Marx: His Life and Thought, by David McClellan
by Carl Gershman
Life of a Revolutionary Karl Marx: His Life and Thought. by David McClellan. Harper & Row. 498 pp. $12.50. Karl Marx had a very hard life.

Who's Minding the Children?, by Margaret Steinfels
by Steven Schlossman
Day Care in America Who's Minding the Children? by Margaret Steinfels. Simon & Schuster. 281 pp. $8.95. “People seem to feel that because children are little things, they are of little consequence”—so observed Boston's Infant School Society in 1828 in its abortive effort to stir public interest and secure government financing for its enterprise.

Justice Under Fire, by Joseph W. Bishop, Jr.
by William Bennett
Military Law Justice Under Fire. by Joseph W. Bishop, Jr. Charterhouse. 315 pp. $8.95. In recent years, for reasons having to do largely with U.S.

Reader Letters December 1974
by Nathan Glazer
Kissinger & the Yom Kippur War TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I want to comment on the im- plication in Edward N. Luttwak- and Walter Laqueur's article, "Kis- singer and the Yom Kippur War" [September], that the American Jewish community was restrained in its political representations to our government by Secretary of State Kissinger's "handling" of Simcha Dinitz, Israel's Ambassador to the United States.




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