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January, 1978Back to Top
Mahler
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The revival of interest in the music of Gustav Mahler is the most striking phenomenon in today's musical life, and it is therefore only fitting that COMMENTARY should have turned its attention to it [“The Mahler Everyone Loves” by Samuel Lipman, November 1977]. Yet I feel that Mr.

More on the Catacombs
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . Michael Ledeen's article, “The Unknown Catacombs” [September 1977], must have been written some time ago, since he says that “the Appia catacombs are in bad shape.” They were, but are no longer.

Soviet Analysts
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was honored that Walter Laqueur would place me in the company of such great scholars as Sir Bernard Pares and Isaac Deutscher in his article, “Russia—Beyond Brezhnev” [August 1977].

Giving and Big Giving
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Marc Lee Raphael's review of my book, Why They Give [Books in Review, September 1977], is the stuff of which United Jewish Appeal brochures are made.

The New Thanatology
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was amused to find myself called a thanatologist by Leslie H. Farber in his article, “O Death, Where is Thy Sting-a-Ling-a-Ling?” [June 1977].

Human Rights
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Peter L. Berger [“Are Human Rights Universal?,” September 1977] attempts to draw a distinction between the various sorts of human rights that a nation should be expected to observe.

Quebec's Jews
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Ruth R. Wisse and Irwin Cotler's article on the present situation of the Jewish population in Quebec [“Quebec's Jews: Caught in the Middle,” September 1977] .

Why Arms Control Has Failed
by Edward Luttwak
Over the last decade, the strategic competition between the United States and the Soviet Union has been transformed. From a clear American superiority, by all criteria of measurement, the balance has tilted to an increasingly precarious parity.

Edmund Wilson vs. America
by Robert Alter
The United States is not a nation in the sense that England or France is. It is a society, a political system, which is still in an experimental state.

Carter in Asia: McGovernism without McGovern
by Chalmers Johnson
The Carter administration has undertaken three major foreign-policy initiatives in East Asia. Each of them is questionable on its individual merits, and all are questionable in terms of what they suggest when linked together.

Soviet Psychiatry on Trial
by Walter Reich
The Norwegian psychiatrist said he was worried. He was sure that his Soviet colleagues were abusing their profession in order to suppress dissent.

Tiny Gorillas
by Meredith Willis
I never met my husband's parents before we were married. They were living semi-retired in Florida, and he never seemed to go visit them.

Performing the “Ring&rdquo
by Samuel Lipman
What are we to do about Richard Wagner? Nothing in the years since his death in 1883 has succeeded in mitigating the essential unpleasantness of his personality.

New Israeli Writing
by Alan Mintz
The state of Israel was conceived by force of a messianic vision, but its existence has been maintained by order, sacrifice, and the rational setting of priorities—and this in the face of another, more ominous vision held by its neighbors.

Chinese Shadows, by Simon Leys
by Charles Horner
Maoist Mandarins Chinese Shadows. by Simon Leys. Viking. 220 pp. $10.00. Since Marco Polo, Western visitors to China have been awed by China's achievements or repelled by its backwardness—or simply confounded by its complexities.

Just and Unjust Wars, by Michael Walzer
by Joseph Bishop
Morality & War Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations. by Michael Walzer. Basic Books. 361 pp. $15.00. Just and Unjust Wars is a thoughtful, generally well-written and lucid, and often but by no means always persuasive essay on the intractable problem of what is moral and immoral in war. Michael Walzer, a professor of government at Harvard, is by trade a moralist, and so he is not primarily concerned with the international law of war, which he prefers to call the “war convention” or the “legal paradigm.” He rightly says that that law is “radically incomplete”; it is so largely because the pertinent treaties and customary law represent only the limited and unsubtle part of morality which virtually all the governments of the world accept, or profess to accept.

The Politics of Defeat, by Joseph Churba; Honor the Promise, by Robert F. Drinan
by Michael Ledeen
The U.S. & the Middle East The Politics of Defeat: America's Decline in the Middle East. by Joseph Churba. Introduction by Elmo R.

The War Against the Automobile, by B. Bruce-Briggs
by Roger Starr
The Car & Its Enemies The War Against the Automobile. by B. Bruce-Briggs. Dutton. 239 pp. $10.95. Most Americans, in company with an ever-growing number of other inhabitants of the world, regard private automotive transport as a fundamental constituent of the good life, coming just after food in importance, and paid for much more cheerfully than shelter.

The Memoirs of Earl Warren, by Earl Warren
by William Bennett
Justice Remembered The Memoirs of Earl Warren. by Earl Warren.M Prologue and Epilogue by the Editors. Double-day. 394 pp. $12.95. Heinrich Heine once observed that the reason no one had written a biography of Immanuel Kant was that he did not have one.

Delmore Schwartz, by James Atlas
by Peter Shaw
The Light that Failed Delmore Schwartz: The Life of an American Poet. by James Atlas. Farrar, Straus & Giroux. 418 pp. $15.00. Delmore Schwartz burst upon the literary world in 1937, when his story, “In Dreams Begin Responsibilities,” was selected as the lead offering in the first issue of the new Partisan Review.

Reader Letters January 1978
by Leslie Farber
Quebec's Jews TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Ruth R. Wisse and Irwin Cot- ler's article on the present situa- tion of the Jewish population in Quebec ["Quebec's Jews: Caught in the Middle," September 1977] .

February, 1978Back to Top
On California
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Daphne Merkin's otherwise perceptive review of Cyra McFadden's The Serial [Books in Review, October 1977] contains a major factual error.

Editorial Note
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The excellent review by Joseph Shattan of Michael Ledeen's study of D'Annunzio, The First Duce [Books in Review, December 1977], was slightly marred by one of those easily understandable errors of omission.

Orthodoxy in Israel
by Our Readers
To the Editor: If S. Zalman Abramov maintains an “austere objectivity” in his treatment of the Jewish religion in the Jewish state, the same cannot be said of Howard M.

Rights and Liberty
by Our Readers
To the Editor: COMMENTARY has done a gross disservice to its readers in publishing William J. Bennett's review of Ronald Dworkin's Taking Rights Seriously [Books in Review, August 1977].

Eurocommunism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am loath to disagree, even in part, with the very knowledgeable Michael Ledeen [“The ‘News’ About Eurocommunism,” October 1977] but, in my view, he is only half right. He is, of course, right in warning against accepting the authenticity of the tactical “conversion” of the Western Communist parties to democracy and pluralism; but he is wrong in assuming that the Soviet Union will, therefore, acquiesce in a Eurocommunism that “is a threat to the West and hardly menaces the Soviet Union at all.” The fallacy lies in assuming that the second necessarily follows from the first. This is made quite clear by the fateful collapse (after Mr.

The New Equality
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Eugene J. McCarthy's article [“A Note on the New Equality,” November 1977] calls for elaboration of a point he makes in passing, a point which may confirm the view that while the Founding Fathers fought for liberty, they never intended to establish “equality.” Mr.

Law and the Looters
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have little to add to the many admiring letters [November 1977] on Midge Decter's article “Looting and Liberal Racism” [September 1977].

The U.S. in the World
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to communicate my admiration for the solidly informative and cogently reasoned essay, “Africa, Soviet Imperialism, and the Retreat of American Power,” by Bayard Rustin and Carl Gershman [October 1977]. The authors clearly appreciate that their essay is only initially concerned with Africa.

Court and Constitution
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to reply to Elliott Abrams's review of my book, Government by Judiciary: The Transformation of the Fourteenth Amendment [Books in Review, December 1977]. “The most immediate constitutional crisis of our present time,” wrote Professor Philip Kurland, is “the usurpation by the judiciary of general governmental powers on the pretext that its authority derives from the Fourteenth Amendment.” Almost fifty years earlier, Justice Holmes expressed the “more than anxiety” he felt because As the decisions now stand, I see hardly any limit but the sky to the invalidation of [the constitutional rights of the states] if they happen to strike a majority of this Court for any reason as undesirable.

Vietnam: New Light on the Question of American Guilt
by Guenter Lewy
To large numbers of Americans, the defeat of their country's arms in Vietnam not only represents a deserved national humiliation in an ill-advised foreign involvement, and not only proves the political and military ineptitude of those who waged the war, but also constitutes just retribution for what amounts to a moral outrage.

Post-Mortem
by Naomi Shepherd
I'D just came back from seeing the Bernheims off at Ben-Gurion airport, which was an unnecessary gesture. If I hadn't taken them, I might have worked on my book, or taken the children swimming, or sorted the bills in the study desk.

The World & President Carter
by Walter Laqueur
Among the more engaging features of the American political system is the custom of extending wide indulgence to every incoming administration, both in foreign policy and in domestic affairs.

The Zeppelin-A Memoir
by Chaim Raphael
In a thicket sprinkled with morning, where each leaf Burned green, hot as a newly minted coin. . . . Peter Davison, The Breaking of the Day If it was a dark night on the way back from Hebrew class, the Kaiser might be lurking around a corner in his spiked helmet waiting to pounce on you.

Paul Goodman in Retrospect
by Joseph Epstein
“A voice a good deal undervalued is that of Paul Goodman,” wrote a reviewer in Book Week, roughly a decade ago—or precisely at the time when, far from being undervalued, Paul Goodman's career was very much in the ascendant.

France's “New Philosophers&rdquo
by Roger Kaplan
Much has been written in the press on both sides of the Atlantic in the past twelve months about a group of young French writers who have turned against the Marxist inheritance which for the past twenty or thirty years has been the birthright of French intellectuals.

The Romance of American Communism, by Vivian Gornick
by Marion Magid
Tender Comrades The Romance of American Communism. by Vivian Gornick. Basic Books. 216 pp. $10.00. On Stalinism, at least, one might have thought the verdict was in for all time, but no such luck.

The Rise of American Philosophy, by Bruce Kuklick
by Jack Beatty
Eliot's Men The Rise of American Philosophy: Cambridge, Massachusetts 1860-1930. by Bruce Kuklick. Yale University Press. 594 pp. $17.95. The subject of this book is the extraordinary philosophic fertility of which Harvard University was the scene and source from the middle of the 19th century through the first two decades of the 20th.

Farewell, Israel!, by Ephraim Sevela
by Joshua Rubenstein
Soviet Jews—In Israel & the West Farewell, Israel! by Ephraim Sevela. Gateway Editions. 295 pp. $12.95. Ephraim Sevela was once a noted Jewish activist in the Soviet Union; on February 24, 1971, he helped to organize a hunger strike by twenty-four Jews in the reception room of the Supreme Soviet in order to secure visas for Israel.

Black Workers in White Unions, by William B. Gould
by Arch Puddington
Unions & Quotas Black Workers in White Unions: Job Discrimination in the United States. by William B. Gould. Cornell University Press. 506 pp.

The Economic War Against the Jews, by Walter Henry Nelson and Terence Prittie
by Jeffrey Marsh
The Arab Boycott The Economic War Against the Jews. by Walter Henry Nelson and Terence Prittie. Random House. 269 pp. $10.00. One of the most striking manifestations of Arab hostility to Israel is the economic boycott administered by the Arab League, which seeks to isolate the Jewish state from normal commercial intercourse with the rest of the world.

March, 1978Back to Top
The Catacombs, Cont.
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was deeply moved by Michael Ledeen's “The Unknown Catacombs” [September 1977]. The ensuing letters in the November and January issues reawakened my interest and set me, old lawyer that I am, to pondering the question: how might we get the Vatican to alter its persistent refusal to turn over .

Air Force Intelligence
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his review of The Politics of Defeat: America's Decline in the Middle East [Books in Review, January] Michael Ledeen refers to author Joseph Churba as the “former intelligence chief of the Air Force,” and again as “former head of Air Force intelligence.” In the interests of accuracy, I should point out that Mr.

Spinoza
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his account of Spinoza's excommunication [“Why Spinoza Was Excommunicated,” November 1977] Yirmiahu Yovel asks: “Who in the Jewish world today might be authorized to accept Spinoza back into the Jewish fold? The Lubavitcher Rebbe? The Prime Minister of Israel? The President of Yeshiva University? The B'nai B'rith?” But what about the spiritual descendants in the Portuguese synagogue, of those who pronounced the ban in the first place? In 1954, when Ben-Gurion proposed an end to the ban, I went to see Salomon Rodrigues Pereira, chief rabbi of the Amsterdam community, and asked him about the proposal.

More on Nuclear Energy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Samuel McCracken's candid, balanced, yet passionate discussion of nuclear energy in “The War Against the Atom” [September 1977] is an intelligent and refreshing contribution to public debate which has hitherto been notable chiefly for pseudo-scientific analysis and religious conviction.

The Middle East: For a Separate Peace
by Robert Tucker
Seldom has a diplomatic move been subjected to as much speculation as Anwar Sadat's initiative in going to Jerusalem. The speculation has not diminished with the passage of time.

Among the South Africans
by Dan Jacobson
The flight. On the plane from London to Johannesburg there were no fewer than two relations of mine, neither of whom I had ever seen before.

The Rediscovery of the Family
by Nathan Glazer
A funny thing happened on the way to developing a radical critique of the American family: it has turned out that the old model was not so bad after all.

Politics and Amnesty International
by Stephen Miller
Amnesty International is an independent human-rights organization which issues regular reports on violations of human rights throughout the world and works for the release of what it calls Prisoners of Conscience (political prisoners who have neither used nor advocated violence).

Modernism, the Germans & the Jews
by Robert Alter
This Jewish obstinacy! Enough to make an anti-Semite of a man! This pride of race, this feeling of solidarity! Do you believe I am ever, in any of my actions, guided by the thought that I am “German” (perhaps, qui le salt)? Do you believe that Mozart composed as an “Aryan”? I know only two types of people: those with and those without talent. —Richard Strauss, letter to Stefan Zweig, June 17, 19351 To the love of the Jews for Germany there corresponded the emphatic distance with which the Germans encountered them.

Does Performance Matter?
by Samuel Lipman
It is a commonplace idea that performance is of great importance in the communication of serious music. In a sense, it is easy to see why this should be so; for most people, music can only be heard when it is performed.

A Novelist Under Communism
by Pearl Bell
No matter how often and graphically we are told of the physical and psychological pressures that afflict the writers of Eastern Europe, it remains difficult for us to understand fully and concretely how the policing of the imagination and all its works affects the life of such a writer.

Anne Sexton: A Self-Portrait in Letters, edited by Linda Gray Sexton and Lois Ames
by Dorothy Rabinowitz
Death Watch Anne Sexton: A Self-Portrait in Letters. by Linda Gray Sexton and Lois Ames. Houghton Mifflin. 433 pp. $15.00. In the fall of 1974 Anne Sexton committed suicide by asphyxiating herself in the garage of her home in Weston, Massachusetts.

Our Children's Crippled Future, by Frank E. Armbruster with Paul Bracken
by Paul Gagnon
School & Society Our Children's Crippled Future: The Failure of American Education. by Frank E. Armbruster with Paul Bracken. Quadrangle. 308 pp. $14.00. That this flawed, badly-written book must be judged useful to our understanding of American education is a sign of how much trouble the schools are in, and how unhelpful most public discourse on this subject is.

Image Before My Eyes, by Lucjan Dobroszycki and Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett; An Illustrated Sourcebook on the Holocaust, by Zo
by Ruth Wisse
Photography as Elegy Image Before my Eyes: A Photographic History of Jewish Life in Poland, 1864-1939. by Lucjan Dobroszycki and Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett. Schocken.

One L, by Scott Turow
by William Bennett
Student Lawyers One L. by Scott Turow. Putnam. 300 pp. $8.95. The majestic reputation of the Harvard Law School is built in part on fancy and in part on fact; it is part fancy and part fact that every year, 550 of the country's brightest young men and women enroll in a rewarding course of study at the hands of a distinguished faculty.

The Cop Who Would Be King, by Joseph R. Daughen and Peter Binzen
by Murray Friedman
Philadelphia Story The Cop who would be King: The Honorable Frank Rizzo. by Joseph R. Daughen and Peter Binzen. Little, Brown. 344 pp.

The Vast Majority, by Michael Harrington
by Michael Ledeen
To Have & Have Not The Vast Majority: A Journey to the World's Poor. by Michael Harrington. Simon & Schuster. 281 pp. $9.95. In The Vast Majority, Michael Harrington, who is identified on the book's jacket as “the most eminent social critic, activist, and socialist in this country,” purports to offer an analysis of global inequality; a series of first-hand accounts of poor countries (really travel diaries masquerading as social science); and a “remedy” for the current world system, which, according to Harrington, “makes children leprous in Bombay, furrows the foreheads of women in Kenya, and turns Indians in Guatemala into drunkards.” The villain of the piece, to no one's surprise, is the United States, indeed “the people of the United States,” who in their “cruel innocence” are the keystone of this entire repressive and exploitative edifice. In Harrington's view, Americans are responsible for the suffering of the world's poor because they participate in the capitalist system, which has committed the grave sin of imposing a “growth process” on the Third World from without, instead of permitting underdeveloped countries to evolve naturally and organically.

April, 1978Back to Top
Delmore Schwartz
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . According to Peter Shaw in his review of James Atlas's biography, Delmore Schwartz [Books in Review, January], Saul Bellow “captured” the “power” and “brilliance” of Delmore Schwartz's “speech” in Humboldt's Gift.

Soviet Psychiatry
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Walter Reich's insightful inside view [“Soviet Psychiatry on Trial,” January] of the World Psychiatric Association's Sixth World Congress, held in Hawaii, August 1977, confirms the experiences of those of us concerned with Soviet repression of human rights.

Arms Control
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Edward N. Luttwak's “Why Arms Control Has Failed” [January] is another in his series of informative articles on defense and foreign-policy issues.

Middle East Policy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Walter Laqueur asserts in his article, “The World & President Carter” [February], that the Soviet Union has no interest in a Middle East peace that is acceptable to Israel and “the other main participants, including the United States.

Judicial Power
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to comment on the exchange of views [Letters from Readers, February] between Raoul Berger, author of Government by Judiciary: The Transformation of the Fourteenth Amendment, and Elliott Abrams, who reviewed Mr.

Paul Goodman
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The last time that Joseph Epstein [“Paul Goodman in Retrospect,” February] hauled Paul Goodman up before his court of sexual orthodoxy was in an essay, “Homo/Hetero: The Struggle for Sexual Identity” (Harper's, September 1970).

Carter in Asia
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It may be presumptuous of a layman to disagree with a scholar such as Chalmers Johnson [“McGovernism without McGovern: Carter in Asia,” January], but I was particularly provoked by his conclusion.

American Communists
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Many thanks for Marion Magid's review of The Romance of American Communism by Vivian Gornick [Books in Review, February].

Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy
by William Barrett
Earlier this year, the editors of COMMENTARY addressed the following statement and questions to a group of intellectuals of varying political views: The idea that there may be an inescapable connection between capitalism and democracy has recently begun to seem plausible to a number of intellectuals who would once have regarded such a view not only as wrong but even as politically dangerous.

The Hill of Evil Counsel
by Amos Oz
1. It was dark. In the dark a woman said, “I'm not afraid.” A man replied, “Oh, yes, you are.” Another man said, “Quiet.” Then dim lights came on at either side of the stage, the curtains parted, and all was quiet. In May 1946, one year after the Allied victory, the Jewish Agency mounted a great celebration in the Edison Cinema.

Staging England's Decline
by Peter Shaw
The English theater's formula for success seems to be a combination of modest plays and superb acting. It takes relatively little dramatizing to bring a subject to the London stage: history, autobiography, memoirs, and letters serve quite as well as formal plays do, thanks to the actors.

The Wars of James Jones
by Pearl Bell
Throughout his career as a novelist, James Jones, who died last spring at the age of fifty-five, was a self-willed anachronism out of step with his literary generation.

Adlai Stevenson of Illinois; Adlai Stevenson and the World, by John Bartlow Martin
by Elliott Abrams
Father to the New Politics Adlai Stevenson of Illinois (Volume I); Adlai Stevenson and The World (Volume II). by John Bartlow Martin. Doubleday.

Jewish Identity, by Simon N. Herman
by David Singer
On being Jewish Jewish Identity. by Simon N. Herman. Sage. 263 pp. $14.00. Simon N. Herman, who is on the faculty of the Hebrew University, has devoted his scholarly career to the study of contemporary Jewish life from the perspective of the social sciences.

The Physicists, by Daniel J. Kevles
by Jeffrey Marsh
Science & Society The Physicists: The History of a Scientific Community in Modern America. by Daniel J. Kevles. Knopf. 489 pp. $15.95. Daniel J.

The Political, Social, and Religious Thought of Russian Samizdat, edited by Michael Meerson-Aksenov and Boris Shragin
by Abraham Brumberg
Dissident Polemics The Political, Social, and Religious Thought of Russian Samizdat: An Anthology. by Michael Meerson-Aksenov and Boris Shragin. Translated by Nicholas Lupinin.

May, 1978Back to Top
Nuclear Power
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In answering my objections to his article promoting nuclear power [“The War Against the Atom,” September 1977], Samuel McCracken [Letters from Readers, March] accuses me of failing to take space for details on solar power.

Ivy League Anti-Semitism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his review of Bruce Kuklick's The Rise of American Philosophy: Cambridge, Massachusetts 1860—1930 [Books in Review, February], Jack Beatty legitimately laments the anti-Jewish attitude of Harvard's philosophers who, despite their wisdom, failed “to transcend the lowest moral limits of their time.” That limitation, alas, was not confined to Harvard; it was a poison in all of the Ivy League. Among the papers of James R.

Vietnam
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Guenter Lewy's article setting the record straight about Vietnam [“Vietnam: New Light on the Question of American Guilt,” February] is superb.

Arms Control
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It was thoughtful of you to send me the advance copy of Edward N. Luttwak's article, “Why Arms Control Has Failed” [January].

A Reply to the Finns
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Readers of COMMENTARY might be interested to learn of the widespread comment which my article, “The Specter of Finlandization” [December 1977], attracted in Finland itself.

Living with Quotas
by Joseph Adelson
Several Months ago, former President Gerald Ford spoke to a political-science class at my university. During the question period that followed he was asked for his views on the Bakke case, and replied that he was opposed to “arbitrary numerical quotas.” Thereupon the class broke into what the local newspaper termed “vociferous applause.” A few days later I was interviewed by a young journalist who thought the story might be worth pursuing.

Hiss, Oswald, the KGB, and Us
by Michael Ledeen
One of the most durable and most damaging legacies of McCarthyism has been the besmirching of the good name of anti-Communism, and the attendant evisceration of American liberalism.

Why Auschwitz Was Never Bombed
by David Wyman
A recurring question since World War II has been why the United States rejected requests to bomb the gas chambers and crematoria at Auschwitz, or the railroads leading to Auschwitz. Such requests began to be numerous in the spring of 1944.

After the Dominoes Fell
by Carl Gershman
It is now almost three years since Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos fell to the Communists. During the war, so much attention was focused on the mistakes of U.S.

Can Democracy Defend Itself against Terrorism?
by Joseph Bishop
On March 17, the Bregate Rosse (Red Brigades), an Italian version (and probably an affiliate) of the German Baader-Meinhof gang, kidnapped Aldo Moro, five times Premier of Italy, and in cold blood murdered his five guards.

From Moscow to Jerusalem-and Points West
by Maurice Friedberg
“You're a strange fellow,” a recent Jewish immigrant from the Soviet Union to Israel observed half-jokingly to me at a gathering in Jerusalem.

In Praise of Rachmaninoff
by Samuel Lipman
The recent appearance of Vladimir Horowitz with the New York Philharmonic and Eugene Ormandy in Carnegie Hall—interesting for so many reasons both historical and contemporary—provided yet another manifestation of the present gulf between public taste and advanced musical opinion.

Abba Eban: An Autobiography
by Ben Halpern
Room at the Top? Abba Eban: An Autobiography. Random House. 628 pp. $15.00. Abba Eban's new Autobiography, written in the author's customary sparkling prose, will attract the close scrutiny of journalists and academics concerned with Middle East politics.

Freaks, by Leslie Fiedler
by Peter Shaw
Side Show Freaks: Myths and Images of the Secret Self. by Leslie Fiedler. Simon & Schuster. 367 pp. $12.95. There has always been something ambiguous in the brilliance of Leslie Fiedler.

Grassroots: The Autobiography of George McGovern
by Arch Puddington
Goldwater of the Left Grassroots: The Autobiography of George McGovern. Random House. 307 pp. $12.50. During his ill-fated quest for the Presidency, George McGovern succeeded in generating more controversy than most politicians encounter in a lifetime.

Discipline and Punish, by Michel Foucault
by Roger Kaplan
Jail and Society Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. by Michel Foucault. Translated by Alan Sheridan. Pantheon. 333 pp. $10.95. Michel Foucault is one of the most influential contemporary thinkers of France.

The Giants: Russia and America, by Richard J. Barnet
by Paul Hollander
Revisionism The Giants: Russia and America. by Richard J. Barnet. Simon & Schuster. 190 pp. $8.95. There are three things wrong with this book, which is both a product and an example of the revisionist school of the cold war.

June, 1978Back to Top
Vietnam
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Guenter Lewy's article, “Vietnam: New Light on the Question of American Guilt” [February], is the first comprehensive analysis refuting the bizarre allegations of the anti-Vietnam war extremists to appear in a major popular American journal.

Two Worlds
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Robert Alter, in his perceptive “Modernism, the Germans & the Jews” [March] . . . makes some important distinctions among the three categories mentioned in his title.

The Begin Initiative
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The widespread belief that Anwar Sadat's November journey to Jerusalem was his own initiative is reinforced, in passing, by Walter Laqueur in “The World & President Carter” [February]. Prime Minister Menachem Begin, to date, has been magnanimous in permitting this notion to circulate as current political myth.

South Africa
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Dan Jacobson's essay on South Africa [“Among the South Africans,” March] is the most illuminating report on that country I have read for years. Peter Davison Atlantic Monthly Press Boston, Massachusetts _____________   To the Editor: Dan Jacobson's .

Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The COMMENTARY symposium, “Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy” [April], is instructive because it illustrates that, as Carl Gershman points out, “too many people seem willing to give up too much too quickly.” For example, William Barrett testifies as follows: .

Imperial Government
by Daniel Moynihan
The question of size and of effectiveness in American government is beginning to take on aspects of constitutional as against merely political debate.

Arms and the Saudi Connection
by Steven Rosen
The connection between the United States and Saudi Arabia, long considered a well established partnership, recently has been elevated in official parlance to the status of a “special relationship.” This honor is not unique among Middle Eastern states—the U.S.

Are Quotas Good for Blacks?
by Thomas Sowell
Race has never been an area noted for rationality of thought or action. Almost every conceivable form of nonsense has been believed about racial or ethnic groups at one time or another.

The Education of Alfred Kazin
by Robert Alter
Criticism is essentially speculative discourse concerned with ideas and values of life. The better the critic, the more he will contribute to our understanding of life in general; but he must do this in the critic's own way, solidly commenting on the text before him. —Alfred Kazin, Contemporaries Truth in autobiography is not merely fidelity to fact or conformity to “likeness,” to the way one appears to others, but rather the projection of a story of successive self-images and recognitions or distortions of those self-images by the world; it is the story of identity as the tension between self-image and social recognition. —Stephen A.

Buggings, Break-Ins & the FBI
by James Wilson
The indictment, on April 10, of three former high-ranking officials of the Federal Bureau of Investigation for having directed agents to use surreptitious entries—“black-bag jobs”—in an effort to locate Weather Underground fugitives raises important questions, not simply of the guilt or innocence of the accused, but of the relationship between constitutional guarantees of privacy and the problems of investigating well-organized conspiracies.

Reflections and Aphorisms
by Walter Benjamin
Dining Hall In a dream I saw myself in Goethe's study. It bore no resemblance to that in Weimar. Above all it was very small and had only one window.

Meyer Levin's Obsessions
by Pearl Bell
One cold Sunday early this spring, Meyer Levin came to Cambridge, at the invitation of the Harvard-Radcliffe Zionist Alliance, to address a regrettably small audience on the question, “What Is Israel?” Levin, who has lived more or less permanently in Israel for almost two decades, was in the United States for the publication of The Harvest,1 his new novel, which completes the ambitious two-volume saga, begun with The Settlers in 1972, of the Chaimovitch family from the turn of the century, when they fled the pogroms in their Ukrainian village to make a new life in Palestine, through the Arab-Israeli war of 1948 and the birth of the state of Israel.

The Great Fear, by David Caute
by Herman Belz
Revising the 50's The Great Fear: The Anti-Communist Purge Under Truman and Eisenhower. by David Caute. Simon & Schuster. 697 pp. $14.95. Most accounts of the post-World War II period used to assign to the Soviet Union a major share of responsibility for the coming of the cold war, and assign to Senator Joseph McCarthy a central role in promoting the aggressive concern for internal security that reflected the impact of the cold war on American politics in the early 1950's.

Rachel, the Rabbi's Wife, by Silvia Tennenbaum
by Ruth Wisse
Suburban Kitsch Rachel, the Rabbi's Wife. by Silvia Tennenbaum. Morrow. 395 pp. $9.95. I believe it was Gypsy Rose Lee who said, “You gotta get a gimmick if you wanna get ahead.” The story of the frustrated housewife whose personal and professional development is being thwarted by an unfeeling husband and an unfashionable suburb has become a tiresome cliché.

Persona Non Grata, by Jorge Edwards
by Mark Falcoff
Mission to Havana Persona Non Grata: An Envoy in Castro's Cuba. by Jorge Edwards. Translated by Colin Harding. Pomerica Press. 275 pp. $8.95. Shortly after his election in September 1970, President Salvador Allende announced—to the surprise of nobody—that Chile would resume the diplomatic relations broken with Cuba ten years before.

Himself!, by Eugene Kennedy
by Seth Cropsey
In Charge Himself! The Life and Times of Richard J. Daley. by Eugene Kennedy. Viking. 288 pp. $10.95. “Himself” is an old Gaelic term of affection and respect for the leader, and a fine title for Eugene Kennedy's biography of Richard J.

The Antitrust Paradox, by Robert H. Bork
by Suzanne Weaver
Regulating Competition The Antitrust Paradox: A Policy at War with Itself. by Robert H. Bork. Basic Books. 462 pp. $18.00. The antitrust laws were passed and began to be enforced at a time when Americans were going through one of their bouts of especially intense criticism of the nation's business structure and practice.

July, 1978Back to Top
Uncivilized Discourse
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Ordinarily I would be opposed to COMMENTARY, or any respectable magazine for that matter, printing such crude and vulgar comments as those contained in Eugene D.

Amnesty International
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As veterans of Amnesty International—members of a Geneva group for ten years or so—we have encountered many attacks on our impartiality.

Bombing Auschwitz
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “Why Auschwitz Was Never Bombed” [May], David S. Wyman tells a story without including the main characters.

Quotas
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Available data on the scholastic performance of minority beneficiaries of preferential-admissions programs largely confirm Joseph Adelson's analysis [“Living with Quotas,” May], though not in every detail.

Is Peace Still Possible in the Middle East?: The Role of the United States
by Robert Tucker
The history of America's Middle East policy since 1973 is marked by an apparent paradox. When measured by the scope of its aims and the degree of its involvement, this policy plainly seems more ambitious than ever.

Is Peace Still Possible in the Middle East?: The View from Tel Aviv
by Walter Laqueur
Tel Aviv. To comment today, and from Israel, on the prospects of peace and war in the Middle East has become a more painful endeavor than at any time in the past.

Is Peace Still Possible in the Middle East?: The Egyptian Perspective
by Bernard Lewis
Since the war of October 1973, Egypt's President Sadat has increasingly thrown in his lot with the United States. His westward reorientation of Egyptian policy seems to have been supported and, indeed, anticipated by the greater part of articulate Egyptian opinion. This was not of course unanimous.

Is Peace Still Possible in the Middle East?: A Skeptical View
by Steven Rosen
It is becoming increasingly difficult to envision a near-term breakthrough in the current round of Middle East negotiations. Between Egypt's position that Israel must relinquish “every square inch, including Arab Jerusalem,” plus the stipulation of self-determination for the Palestinian Arabs, and Israel's requirement of secure borders, plus the insistence of the governing Likud coalition on extensive historical rights in Judea and Samaria, the conditions for a compromise agreement do not seem to exist at the present time. Yet there is a pervasive feeling among some observers in the United States that the remaining problems can be resolved, and that either a comprehensive settlement or at least a separate peace between Egypt and Israel can be achieved.

The Paper Route
by John Krich
Being a paper boy has got to be the most demeaning job in the world, especialmente if you happen to be twenty-seven years old.

Rx for the Novel
by Joseph Epstein
Ought Critics to prescribe what art should be? Probably not—but try stopping them. From Aristotle instructing upon those qualities which will satisfy the definition of a tragedy to F.R.

Stravinsky's Stature
by Samuel Lipman
Less than a decade after Igor Stravinsky's death in 1971, just two months short of his eighty-ninth birthday, the essential verdict on his music is in.

Two Cheers for Capitalism, by Irving Kristol
by Michael Novak
A Liberal Critique Two Cheers for Capitalism. by Irving Kristol. Basic Books. 274 pp. $10.00. Irving Kristol is often called a “neoconservative,” but what he attempts in Two Cheers for Capitalism is a liberal critique of both corporate capitalism and socialism. Of the thirty-one essays gathered in this book, the first appeared in 1970 and the last in 1977, twenty-five of them in the Wall Street Journal, four in the Public Interest (of which Mr.

Abortion in America, by James C. Mohr; The Ambivalence of Abortion, by Linda Bird Francke
by Peter Skerry
Cost Benefit Abortion in America. by James C. Mohr. Oxford. 331 pp. $12.50. The Ambivalence of Abortion. by Linda Bird Francke. Random House. 261 pp. $10.00. James C.

The Guggenheims, by John H. Davis
by A.J. Sherman
Big Money The Guggenheims: An American Epic. by John H. Davis. Morrow. 608 pp. $14.95. Money, really big money, is perhaps our last emotional frontier: most people are shameless voyeurs where the very rich are concerned, insatiably curious as to how they got their money, how they spent it, and what having it did to them along the way.

Inside East Germany, by Jonathan Steele
by Melvin Croan
GDR Inside East Germany: The State That Came in from the Cold. by Jonathan Steele. Urizen Books. 256 pp. $12.95. East Germany long constituted a veritable terra incognita to all but a tiny handful of Western specialists.

While Messiah Tarried, by Nora Levin
by Bernard Johnpoll
Jews & Socialism While Messiah Tarried: Jewish Socialist Movements, 1871-1917. by Nora Levin. Schocken. 554 pp. $24.50. East European Jews and their descendants have historically been quite susceptible to the blandishments of socialism.

Final Entries 1945: The Diaries of Joseph Goebbels, edited by Hugh Trevor-Roper
by Dan Jacobson
The End of the Road Final Entries 1945: The Diaries of Joseph Goebbels. by Richard Barry. Edited and with an introduction by Hugh Trevor-Roper.

Reader Letters July 1978
by Joseph Adelson
Quotas TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Available data on the scholastic performance of minority benefi- ciaries of preferential-admissions programs largely confirm Joseph Adelson's analysis ["Living with Quotas," May], though not in every detail.

August, 1978Back to Top
The Finns
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to comment on Walter Laqueur's “A Reply to the Finns” [Letters from Readers, May]. .

Capitalist Travelers
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his letter in the June issue on the symposium, “Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy” [April], Neil G. Barclay states that “virtually all of the fellow-travelers and apologists for totalitarianism to be found in the democratic West come from the ranks of the anti-capitalist Left.

The Jewish Catacombs
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Having read the letters published on the Jewish catacombs of Rome [November 1977, January, March 1978] as well as Michael Ledeen's article [“The Unknown Catacombs” September 1977], I feel that some additional comments are in order.

Northern Ireland
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Upon reading Joseph W. Bishop, Jr.'s “Can Democracy Defend Itself Against Terrorism?” [May], it becomes obvious that Mr.

Hiss and Oswald
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Michael Ledeen's reflections on the Hiss and Oswald cases [“Hiss, Oswald, the KGB, and Us,” May] quite properly include the role of Igor Gouzenko in the Hiss case.

Quotas and the Universities
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Joseph Adelson [“Living with Quotas,” May] has highlighted an important but little noted aspect of the problem of special minority admissions in our universities: the widespread unwillingness of university administrators to provide, even to their own faculties, the information that would be necessary for evaluating and improving these programs.

The World According to Andrew Young
by Carl Gershman
Andrew young is unquestionably a prominent figure in American politics today, and one of growing international importance as well. Before his remarkably rapid rise—owing largely to the role he played in Jimmy Carter's presidential campaign—Young served as Congressman from Atlanta's 5th District, and before that as Executive Director of Martin Luther King's Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

The Changing Myth of the Jew
by Lionel Trilling
The subject of the Jew in fiction has been treated many times before, but the approach has always been much the same.

The War Within the CIA
by Edward Epstein
In 1975, under the directorship of William Colby, the CIA found itself in a state of unprecedented crisis. Its entire role had undergone a dramatic change: from being a secret investigative agency it had become a target of public investigation, with no fewer than four government bodies scrutinizing its past activities.

Wittgenstein the Pilgrim
by William Barrett
Had he written nothing, had his influence not been enormous over four decades of philosophers, Ludwig Wittgenstein would still have been one of the extraordinary personalities of our century.

Impossible Appetites
by James Fetler
1 / April 21, 1969-June 14, 1969 Monday. We got back to her apartment after dark and I spotted the note in the mailbox but kept my mouth shut.

Who Owns the Sea?
by Charles Horner
A standard psychological test asks the respondent whether he would prefer to ride a rocket to the moon or a submarine to the bottom of the sea.

Poland Without Jews
by Ruth Wisse
Ten days in Poland are not enough to form definitive convictions about the country. The physical grace of central Warsaw and Cracow is offset by the harsh ugliness of the growing industrial sectors.

Politics and Markets, by Charles E. Lindblom
by Eugene Bardach
Pluralism Reconsidered Politics and Markets. by Charles E. Lindblom. Basic Books. 403 pp. $15.00. For many years Charles E. Lindblom, Sterling Professor of Economics and Political Science at Yale, has advocated the political virtues of liberal democracy, the economic virtues of private markets, and the problem-solving virtues of American pluralist politics; but in this book Lindblom writes as a man whose hopes have been betrayed.

Afterimages, by Arlene Croce
by B. Haggin
Dance Criticism Afterimages. by Arlene Croce. Knopf. 480 pp. $12.95. There is general awareness that special powers are involved in, and required for, the composing of a sonata, the performing of that sonata, the writing of a play, the acting in that play, the choreographing of a ballet, the dancing in that ballet.

Terrorism, by Walter Laqueur; The Terrorism Reader, edited by Walter Laqueur
by Ernst Halperin
Revolutionary Violence Terrorism. by Walter Laqueur. Little, Brown. 277 pp. $15.00. The Terrorism Reader. by Walter Laqueur. New American Library. 291 pp. $5.95. Whereas the first half of our century was filled with the clamor of great armies locked in the battles of conventional warfare, the succeeding decades have been marked by the activities of political movements striving to achieve their aims by guerrilla war and terrorism—“low-level violence,” as the political scientists call it. Walter Laqueur's Terrorism completes the survey of the theory and practice of these movements initiated in his earlier volume, Guerrilla.

The Apocalypse of Our Time and Other Writings, by Vasily Rozanov
by Lev Navrozov
Rozanov The Apocalypse of Our Time and Other Writings. by Vasily Rozanov. Translated by Robert Payne and Nikita Romanoff. Edited with an introduction by Robert Payne and an afterword by George Ivask.

The Victim as Criminal and Artist, by H. Bruce Franklin
by Michael Adams
The Artist-Criminal The Victim as Criminal and Artist: Literature from the American Prison. by H. Bruce Franklin. Oxford. 337 pp. $13.95. The Victim as Criminal and Artist is a diatribe against American society couched in the form of a survey of prison literature.

Lost Tribes and Promised Lands, by Ronald Sanders
by Lucy Dawidowicz
Race & the New World Lost Tribes and Promised Lands: The Origins of American Racism. by Ronald Sanders. Little, Brown. 443 pp. $15.00. This book, Ronald Sanders tells us, was first conceived in 1968 during the New York City teachers' strike, when tensions between blacks and Jews erupted in ugly expressions of anti-Semitism and racism.

September, 1978Back to Top
Stalinism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Although it may be somewhat late, I would like to comment on the symposium, “Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy” [April]. My first point concerns the style of Eugene D.

Auschwitz
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I find David S. Wyman's article, “Why Auschwitz Was Never Bombed” [May], quite correct and the result of very thorough research.

Russian Tradition
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his review of The Political, Social, and Religious Thought of Russian Samizdat [Books in Review, April], Abraham Brumberg states that “with a few notable exceptions” the anthology “belongs to that venerable Russian tradition of discursive writing that is short on observable data and rigorous analysis and long on absolutist formulations and passionate rhetoric.” When did this “venerable Russian tradition” begin? Where did it exist? In old Russia? Whom does Mr.

Vietnam
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Carl Gershman's conclusion in “After the Dominoes Fell” [May] deserves a ringing affirmation: benign indifference to the spread of Marxist-Leninist regimes must be opposed for moral as well as political reasons. For these same moral and political reasons, I believe, those who share such concerns must affirm our absolute commitment to the forces of democracy and our intransigent opposition to dictatorships of the Left and Right, wherever they occur.

Soviet-American Exchanges
by Our Readers
To the Editor: We would like to correct an oversimplified impression of Citizen Exchange Corps given in Paul Hollander's review of The Giants: Russia and America by Richard J.

Obsessions
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As a novelist who some years ago suffered from the lash of Meyer Levin's “obsession”—his belief that he not only owned Anne Frank but also all proprietary rights to novels relating to Israel—I am scarcely objective in my views.

Quotas and Race
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The powerful, realistic, yet simple message conveyed in Thomas Sowell's article, “Are Quotas Good for Blacks?” [June], should be magnified many times over.

Peace in the Middle East
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I read with great interest the four articles in the July issue entitled “Is Peace Still Possible in the Middle East?” [“The Role of the United States” by Robert W.

Why Bakke Won't End Reverse Discrimination: 1
by William Bennett
The long-awaited decision in the Bakke case was greeted by a variety of responses, which fell into several categories. There were those altogether dismayed, believing that the Supreme Court had impeded, if not halted, minority progress.

Why Bakke Won't End Reverse Discrimination: 2
by Nathan Glazer
If the long opinion written by Justice Powell in the Bakke case were truly “the judgment of the Court,” then I believe there would be grounds for satisfaction among those of us concerned to protect individual rights and to constrain the growing tendency of government and private institutions alike to act on the basis of a person's race and ethnicity.

The Message of Proposition 13
by Earl Raab
The Jarvis-Gann Constitutional Amendment, limiting property taxes in California, has touched off speculation about a conservative backlash and the ascendance of a New Right in America.

The Anxious American Jew
by Ruth Wisse
The problem of pre-Passover programming was handily solved for Jewish organizations this year by NBC's four-night television drama, Holocaust. Scheduled as it was to coincide with the anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising—which began on the first night of Passover in 1943—and with the week preceding Passover in 1978, the program undoubtedly provoked discussion at every seder in the land.

What the CIA Knows About Russia
by Lev Navrozov
It is mainly to certain American friends that I owe my interest in the CIA. Curiously enough, there is a resemblance between my friendships with a number of well-placed Americans (including CIA experts) and my friendships with a number of well-placed Russians back in Moscow.

Son of “Gen Ed&rdquo
by Kenneth Lynn
The recent decision of the Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences to replace its General Education courses with a more structured core curriculum is the first significant result of a remarkable letter on undergraduate education that the dean of the faculty, Henry Rosovsky, sent to his colleagues in October 1974.

Africa for the Africans?
by W. Thompson
In the summer of 1976, just a few months after Cuban soldiers had won the Angolan civil war for a minority faction of dedicated Marxists, a conference of scholars, soldiers, and bureaucrats was held in Washington.

Family Affairs
by Pearl Bell
Some cultural theorists believe, though it may be self-serving, that novelists, like swallows before the storm or Noah's dove, are harbingers of the future.

The Way the World Works, by Jude Wanniski
by Roger Starr
Taxes & Civilization The Way the World Works. by Jude Wanniski. Basic Books. 319 pp. $12.95. Jude Wanniski, until recently associate editor of the editorial page of the Wall Street Journal, announces at the start of this book that it was inspired by what he has “come to call the Laffer curve.” “Laffer” is Arthur B.

The Land That I Show You, by Stanley Feldstein
by Julius Weinberg
Jews in America The Land That I Show You: Three Centuries of Jewish Life in America. by Stanley Feldstein. Anchor Press/Doubleday. 512 pp.

Samuel Beckett, by Deirdre Bair
by C. Heymann
Notes for a Life Samuel Beckett: A Biography by Deirdre Bair. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. 736 pp. $19.95. In a time when art has become synonymous with godliness, and the artist is an instant celebrity, Samuel Beckett has managed to remain aloof and insular.

Eleanor Marx, Volumes I and II, by Yvonne Kapp
by Sidney Hook
Home Truths Eleanor Marx. Volume I: Family Life, 1855-1883; Volume II: The Crowded Years, 1884-1898. by Yvonne Kapp. Pantheon. Vol. I: 319 pp.

A Pretty Good Club, by Martin Weil
by Stephen Schuker
Pride & Prejudice A Pretty Good Club. The Founding Fathers of the U.S. Foreign Service. by Martin Weil. Norton. 313 pp. $12.95. During most of the 19th century the United States had few pressing concerns outside its borders.

October, 1978Back to Top
The Catacombs
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In view of the many letters elicited by Michael Ledeen's article last year on the Jewish catacombs of Italy [“The Unknown Catacombs,” September 1977], I thought your readers would be interested in what has happened since. As Mr.

The Middle East
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It was surprising in your July issue to find four eminent political scientists with diverse points of view on the Middle East each arriving at the conclusion that Israel will have to be more forthcoming for progress to take place [“Is Peace Still Possible in the Middle East?”: “The Role of the United States” by Robert W.

Moynihan
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I congratulate and commend COMMENTARY for publishing Daniel P. Moynihan's very important and searching article, “Imperial Government” [June].

Finlandization
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I became aware of Walter Laqueur's article, “The Specter of Finlandization” [December 1977], only after reading his letter, “A Reply to the Finns” [Letters from Readers, May].

Wittgenstein
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Although there is much that William Barrett [“Wittgenstein the Pilgrim,” August] has to say about Wittgenstein's philosophy that I would want to take issue with, here I want only to point out a number of factual errors in his remarks about Wittgenstein's life. Mr.

Stravinsky
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Samuel Lipman [“Stravinsky's Stature,” Music, July] has provided an interesting assessment of the many-faceted career of one of the 20th century's most influential artists.

Andrew Young
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Andrew Young's outspokenness on Africa and the Communist challenge is not, as Carl Gershman would seem to suggest [“The World According to Andrew Young,” August], an irrational outburst of naivete or ignorance, but a deliberate reaction and counterbalance to certain dogmatically biased attitudes on the “challenges” that dominate American foreign policy. We viciously criticize, without hesitation, the presence of Cuban troops in ten African countries, yet not a word is said about the French troops garrisoned in Zaire, Senegal, the Ivory Coast, Mauritania, Gabon, Chad, Morocco, and elsewhere.

The CIA
by Our Readers
To the Editor: While Edward Jay Epstein seems to have abandoned his earlier hypothesis that I might be a Soviet “mole” within the CIA, in his article [“The War Within the CIA,” August] he makes other equally far-fetched assertions which call for clear rebuttal. I did not leak the so-called “family jewels” to Seymour Hersh.

Against the China Card
by Edward Luttwak
In the four Soviet “military districts” bordering on China, and in the Soviet client-state of Outer Mongolia, there are now deployed at least forty-three army divisions, out of a grand total of 168 in the Soviet army as a whole; there are also some 100,000 heavily armed border troops, elite forces of the KGB.

The Psychology of Appeasement
by Walter Laqueur
Every historical situation is unique, but now and then an event recalls the past with such force that comparisons become inevitable.

The Quality of Life
by John Sisk
A few years ago the gynecologist Boyd Cooper published Sex Without Tears, a book that was proposed as a guide for the sexual revolution.

Character in the Bible
by Robert Alter
How does the Bible manage to evoke such a sense of depth and complexity in its representation of character with what would seem to be such sparse, even rudimentary means? Biblical narrative offers us, after all, nothing in the way of minute analysis of motive or detailed rendering of mental processes; whatever indications we may be vouchsafed of feeling, attitude, or intention are rather minimal; and we are given only the barest hints about the physical appearance, the tics and gestures, the dress and implements of the characters, the material milieu in which they enact their destinies.

Falsifying Jefferson
by Kenneth Lynn
As Louis Hartz brilliantly pointed out in The Liberal Tradition in America (1955), political theorists of the Left and the Right have always been frustrated by the fact that America skipped the feudal stage of history.

Zionism, Racism, and Free Speech
by Ann Hulbert
Amid cheering and clenched fists from its far Left members and strong objections from others, the British National Union of Students (NUS) voted on April 6 to reinstate its “no-platform-toracists” rule.

Writing About Vietnam
by Pearl Bell
Every war finds its way into literature. From Homer to Pynchon, the exhilaration and horror of military combat have provided writers—whether they themselves have actually fought or not—with unique forms of literary realism and fantasy.

Illness as Metaphor, by Susan Sontag
by Dan Jacobson
Sickness & Psyche Illness as Metaphor. by Susan Sontag. Farrar, Straus & Giroux. 88 pp. $5.95. Are we responsible for the illnesses from which we suffer? Do the most serious of our illnesses reveal moral and psychological truths about ourselves which we would rather keep hidden? Do they, in fact, reveal those truths precisely because we have attempted to hide them? In her new book, Susan Sontag utters a heartfelt No in answer to these questions, especially insofar as they are asked about what she calls the “master illnesses” of the last two centuries, tuberculosis and cancer: With the modern diseases (once TB, now cancer), the romantic idea that the disease expresses the character is invariably extended to assert that the character causes the disease—because it has not expressed itself.

The Jewish Return Into History, by Emil L. Fackenheim
by David Singer
Faith & the Holocaust The Jewish Return into History. by Emil L. Fackenheim. Schocken. 296 pp. $14.95. Some time after the appearance of its August 1966 symposium, “The Condition of Jewish Belief,” COMMENTARY received, and published, an angry letter from a reader in Brooklyn.

The Parties, by Henry Fairlie
by Jeane Kirkpatrick
Playing Politics The Parties: Republicans and Democrats in this Century. by Henry Fairlie. St. Martin's. 236 pp. $8.95. Long before Watergate, Richard Nixon, and Spiro Agnew, politics ranked low on opinion scales of admired professions in American life.

Dominus, by Natalie Gittelson
by Dorothy Rabinowitz
After Liberation Dominus: A Woman Looks at Men's Lives. by Natalie Gittelson. Farrar, Straus & Giroux. 291 pp. $10.00. It was to be expected that the women's movement, in whose peak years—the 60's and early 70's—there was born a veritable industry in feminist books, would in time give rise to a literature of reexamination.

The Revisionists Revised, by Diane Ravitch
by Marc Plattner
Education & Equality The Revisionists Revised: A Critique of the Radical Attack on the Schools. by Diane Ravitch. Basic Books. 173 pp. $8.95. The late 1960's and early 1970's produced an extraordinary outpouring of radical scholarship devoted to attacking not only American social and political institutions but also America's understanding of itself.

Lying, by Sissela Bok
by William Bennett
The Truth Lying: Moral Choice in Public and Private Life. by Sissela Bok. Pantheon. 326 pp. $10.95. Sissela Bok is opposed to lying, but in her highly selective and tendentious book on the subject she directs her attention primarily to lies told by those occupying positions of power and responsibility in American society.

November, 1978Back to Top
Money and Energy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: A single sentence in Samuel McCracken's reply to John E. Chappell, Jr. [Letters from Readers, March, in a discussion of Mr.

Bombing Auschwitz
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have just read Milt Groban's letter in the July issue commenting on David S. Wyman's “Why Auschwitz Was Never Bombed” [May].

The Foreign Service
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Stephen A. Schuker concludes his review of A Pretty Good Club, Martin Weil's book about the Foreign Service [Books in Review, September] by criticizing the recent deemphasis on competitive examinations and the substitution of subjective criteria for selecting Foreign Service officers.

Poland
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Like Ruth R. Wisse [“Poland Without Jews,” August], I spent some brief days in Poland coping with my roots.

The ACLU
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Joseph Adelson [Letters from Readers, August, in a discussion of his article, “Living With Quotas,” May] believes that I owe him an apology for including in my letter to COMMENTARY the precise response he sent to a colleague of mine who sought the factual basis for his linking what he called “thuggish” behavior by some members of the Harvard Medical School with life membership in the ACLU.

Russia and the CIA
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Several years ago the leadership of the CIA was very upset over demands that the CIA's budget be revealed.

Behind Camp David
by Robert Tucker
The diplomacy of the Middle East conflict has once again taken the world by surprise. At a time when the hopes and expectations aroused by the Sadat peace initiative had reached a very low ebb, when the optimists of the past winter had been transformed into the pessimists of late summer, the results of Camp David startled the world as perhaps no other event had done since the Egyptian President's dramatic trip to Jerusalem. The expectations entertained of Camp David had differed only in degree of pessimism.

The Attack on the Professions
by Nathan Glazer
Professionalism, professionalization, and the professions are increasingly central to any grasp of modern societies, yet persistently elude proper understanding. On the one hand, the professions are old, and considerably antedate modern society, with its scientific base, its huge production of commodities, its mass education, and its complex division of labor—after all, theology, medicine, and law were already solidly established as professions requiring specialized training in the medieval universities.

Blacks, Jews, and New York Politics
by Dorothy Rabinowitz
Early this past summer, two events occurred in New York that were sufficiently ominous to warrant the anxieties they produced in community leaders and city officials alike.

Whatever Happened to the Russian Revolution?
by Robert Daniels
Why are the Russians still so hard to get along with? Why, faced with the logic of détente and the challenge of human rights, must the Soviet authorities remain so stubborn and intractable, when the revolution that made all other countries and classes their enemies has now receded more than sixty years into history? What is the peculiar legacy of that revolution which still warps the thinking and behavior of the world's geographically largest and potentially strongest power? These are some of the questions that point to a continuing need to reassess the Russian revolution and its results, in the context of both the Russian national past and the pattern of other great revolutionary events. Authors of moral judgments about revolutionary activity almost always misdirect their ire.

The Good Neighbor Policy of Scott Zuckerman
by John Krich
We flew out to Albuquerque and found Scott's sister's Dodge Dart waiting in the airport lot. I never figured out how it came to be there, but the car wasn't too bad for a two-door with pushbutton transmission.

A Tale of Two Wastes
by Bernard Cohen
When fuels are burned to produce energy, the materials do not simply disappear—after all, matter can neither be created nor destroyed—but rather are converted into other forms, which are called wastes.

Remembering Harold Rosenberg
by Seymour Krim
He moved very slowly in the last couple of years, this towering figure who could have passed for Captain Ahab, rising and dipping with his cane in hand as he inched his way up Tenth Street toward Third Avenue to get a cab.

Wagner's Holy Family
by Samuel Lipman
The families of musical geniuses do not usually amount to much. Even the happy exceptions—the composer sons of J. S.

In Search of History, by Theodore H. White
by Elliott Abrams
Politics as History In Search of History: A Personal Adventure. by Theodore H. White. Harper & Row. 561 pp. $12.95. Theodore H. White is one of the most influential political writers of our time.

Janus, by Arthur Koestler
by Jeffrey Marsh
Irrational Man Janus. by Arthur Koestler. Random House. 354 pp. $10.00. Arthur Koestler is now in his seventies, but his approach to received wisdom of all kinds remains that of the enfant terrible.

A Coat of Many Colors, edited by Abraham D. Lavender
by Julius Weinberg
A Minority's Minorities A Coat of Many Colors: Jewish Subcommunities in the United States. by Abraham D. Lavender. Greenwood. 324 pp. $17.95. It is an operating assumption of the “new pluralism” that there is greater heterogeneity in American life than was once believed by academic sociologists and social planners alike.

Hidden Terrors, by A. J. Langguth
by Mark Falcoff
Police Work Hidden Terrors. by A.J. Langguth. Pantheon. 339 pp. $10.00. The subtitle of this book, by a former New York Times bureau chief in Saigon, is “The Truth About U.S.

The Culture of Inequality, by Michael Lewis; The Pursuit of Equality in American History, by J. R. Pole
by James Nuechterlein
Two Views of Equality The Culture of Inequality. by Michael Lewis. University of Massachusetts Press. 224 pp. $12.50. The Pursuit of Equality in American History. by J.

Primacy or World Order, by Stanley Hoffmann
by Michael Ledeen
Sounding Retreat Primacy or World Order. by Stanley Hoffmann. McGraw-Hill. 331 pp. $12.50. Stanley Hoffmann is widely admired as an original and often brilliant observer of contemporary Europe.

December, 1978Back to Top
The Cia and Russia
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I cannot praise too highly Lev Navrozov's admirably researched and argued article, “What the CIA Knows About Russia” [September].

Dance Criticism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The operative phrase in B.H. Haggin's review of Arlene Croce's Afterimages [Books in Review, August] . . .

The Jewish Week
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Ruth R. Wisse [“The Anxious American Jew,” September] deplores the probability that the Jewish Week is “unlikely to wean its readers from their dependency on the New York Times.

The Bakke Case
by Our Readers
To the Editor: William J. Bennett and Terry Eastland [“Why Bakke Won't End Reverse Discrimination: 1,” September] are correct in saying that Justices Blackmun, Brennan, Marshall, and White, in their dissenting opinion in the Bakke case, voted to declare the special-admissions program at Davis legal under the Fourteenth Amendment and Title VI of the Civil Rights Act.

Gen Ed at Harvard
by Our Readers
“Gen Ed” at Harvard To the Editor: It is quite difficult to respond to Kenneth S. Lynn's critique of Harvard's newly adopted core-curriculum requirement [“Son of ‘Gen Ed,’” September].

Kennedyism Again
by Midge Decter
One of the favorite quadrennial pastimes of American journalists and political experts—namely, speculating about the presidential intention of Teddy Kennedy—seems already to have been preempted for 1980.

Passers-by: The Soviet Jew as Intellectual
by Simon Markish
Janitors shovel away the snow In the quiet suburbs; Together with bearded peasants I walk, a passer-by. I glimpse women in headscarves, Crazy alley curs yelp, And rose-crimson samovars Glow in cafés and houses. —Osip Mandelstam, 1913 Jewish emigration from the USSR has now been going on for eight years.

Foreign Aid for What?
by P.T. Bauer
Do not attempt to do us any more good. Your good has done us too much harm already. —Sheik Muhammed Abduh, an Egyptian in London, 1884 Foreign aid1 is perhaps the only item of public expenditure in the West which is never criticized in principle.

New York's Crisis-and Washington's
by Roger Starr
Only a few months ago—on July 1, precisely—New York's city government was able to announce that it had almost $1 billion in the bank after having paid off the last of its seasonal borrowings from the United States Treasury.

The Strange Unhappy Life of Max Perkins
by Kenneth Lynn
In 1927, the Communist “authority” on American literature, Joseph Freeman, attacked the novelists of the period for their failure to contribute to the coming destruction of capitalism.

Pluralism Ancient and Modern
by Milton Himmelfarb
The punch line of the old Soviet joke goes, “If everything is so good why is everything so bad?” About pluralism we may ask, If it is so popular why is it so unpopular? For pluralism's critics, its popularity is one of the worst things about it.

Good-Bad and Bad-Bad
by Pearl Bell
In a short essay written for the English weekly Tribune in 1945, George Orwell resurrected a wonderfully useful oxymoron of Chesterton's—“good bad books.” This mischievously perverse genre, in Orwell's reckoning, included not merely adventure stories and thrillers, meant only to distract, but the work of more serious-minded writers “whom it is quite impossible to call ‘good’ by any strictly literary standard, but who are natural novelists and who seem to attain sincerity partly because they are not inhibited by good taste.” What distinguished such books above all was their irresistible power to please, because “there is such a thing as sheer skill, or native grace, which may have more survival value than erudition or intellectual power.” On this ground, Orwell confidently predicted that Uncle Tom's Cabin would in the long run outlive the complete works of Virginia Woolf. As this last remark indicates, the subject of popular fiction—both good-bad and bad-bad—is pitted with booby traps of prejudice and temperament, individual values and taste.

A Distant Mirror, by Barbara W. Tuchman
by David Donald
In the Great Tradition A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century. by Barbara W. Tuchman. Knopf. 677 pp. $15.95. In 1948 the American Historical Association conducted a poll to identify the six greatest American historians who were no longer living.

James T. Farrell: The Revolutionary Socialist Years, by Alan M. Wald
by Herman Belz
Touched by Trotskyism James T. Farrell: The Revolutionary Socialist Years. by Alan M. Wald. New York University Press. 190 pp. $15.00. If it is a peculiarity of American academic historiography that it has given inordinate attention to insignificant left-wing political movements, it is perhaps less peculiar that the relationship between radicalism and literature should come under continuing examination.

In Search of Identity, by Anwar al-Sadat
by Barry Rubin
The Gambler In Search of Identity. by Anwar al-Sadat. Harper & Row. 315 pp. $12.95. Anwar Sadat has always been a gambler. It is a quality which made him an unsuccessful underground conspirator in the 1940's, but it appears to be a necessary characteristic for anyone seeking to govern Egypt in the 1970's.

Political Control of the Economy, by Edward R. Tufte
by James Wilson
Buying the VotePolitical Control of the Economy. by Edward R. Tufte. Princeton University Press. 168 pp. $10.00.A fundamental, and still unanswered, question about democracy is whether it is compatible over the long run with a stable and healthy economy.

Nietzsche, Henry James, and the Artistic Will, by Stephen Donadio
by Harold Bloom
Liberating Gods Nietzsche, Henry James, and the Artistic Will. by Stephen Donadio. Oxford University Press. 347 pp. $15.95. This distinguished thematic study might be called parallel portraits of Nietzsche and Henry James, rightly linked here by their common Emersonian heritage.

Toward the Final Solution: A History of European Racism, by George L. Mosse
by Lucy Dawidowicz
From Gobineau to Hitler Toward the Final Solution: A History of European Racism. by George L. Mosse. Howard Fertig. 277 pp. $17.50. With this, his latest book, George L.




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