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January, 1982Back to Top
Jazz
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I'd hate for COMMENTARY readers to think that I share any of the invidious notions about music and art promulgated by Robert Richman in his strange review of my book, Riding on a Blue Note [October 1981].

Jesus and the Jews
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Hillel Halkin, in his review of my book, Revolution in Judea [Books in Review, September 1981], asserts that because the Gospels underwent “basic editing” it is impossible to arrive at any reliable conclusions about the historical Jesus.

Juvenile Delinquents
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I found Susan Seidner Adler's article [“Bribing Delinquents to be Good,” October 1981] accurate in many respects. Her criticism of family courts, however, is misdirected.

U.S. Foreign Policy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his article, “The Middle East: Carterism Without Carter?” [September 1981], Robert W. Tucker argues that the Reagan administration's failure to pressure the moderate Arab states, especially Saudi Arabia, to accept regular American military bases shows that the administration has changed the strategic position toward the Middle East presented by Reagan during the campaign.

Reagan & the Russians
by Walter Laqueur
It is a sensible custom to suspend judgment about the policy of a new administration. Six months have passed and another six, and in a press conference President Reagan has provided an interim assessment of his own: “Our accomplishments with regard to foreign policy have been astounding.” The word “astounding” has various meanings and connotations, but not even President Reagan's arms-reduction proposals of late November can redeem the impression that in foreign policy, 1981 was unfortunately not an annus mirabilis.

Notes from the American Underground
by Midge Decter
One day in 1969 a twenty-two-year-old Swarthmore graduate named Jane Alpert—dressed, as she recounts in her recently published memoirs,1 in her white kid gloves and adorned with a ladylike touch of make-up—traveled on a New York City bus downtown to the Federal Building in Foley Square and there planted a time-bomb on the 40th floor.

Israel and the Messiah
by Jacob Katz
The prayer for the well-being of the state of Israel which is recited on Sabbaths and festivals in most synagogues in Israel and the Diaspora calls the state “reshit geulatenu,” the commencement of our redemption.

The Painters' Club
by William Barrett
The artists themselves spoke of it simply as “the Club.” “Painters' Club” was my own expression when I had to identify it for some of my literary friends as the place where I might have picked up this or that odd bit of information.

Ulster: In the Empty House of the Stare
by Herb Greer
We are closed in, and the key is turned On our uncertainty; somewhere A man is killed, or a house burned. Yet no clear fact to be discerned: Come build in the empty house of the stare. —William Butler Yeats The present media tableau of Ulster has become as fixed and conventional as one of those temperance woodcuts of the last century.

Criticism Without Constraint
by Frederick Crews
Even to a superficial observer, it must be apparent by now that the academic study of literature has fallen upon anxious times.

Collaboration Par Excellence
by Roger Kaplan
The conventional image of France during World War II is similar to that of Belgium in World War I: a nation trampled upon by the Hun, but in its soul unvanquished.

Among the Believers: An Islamic Journey, by V.S. Naipaul
by J.B. Kelly
Born-Again Muslims Among the Believers: An Islamic Journey. by V.S. Naipaul. Knopf. 430 pp. $15.00. The celebrated novelist V. S. Naipaul began his “Islamic journey” in Teheran in the late summer of 1979, eight months after the fall of the Shah and the concomitant enthronement of the Ayatollah Khomeini as de facto ruler of Iran.

Darkness Over the Valley, by Wendelgard von Staden
by Susan Adler
The Reich at Home Darkness Over the Valley: Growing Up in Nazi Germany. by Wendelgard von Staden. Translated by Mollie Comerford Peters Ticknor & Fields.

The FBI and Martin Luther King, Jr., by David J. Garrow
by Eric Breindel
King & the Communists The FBI and Martin Luther King, Jr.: From “Solo” to Memphis. by David J. Garrow. Norton. 320 pp. $15.95. For some time it has been common knowledge that the FBI engaged in a relentless investigation of Martin Luther King, Jr.

Essays on Moral Development, by Lawrence Kohlberg
by Michael Levin
The Stages of Man? Essays on Moral Development, Volume One: The Philosophy of Moral Development. by Lawrence Kohlberg. Harper & Row. 441 pp.

The Road From Here: Liberalism and Realities in the 1980's, by Paul Tsongas
by Chester Finn,
Starved for Ideas The Road from Here: Liberalism and Realities in the 1980's. by Paul Tsongas. Knopf. 280 pp. $12.95. The problem that liberals continue to face, more than a year after the sweeping conservative election victory, is deciding whether to repackage their old ideas in different rhetorical wrappings or to come up with some genuinely fresh ideas. This is no easy choice.

Reader Letters January 1982
by Hillel Halkin
U.S. Foreign Policy TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: In his article, "The Middle East: Carterism Without Carter?" [Sep- tember 1981], Robert W. Tucker argues that the Reagan administra- tion's failure to pressure the moder- ate Arab states, especially Saudi Arabia, to accept regular American military bases shows that the ad- ministration has changed the stra- tegic position toward the Middle East presented by Reagan during the campaign.

February, 1982Back to Top
“Hollanditis&rdquo
by Our Readers
To the Editor: At last Walter Laqueur [“Hollanditis,” August 1981] has found a word . . . to replace the unfortunate term “Finlandization” as a description of what is, or might be, happening to Western Europe.

M*A*S*H*
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Recently, I had the chance to leaf through some back issues of COMMENTARY, and on the strength of exactly three of Richard Grenier's pieces—particularly “Arms & the Movies” [October 1981], in which he discusses M*A*S*H—I strongly suspect that he is the best film critic alive.

The Ninth of Ab
by Our Readers
To the Editor: With so much trash being published all around us, I picked up, tentatively, the mysteriously titled article “On the Ninth of Ab” [October 1981] and was much moved by the work of this extraordinary scholar—Frank Talmage.

The Third World
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . Peter L. Berger [“Speaking to the Third World,” October 1981] explains that the United Nations' plea for a gratuitous transfer of wealth from the rich to the poor countries is based on fallacious neo-Marxist reasoning about past colonial “exploitation” and the debtor-creditor relationship it is supposed to impose on the present generation, an international version of hyperactive affirmative action.

Wilfred Burchett
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In an article about Wilfred Burchett [“A Scandalous Journalistic Career,” November 1981], Stephen J. Morris writes that in the course of my visit to North Vietnam in 1966-67 I reported that the United States was “deliberately bombing not military but civilian targets” and that I “did not tell [my] readers that [my] source for this charge was not direct observation but North Vietnamese officials and one of their published propaganda booklets.” Mr.

“Human Rights and American Foreign Policy&rdquo
by Our Readers
To the Editor: COMMENTARY's symposium, “Human Rights and American Foreign Policy” [November 1981], expresses a wide range of opinions and criticisms.

Why We Need More
by Edward Luttwak
In its revised budget the Reagan administration requested $214.1 billion for defense in the current (1982) fiscal year. Among those who object, some columnists and many TV personalities, full-time defense critics, disarmers, isolationists, and “concerned” churchmen and academics remain blessedly ignorant of the full dimensions of the Soviet military upsurge and of our own weakness.

Reform Judaism and the Bible
by Robert Alter
Jewish culture, it has often been remarked with considerable justice, is a peculiarly exegetical one. Though some notable efforts have been made over the centuries to systematize the ideas and values implicit in Judaism, it has been far more typical for Jews to articulate such ideas and values through textual commentary and often, indeed, through commentary on commentary. This use of exegesis as a vehicle for the declaration of principles has been especially evident in the modern age, in which Jewish life has become so ideological in character.

The Authentic Lionel Trilling
by William Barrett
Lionel Trilling was a graceful man. I was reminded of the fact recently by happening upon an old publicity photograph that shows him bowling.

God & Man at Yale-Again
by Robert Kagan
In A speech to the freshmen this past September, President A. Bartlett Giamatti of Yale warned of a new and powerful evil in America, a “storm that blows across the landscape.” With all the eloquence at his command, Giamatti exhorted the freshmen to fight for the values—liberal, pluralistic, enlightened—that are threatened with “spiritual violence” by this new evil, which goes under the name of the Moral Majority: A self-proclaimed “Moral Majority” and its satellite or client groups, cunning in the use of a native blend of old intimidation and new technology, threaten the values I have named.

The Scandal of Cambodia
by Martin Herz
The occupation of Cambodia (Kampuchea) by the Vietnamese, who invaded it in 1978 and installed a puppet government that remains in power today, is fully comparable to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.

Poland on Film
by Richard Grenier
Poland's Andrzej Wajda is by far the best known film-maker from the Communist world, and the one most honored in the West.

The Miseducation of Musicians
by Samuel Lipman
Every time is crisis time for those who live in a world of annually revised budgets. This is, in a special way, the lot of the large group of people who teach music in our schools and universities and who make up the faculties of instruction in our professional colleges of music.

The Mismeasure of Man, by Stephen Jay Gould
by Diane Ravitch
IQ The Mismeasure of Man. by Stephen Jay Gould. Norton. 353 pp. $14.95. Since mental tests of all varieties have been under attack for more than a decade, it is scarcely surprising that Stephen Jay Gould's The Mismeasure of Man has been received in some quarters as a devastating critique of testing.

Breakthrough, by Moshe Dayan; The Battle for Peace, by Ezer Weizman; Destination Peace, by Gideon Rafael
by Hillel Halkin
The Peace Process: I Israel Breakthrough. by Moshe Dayan. Knopf. 359 pp. $15.00. The Battle for Peace. by Ezer Weizman. Bantam. 395 pp. $15.95. Destination Peace: Three Decades of Israeli Foreign Policy. by Gideon Rafael. Stein & Day.

The Arab States and the Palestine Conflict, by Barry Rubin
by Daniel Pipes
The Peace Process: II The Arabs The Arab States and the Palestine Conflict. by Barry Rubin. Syracuse University Press. 298 pp. $22.00. Rarely does anyone stop to ask just how the Palestine problem became so important.

The Physicists, by C.P. Snow
by Jeffrey Marsh
Science & Society The Physicists. by C.P. Snow. Little, Brown. 192 pp. $15.95. This book, lavishly illustrated, is actually a first draft, dictated in haste from memory, of a longer work the late C.P.

The Ultimate Resource, by Julian L. Simon
by Samuel McCracken
The Happy Horseman The Ultimate Resource. by Julian L. Simon. Princeton. 363 pp. $14.95. The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse weren't the sort of fellows you'd want your sister to marry.

March, 1982Back to Top
The Surrealists
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to congratulate COMMENTARY on the publication of Lionel Abel's brilliant memoir, “The Surrealists in New York” [October 1981].

Goldwyn
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I care enough about Samuel Goldwyn to have written a book about him, Samuel Goldwyn (Twayne), and so I was pleased to see David Aberbach's article [“The Mogul Who Loved Art,” September 1981].

War Criminals
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Allan Gerson's “Beyond Nuremberg” [October 1981] raises questions anew about the purpose and function of prosecuting Nazi war criminals who are illegally in the United States. In all of these cases the evidence is old; in many cases the evidence is weak—and made weaker by the passage of time.

The Deconstructionists
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Thank you for Frederick Crews's “Criticism Without Constraint.” Lord Byron exaggerated when, in effect, he dismissed all critics as liars, but Disraeli may have been on to something when (echoing Coleridge) he referred to critics as “men who have failed in literature and art.” So it is, I gather, with the revisionist critics, who want their own criticism to be taken as art.

Pianists
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “Children of Chopin” [December 1981] Samuel Lipman says: “As pianists Poles have specialized in Chopin. The career of Arthur Rubinstein, for example, is synonymous with the received idea of the way this music sounds.” If this example of convoluted critics' jargon is meant to convey the idea that Arthur Rubinstein is the supreme interpreter of Chopin, one must ask whether Mr.

American Jews
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Murray Friedman's article, “A New Direction for American Jews” [December 1981], is a particularly timely statement, one that articulates certain of my own reservations and criticisms concerning the attitudes of Jewish agencies and individuals who almost reflexively voice positions that are no longer as sound as we once believed. During the past two years, in attempting to enlist Jewish organizations to adopt different approaches seeking to revitalize the Jewish family and foster a Jewish identity in children, I have encountered what may be fairly termed a “business-as-usual” response.

The AWACS
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As usual, Robert W. Tucker [“Appeasement & the AWACS,” December 1981] is ominously persuasive about our Middle East policy; in this case, what the Saudi royal family wants, the administration is convinced it must get.

The Middle East: A Consensus of Error
by Steven Spiegel
A consensus has been developing lately on what the main problem is in the Middle East, and what needs to be done about it.

What Poland Means
by Walter Laqueur
The first reaction to the military coup in Poland was shock and confusion, followed by a wave of indignation, anger, and protest.

Voting Rights and Wrongs
by Walter Berns
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is surely the most successful civil-rights measure ever enacted by the national government. Everybody—or, at least, everybody who has publicly offered an opinion on the subject—agrees with this judgment, and there is good reason why they should.

Arms & the Church
by Michael Novak
A new and startling development has taken place in the thinking of the American Catholic hierarchy on questions of war and peace.

American Nightmares
by Joseph Epstein
“There must in art, as in medicine and fashion,” wrote Proust, “be new names.” Robert Stone, the novelist, is such a new name.

Jewish Dreams
by Ruth Wisse
Modern Jewish literature, one of the major by-products of Jewish secularization during the past two centuries, has long been obsessed with the rebellion against tradition that brought it into being.

Within a Budding Grove's
by Samuel Lipman
The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians1—the latest manifestation of the renowned English reference work—is here, surpassing in size all its predecessors.

Bolshevism for the 80's
by Richard Grenier
I first met Warren Beatty in the transit lounge at the Copenhagen airport in 1969. He was on his way to Russia, already embarked on a project to make a film called Ten Days That Shook the World, based on the celebrated work of a boyhood hero of his, John Reed.

Yellow Rain, by Sterling Seagrave
by Jeffrey Marsh
Chemical Warfare Yellow Rain. by Sterling Seagrave. Evans. 316 pp. $11.95. To most Americans, the initials NBC stand for a television network or a biscuit company.

Prophecy and Politics: Socialism, Nationalism, and the Russian Jews, 1862-1917, by Jonathan Frankel
by Maurice Friedberg
Marx and Zion Prophecy and Politics; Socialism, Nationalism, and the Russian Jews, 1862-1917. by Jonathan Frankel. Cambridge, 686 pp. $49.30. The modern history of European Jews begins with their emancipation in the wake of the French Revolution of 1789.

Mrs. Harris, by Diana Trilling
by Joseph Adelson
The Tastemaker Mrs. Harris: The Death of the Scarsdale Diet Doctor. by Diana Trilling. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. 352 pp. $14.95. We have here an account of a much publicized murder trial, the trial of an aging woman cruelly rejected by a vain and callous lover.

How Courts Govern America, by Richard Neely
by Herman Belz
The Imperial Judiciary How Courts Govern America. by Richard Neely. Yale University Press. 233 pp. $15.00. This is a confused, tendentious, and exasperating book.

Waldo Emerson: A Biography, by Gay Wilson Allen
by Kenneth Lynn
Emerson the Man Waldo Emerson: A Biography. by Gay Wilson Allen. Viking. 751 pp. $25.00. Commentators on Emerson's life have always been “notably skittish” about dealing with the circumstances and implications of Emerson's first marriage to Ellen Tucker, particularly on its financial side, Joel Porte observed a few years ago in a biographical study called Representative Man.

April, 1982Back to Top
Political Pilgrims
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to make a few brief comments on Leonard Schapiro's fair and informative review of my book, Political Pilgrims [Books in Review, December 1981]. I found his observation that I am not critical enough of some of the “pilgrims” particularly thought-provoking.

Painters
by Our Readers
To the Editor: We all know time's law of disparagement: whoever has been up in our estimation for a certain time, will—after a certain time—have to come tumbling down.

Ulster
by Our Readers
To the Editor: “Ulster: In the Empty House of the Stare” by Herb Greer [January] is so obviously slanted and historically biased that it would be impossible to refute every part of it without writing just as lengthy an article. Mr.

“Affirmative Action” Under Reagan
by Chester Finn
In a press conference on the anniversary of his inauguration, Ronald Reagan stated that “I have been on the side of opposition to bigotry and discrimination and prejudice, and long before it ever became a kind of natiònal issue under the title of civil rights.

AWACS and the Jewish Community
by Murray Friedman
When the sale of AWACS jets to Saudi Arabia was narrowly upheld in the Senate on October 28, 1981, the President's victory was widely seen as a major setback for the supposedly powerful “Jewish lobby.” Yet the first thing that needs to be observed is that the very definition of the AWACS fight as a test of “Jewish power” reflected—and reflects—a falsified conception. It was clear, at least at the outset of the controversy, that the proposed sale was unpopular among Americans in general, not just among Jews.

Why We Need a Draft
by Eliot Cohen
What should we make of the All-Volunteer Force? Government officials, be they Republicans or Democrats, and even some officers, assure us that it is working well—that the latest statistics show the services filling their recruiting quotas, that the average enlisted man is as intelligent as ever.

The Problem of Christian Anti-Semitism
by Norman Ravitch
A theological revolution has been taking place within Christendom in the last generation which has largely remained unknown to Christian believers specifically and to the educated public generally.

Matthew Arnold and the Resistance
by Joseph Epstein
In November 1883, when Matthew Arnold was lecturing in America, Henry James wrote from England to his boyhood friend Thomas Sergeant Perry: “I am very sorry you didn't like poor old Mat.

The Curious Career of Costa-Gavras
by Richard Grenier
Costa-Gavras is the world's premier agitprop film-maker. He casts well. He has a good sense of drama and timing. He has a decided talent for political melodrama, for the mood, for the visual creation of atmosphere.

Saul Bellow's Winter of Discontent
by Ruth Wisse
To judge from the photographs on their book jackets, most serious American writers of fiction have followed the trek to the suburbs and beyond, and now ply their craft in semi-rural or college settings.

All That Is Solid Melts Into Air, by Marshall Berman
by Hilton Kramer
From Marx to Robert Moses All that is Solid Melts Into Air: The Experience of Modernity. by Marshall Berman. Simon & Schuster. 384 pp.

The Making of Modern Zionism, by Shlomo Avineri
by David Vital
One Man's Doctrine The Making of Modern Zionism: The Intellectual Origins of the Jewish State. by Shlomo Avineri. Basic Books. 244 pp. $15.50. One of the central difficulties about Zionism is that there is no agreement about its content or nature or ultimate purposes.

Practicing History, by Barbara W. Tuchman
by Jack Rakove
Thinking About the Past Practicing History: Selected Essays. by Barbara W. Tuchman. Knopf. 306 pp. $16.50. The publication of this book testifies, in its own curious way, to the strength of Barbara Tuchman's extraordinary popularity and reputation.

The King of Fifth Avenue, by David Black
by Jonathan Sarna
Hobnobbing with Knickerbockers The King of Fifth Avenue: The Fortunes of August Belmont. by David Black. Dial. 804 pp. $24.95. August Belmont, twenty-three years old, arrived in New York City on May 14, 1837.

Le Spectateur Engag\'e, by Raymond Aron; Devant la Guerre, by Cornelius Castoriadis
by Scott McConnell
The Present Danger Le Spectateur Engagé. by Raymond Aron. Julliard. 339 pp. 73 francs. Devant la Guerre. by Cornelius Castoriadis. Fayard. 285 pp. 70 francs. The considerable impact that these two quite different books have made in France is a testament to substantial changes that have occurred in the French intellectual climate over the past several years.

May, 1982Back to Top
“True Confessions&rdquo
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his superb article on True Confessions [“Our Lady of Corruption,” December 1981], Richard Grenier overlooks two factors which, I think, add yet another layer of meaning to that exceptional movie. First, it is too much to say simply that Detective Tom Spellacy caused his brother's downfall (and therefore his redemption).

Nazi Germany
by Our Readers
To the Editor: For those who have never lived in a country under totalitarian rule it is impossible to grasp the reality of totalitarianism, just as it is impossible for a congenitally blind man to grasp the new vision of the French Impressionists.

American Jews
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “A New Direction for American Jews” [December 1981], Murray Friedman gives a fairly accurate history of Jewish activism and then blasts the Jewish agencies for failing to grasp the new realities and for clinging to outmoded thinking.

Lionel Trilling
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Precisely because William Barrett's “The Authentic Lionel Trilling” [February] is so perceptive and so interesting, it behooves the reader to pay careful attenion to its various messages.

Messianism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his brilliant analysis of the relation of Israel to messianic hope, “Israel and the Messiah” [January], Jacob Katz comes down on the side of those who employ the “messianic vocabulary.” He asserts that without the “messianic myth,” the “national consciousiness” will be impoverished.

The Underground
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Midge Decter has made a valuable contribution by linking the Left and the Weathermen [“Notes from the American Underground,” January].

Defense
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Congratulations to Edward N. Luttwak [“Why We Need More ‘Waste, Fraud & Mismanagement’ in the Pentagon,” February] for so brilliantly delineating the domination of micro-management in the shaping of our defense policy and the resultant, possibly fatal, neglect of the art of war.

The Peace Movement & the Soviet Union
by Vladimir Bukovsky
Peace will be preserved and strengthened if the people take the cause of peace into their own hands and defend it to the end. Joseph Stalin, 1952 The “struggle for peace” has always been a cornerstone of Soviet foreign policy.

With the American Press in Vietnam
by H. Kaplan
My time in Vietnam was brief: less than two years. This was not unusual, the normal thing was to move people in and out of that country before they got the hang of it, or even a proper handle on their jobs.

Vanishing Acts
by Edgar Rosenberg
My father, a prosperous lawyer in Nuernberg, returned from a month-long professional trip abroad to our home in Fuerth to be present at my Bar Mitzvah in early October 1938.

The Atlantic Alliance and Its Critics
by Robert Tucker
The signs of mounting dissatisfaction in this country with the Atlantic Alliance are today everywhere at hand. A sense of frustration and resentment over the behavior of our major allies has suddenly surfaced and found widespread expression.

Ethnicity-North, South, West
by Nathan Glazer
Twelve years ago, Daniel P. Moynihan and I, reviewing the condition of politics in New York City for the second edition of Beyond the Melting Pot, described two models of group relations which we dubbed “Northern” and “Southern.” Both models, we wrote, rejected the idea that the fate of ethnic groups and races in the United States was to acculturate to a common American mean, and both affirmed the reality of group distinctiveness.

Shakespeare as Remedial Reading
by Ronald Berman
Sometimes in my English classes I give out reading lists of about fifty titles from Homer to Joyce. The student appreciates the thought, but wishes to know why it should be necessary to face another and unadvertised requirement.

Santayana and the Genteel Tradition
by Kenneth Lynn
The Harvard faculty of the 1890's thought of itself as made up of men of superbly independent mind. George Santayana, a prodigy of detachment, knew otherwise.

Rediscovering Judaism
by Ruth Wisse
A couple of years ago I attended Friday night services at a Reform temple in Connecticut. There were about a hundred people present, mostly couples in their forties.

The Kingdom, by Robert Lacey
by J. Kelly
The Great Arabian Saga The Kingdom. by Robert Lacey. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. 630 pp. $19.95. Omens all seem to point grimly to the possibility that the Great American novel, that homely and enduring landmark on the literary scene, may soon be shouldered aside by an exotic intruder, the Great Arabian Saga.

The Turbulent Decades: Jewish Communal Services in America, 1958-78, edited by Graenum Berger
by Julius Weinberg
Beyond Consensus The Turbulent Decades: Jewish Communal Services in America, 1958-78. by Graenum Berger. Conference of Jewish Communal Service. 2 vols. 1557 pp.

The Family Idiot: Gustave Flaubert, 1821-1857, Volume I, by Jean-Paul Sartre
by Renee Winegarten
Anti-Bourgeois The Family Idiot: Gustave Flaubert, 1821-1857. Volume I. by Jean-Paul Sartre. Translated by Carol Cosman. University of Chicago Press. 627 pp. $25.00. Jean-Paul Sartre's monumental study of Gustave Flaubert, L'Idiot de la famille, originally published in 1971-72, is hardly the delightful “novel of suspense” that Simone de Beauvoir once amazingly called it.

The Brandeis-Frankfurter Connection, by Bruce Allen Murphy
by Nelson Polsby
A Tale of Two Justices The Brandeis-Frankfurter Connection: The Secret Political Activities of Two Supreme Court Justices. by Bruce Allen Murphy. Oxford University Press.

Prime Time Preachers, by Jeffrey K. Hadden and Charles K. Swann; Fundamentalism and American Culture, by George Marsden
by Peter Skerry
The Fundamentalists Prime Time Preachers: The Rising Power of Televangelism. by Jeffrey K. Hadden and Charles E. Swann. Addison-Wesley. 217 pp. $11.95. Fundamentalism and American Culture. by George Marsden. Oxford University Press.

June, 1982Back to Top
The Draft
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Eliot A. Cohen's article, “Why We Need a Draft” [April], is well written, cogently reasoned, comprehensive—and at variance with the facts. Undeniably we have military-manpower problems.

Intelligence
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Diane Ravitch's perceptive review of Stephen Jay Gould's The Mismeasure of Man [Books in Review, February] concentrates on Gould's dubious implication that past inadequate attempts to measure intelligence somehow demonstrate the inadequacy of contemporary attempts to measure intelligence.

“Reds&rdquo
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am at home in a number of languages, but in none of them could I find any words adequate to convey how impressed I was by Richard Grenier's brilliant article on Reds [“Bolshevism for the 80's,” March].

“The Refusers&rdquo
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am writing, not to take issue with Ruth R. Wisse's thoughtful review of my book, The Refusers [“Jewish Dreams,” March], but to clear up a possible confusion. The book's third section, of which the reviewer writes with generous praise, concerns my father, whose name Mrs.

Solidarity
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Walter Laqueur's article, “What Poland Means” [March], correctly describes the ability of modern totalitarian regimes to crush democratic movements.

Reform Judaism
by
To the Editor: For a variety of reasons it has become fashionable in recent years to disparage classical Reform Judaism. I readily admit that I have contributed my own share in criticizing certain aspects of that 19th-century (and early 20th-century) phenomenon, although I do not believe that classical reform Judaism was quite so bad as it is now often made out to have been.

Voting Rights
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Walter Berns's superb dissection of the maladies being created by Congress in rewriting the Voting Rights Act [“Voting Rights and Wrongs,” March] reveals the fallacy in speaking of a “renewal” of that law.

Kissinger Reconsidered
by Norman Podhoretz
Reading Years of Upheaval, the second volume of Henry Kissinger's memoirs,1 was for me a less overwhelming experience than reading its immediate predecessor, White House Years.

The Latest French Revolution
by Jean-Fran\ccois Revel
Public opinion greeted the election of François Mitterrand to the Presidency of the French Republic on May 10, 1981, and of a Socialist majority to the National Assembly on June 21, with a degree of skepticism that was, to say the least, curious.

My Life as a Christian
by Gerald Strober
On a spring afternoon in 1955, having finished classes for the day, I was waiting for a friend outside the main entrance of Brooklyn College.

Feminism & Thought Control
by Michael Levin
When parents object to profanity in schoolbooks, they are invariably met with answering cries of “censorship” or “thought control,” and warned of the dangers of tampering with the First Amendment.

Blaming the (Jewish) Victim
by Roger Starr
Almost exactly on the 44th anniversary of Hitler's invasion of Austria, I happened to be having lunch in New York with one of my oldest and dearest friends.

Rich Met, Poor Met
by Samuel Lipman
Our premier opera company will be 100 years old on October 22, 1983. Its history began in the old Metropolitan Opera House on Broadway just below Manhattan's Times Square.

Black Comedy
by Richard Grenier
Are we witnessing one of Thomas Sowell's examples of “ethnic succession” in American comedy today? It is hard to believe, given the personalities of the individual performers and the traits of the ethnic groups in question.

Why John Irving Is So Popular
by Joseph Epstein
“Ambushing a Best-Seller” is the title Edmund Wilson gave to a 1945 review of a novel by Anya Seton, but clearly it is too late to ambush the novelist John Irving, who has already ridden into town, cleaned out the banks, and ridden out again unharmed.

Hannah Arendt, by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl
by Walter Laqueur
From Rilke to Eichmann Hannah Arendt: For Love of the World. by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl. Yale University Press. 563 pp. $25.00. This book is a labor of love.

Blaming Technology, by Samuel C. Florman; The Soul of a New Machine, by Tracy Kidder
by Jeffrey Marsh
Engineers & Society Blaming Technology. by Samuel C. Florman. St. Martin's Press. 207 pp. $12.95. The Soul of a New Machine. by Tracy Kidder. Little, Brown.

Kolyma Tales, by Varlam Shalamov; Graphite, by Varlam Shalamov
by Maurice Friedberg
In the Gulag Kolyma Tales. by Varlam Shalamov. Translated by John Glad. Norton. 222 pp. $4.95 (paper). Graphite. by Varlam Shalamov. Translated by John Glad. Norton.

The Imperial Rockefeller, by Joseph E. Persico
by Bryan Lops
A Life in Politics The Imperial Rockefeller: A Biography of Nelson A. Rockefeller. by Joseph E. Persico. Simon & Schuster. 314 pp. $16.50. While immense family wealth may be an increasingly rare phenomenon in American society, it is still deeply intriguing to study and observe—especially when it is combined with great political ambition.

The Pursuit of Virtue and Other Tory Notions, by George F. Will
by Terry Eastland
Will's Testament The Pursuit of Virtue and Other Tory Notions. by George F. Will. Simon & Schuster. 397 pp. $16.50. This is the second collection of his columns George Will has published; the first, brought out in 1978, bore the title, The Pursuit of Happiness and Other Sobering Thoughts.

July, 1982Back to Top
Music and Education
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . In urging a return to an education that instills “the set of values which has built and integrates our otherwise pluralistic societies,” Samuel Lipman [“The Miseducation of Musicians,” February] in his self-righteous elitism exemplifies a major factor influencing the estrangement of present audiences from “serious” new music.

The Middle East
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Steven L. Spiegel [“The Middle East: A Consensus of Error,” March] argues for maintaining the status quo on the Arab-Israel conflict after the return of the Sinai to Egypt.

“Arms & the Church&rdquo
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Anyone speaking to the issue of nuclear-weapons policy must avoid two obviously untenable positions: (1) ceding to the Russians military superiority, since their capacity for ruthlessness and disregard for free political institutions is well documented; and (2) rationalizing the status quo, since there is no moral justification for nuclear war.

Disinformation: Or, Why the CIA Cannot Verify an Arms-Control Agreement
by Edward Epstein
When Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger revealed last April that the Soviet Union had achieved superiority over the United States in intercontinental missiles, he provoked a furor in Congress over the status of the nuclear balance.

The Delegitimation of Israel
by Ruth Wisse
What was it about European Jewry that made possible its extermination? Historians, psychologists, theologians, thoughtful people everywhere will continue to ask this question and to grope for partial answers.

My Running Debate With Einstein
by Sidney Hook
I don't write on physics: why do you write on politics? Max Nomad to Albert Einstein Had Albert Einstein been an ordinary mortal or even an ordinary scientist, his views on life, politics, and human destiny would have had no great significance.

What Economists Know
by Melville Ulmer
Vigorous disputes are common among experts in the natural sciences but normally erupt at the unexplored frontiers, when critical facts or experiments are lacking.

Mordecai M. Kaplan in Retrospect
by Seymour Siegel
In Philip Roth's story, “The Conversion of the Jews,” the young protagonist Ozzie Freedman, aged thirteen, wants to know how Rabbi Binder can call the Jews the chosen people “if the Declaration of Independence claimed all men to be created equal.” To be properly appreciated in the context of the American Jewish experience, this remark should be juxtaposed with one made by my grandfather, an immigrant from Eastern Europe, “America iz a goldene medineh—ober a klog oyf Columbus'n” (freely translated, “America is a golden land—but a curse on Columbus”). These two observations point up some of the ambiguities generated by the mass immigration of Jews to America.

Our “Most Important” Living Poet
by Robert Richman
In 1976, the poet John Ashbery received the three most prestigious awards an American writer can have bestowed on him: the National Book Award, the National Book Critics Circle Award, and the Pulitzer Prize.

After Diaghilev
by Sophie Glazer
“Étonne-moi!” Diaghilev demanded. “Astonish me!” Jean Cocteau obliged—and so did Sergei Prokofiev and Igor Stravinsky, Erik Satie, Pablo Picasso, Léon Bakst, Georges Braque, and a host of others.

The Spirit of Democratic Capitalism, by Michael Novak
by Samuel McCracken
A Theology of Capitalism The Spirit of Democratic Capitalism. by Michael Novak. Simon & Schuster. 443 pp. $17.50. Intellectuals sometimes take considerable time to catch up with the facts.

Acts of Faith, by Dan Ross
by Chaim Raphael
Beyond the Pale? Acts of Faith: A Journey to the Fringes of Jewish Identity. by Dan Ross. Foreword by Raphael Patai. St. Martin's Press.

The New Class War, by Frances Fox Piven and Richard A. Cloward
by Leslie Lenkowsky
Social Policy The New Class War: Reagan's Attack on the Welfare State and Its Consequences. by Frances Fox Piven and Richard A.

Hunger of Memory, by Richard Rodriguez
by Susan Adler
Ricardo/Richard Hunger of Memory: The Education of Richard Rodriguez. by Richard Rodriguez. Godine. 195 pp. $14.95. The story is familiar in its outlines. Clever and watchful, the son of a poor immigrant family (in this case Mexican) is propelled by his easy successes in school into a world that is far removed from that of his parents.

On Strategy: A Critical Analysis of the Vietnam War, by Harry G. Summers Jr.
by Eliot Cohen
Military Thinking On Strategy: A Critical Analysis of the Vietnam War. by Harry G. Summers, Jr. Presidio Press. 137 pp. $12.95. Colonel Harry Summers begins this concise and fascinating study of American strategy in Vietnam by disposing of two myths.

The Arab Predicament, by Fouad Ajami
by Martin Kramer
Arabs Against Themselves The Arab Predicament: Arab Political Thought and Practice Since 1967. by Fouad Ajami. Cambridge University Press. 220 pp. $19.95. That the Arabs share a predicament seems at once implausible.

August, 1982Back to Top
The Courts
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Herman Belz has done a serious wrong to Justice Richard Neely in his evaluation of the latter's book, How Courts Govern America [Books in Review, March].

Santayana
by Our Readers
To the Editor: COMMENTARY deserves thanks for publishing Kenneth S. Lynn's “Santayana and the Genteel Tradition” [May] so soon after Mr.

Christian Anti-Semitism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his article, “The Problem of Christian Anti-Semitism” [April], Norman Ravitch suggests that Christian orthodoxy and “particularism” tend to lead to anti-Semitism and that, conversely, the liberal approach represented, for example, by Rosemary Ruether and Gregory Baum does the opposite.

The Peace Movement
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The most impressive aspect of Vladimir Bukovsky's article, “The Peace Movement and the Soviet Union” [May]—beyond its tremendous clarity and historical knowledge—is its understanding of Western disarmers.

The AWACS
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his otherwise insightful article [“AWACS and the Jewish Community,” April], Murray Friedman leaves his readers with the impression that liberals and conservatives are almost equally to blame for approval of the AWACS sale.

Cambodia
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Martin F. Herz has done well to focus attention on “The Scandal of Cambodia” [February]. Cambodia is indeed a human scandal.

Yale and the Pangle Case
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “God & Man at Yale—Again” [February], Robert William Kagan alleged improper conduct by me and by the Yale department of political science for refusing a promotion to a tenured position to Thomas Pangle.

How to Think About Nuclear War
by Edward Luttwak
Now that the United States is belatedly acting to restore a tolerable balance in forces nuclear as well as conventional, a vast chorus of protest has been heard from those who hold that deterrence is a policy not merely dangerous but irrational, and who therefore demand an immediate “freeze.” Others have made a narrower protest, against the reliance of the United States and its allies on nuclear deterrence to dissuade a Soviet invasion that might be accomplished by the great non-nuclear forces of the Soviet army.

Afghanistan-Another Cambodia?
by Michael Barry
Afghanistan, the former hermit kingdom of Central Asia whose name hardly ever appeared in the news, has become one of the world's human disaster areas.

The Theory and Practice of Anti-Semitism
by Michael Marrus
In a book published in 1950, a distinguished veteran of the fight against European anti-Semitism argued that the Nazi Holocaust had little to do with the tradition of anti-Semitism in Germany.

The Life You Gave Me
by Bette Howland
So my father is going to be all right. That's what my mother said as soon as we met at the airport.

Of Time and the River Jordan
by Glenn Loney
In Joe Orton's Entertaining Mr. Sloane, the middle-aged Kath, eager to suggest an innocence she doesn't possess, assures Sloane, the homicidal young hustler, that in her youth she was more familiar with Africa than with her own body.

Read Marguerite Yourcenar!
by Joseph Epstein
In an attempt to arouse interest in the novels of Marguerite Yourcenar, a writer I much admire, perhaps I could do worse than to begin by announcing that the critic George Steiner thinks very little of them.

Summertime Visions
by Richard Grenier
With all the attitudes and institutions that the great Western nations have in common, there are still sharp differences among them in matters of daily living.

The Underclass, by Ken Auletta
by Chester Finn
At the Bottom The Underclass. by Ken Auletta. Random House. 348 pp. $17.50. “I absolutely believe it is outrageous and totally immoral not to require work in exchange for every dollar of welfare given out,” stated Adam Walinsky, one-time top legislative aide to Senator Robert Kennedy, to Ken Auletta, author of The Underclass.

The Great Code, by Northrop Frye
by Michael Fixler
Myth & History The Great Code: The Bible and Literature. by Northrop Frye. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. 261 pp. $14.95. Serious reading of the Bible is not an occasional pastime but a steady absorption, involving reading and rereading, deriving from the sustained experience a web of comprehensive meaning.

Beyond the Ivory Tower, by Derek Bok
by Werner Dannhauser
University & Society Beyond the Ivory Tower: Social Responsibilities of the Modern University. by Derek Bok. Harvard. 318 pp. $15.95. According to Derek Bok, president of Harvard, the ivory tower no longer serves as an image for the modern American university, which neither can nor should live in proud isolation from what he calls “the outside world.” In dealing with that world, however, the university must continue to cherish academic freedom, the very air it breathes, and it must reconcile its institutional autonomy with the legitimate needs of the state.

Psychiatrist of America: The Life of Harry Stack Sullivan
by Barbara Lerner
The Godfather Psychiatrist of America: The Life of Harry Stack Sullivan. by Helen Swick Perry. Harvard, Belknap Press. 462 pp. $20.00. Harry Stack Sullivan is one of the most important and least known social scientists of this century.

Countdown: The Polish Upheavals of 1956, 1968, 1970, 1976, 1980, by Jakub Karpinski; The Polish August, by Neal Ascherson; Polan
by Arch Puddington
The Road to Solidarity Countdown: The Polish Upheavals of 1956, 1968, 1970, 1976, 1980. by Jakub Karpinski. Karz-Cohl. 214 pp. $29.95. The Polish August: The Self-Limiting Revolution. by Neal Ascherson. Viking.

September, 1982Back to Top
“Missing&rdquo
by
To the Editor: Richard Grenier's review of Missing is, as usual, superb [“The Curious Case of Costa-Gavras,” April]. But writing, not mathematics, is clearly his forte.

The Press and Vietnam
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his article, “With the American Press in Vietnam” [May], H. J. Kaplan appears to attribute to Talleyrand a well-known definition of a diplomat that is more accurately to be attributed to Sir Henry Wotton (Reliquiae Wottonianae): “An ambassador is an honest man sent to lie abroad for the commonwealth.” Since this historic remark is often misquoted, as well as wrongly attributed, it can do no harm, I trust, to insist upon the correct source and version. Frank Hercules New York City _____________   To the Editor: H.

Evangelism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Thank you for publishing Gerald S. Strober's fascinating and courageous article, “My Life as a Christian” [June]. His story reminds me of a similar one, written about sixty years ago by Samuel Freuder, under the title “My Return to Judaism.” Nowadays, though (after the Holocaust), as Mr.

Feminism and Education
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “Feminism & Thought Control” [June] Michael Levin doesn't tell the half of it. Textbook editors deliberately distort American cultural history in order to advance the new orthodoxy. For example, in a 1979 American literature text from Scott, Foresman, there is a study question which goes roughly: “Edith Wharton was the first woman to achieve critical and financial success as a writer.

Victims and Victimizers
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have just read Roger Starr's impressive article, “Blaming the (Jewish) Victim” [June]. He describes an unfortunate human reaction that is apparently universal.

Kissenger and Sholom Aleichem
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Norman Podhoretz's otherwise splendid “Kissinger Reconsidered” [June] overlooks one important purpose underlying the Nixon-Kissinger foreign policy: namely, promoting the interests of American big business by expanding the market for American goods and services overseas. Richard Nixon was long affiliated with big business interests; for example, his partnership in a large Wall Street law firm.

J'Accuse
by Norman Podhoretz
The war in Lebanon triggered an explosion of invective against Israel that in its fury and its reach was unprecedented in the public discourse of this country.

Liberalism & Theodore H. White
by James Nuechterlein
When Theodore H. White first developed the ideas that eventuated in his Making of the President series in the late 1950's, both he and the nation whose politics he intended to chronicle were filled with energy, confidence, and enthusiasm.

Vietnam Under Communism
by Stephen Morris
But let us not forget that violence does not and cannot exist by itself: it is invariably intertwined with the lie.

Our Egalitarian Economists
by Melville Ulmer
Over the last half-century, the dominant politico-economic movement of the industrialized democratic world has been a drive toward the equalization of incomes.

Thinking About the Self
by Michael Levin
It is hardly news that in recent years Americans have indulged in a perhaps unprecedented preoccupation with the care and feeding of the self, from courses in assertiveness training to articles like the one in a leading women's magazine, “Nineteen Ways to be Uniquely Yourself.” Tom Wolfe's term for the 70's, the “Me Decade,” has even entered the language as a catch-all tag for this era of self-consciousness. Indeed, the new subjectivity may help to explain the otherwise puzzling popularity of a spate of forbiddingly hefty books that have recently appeared on the abstruse philosophical topics of self-reference and self-consciousness.

The Black Book
by Joshua Rubenstein
Since the close of World War II, a multitude of firsthand material about the destruction of European Jewry has been published, including diaries, memoirs, and the reports of Nazi officers to their superiors in Berlin.

Garp: Violence for the Educated
by Richard Grenier
One of the most conspicuous features of our present culture is that we are subject to the most severe inhibitions regarding the use of force.

The Story of the Stories, by Dan Jacobson
by Hillel Halkin
The Wheel of History The Story of the Stories: The Chosen People and its God. by Dan Jacobson. Harper & Row. 211 pp.

Stalin's Secret War, by Nikolai Tolstoy
by Adam Ulam
Lust for Power Stalin's Secret War. by Nikolai Tolstoy. Holt, Rinehart & Winston. 463 pp. $18.50. This book is woven around three main themes.

This Was Harlem, by Jervis Anderson
by Peter Shaw
Uptown This was Harlem: A Cultural Portrait 1900-1950. by Jervis Anderson. Farrar Straus & Giroux. 390 pp. $17.95. Within memory, the section of upper Manhattan known for the past twenty years as a depressing, forbidding slum was a vibrant and self-confident community.

The Day Is Short: An Autobiography, by Morris B. Abram
by Nathan Glazer
A Public Life The Day is Short: An Autobiography. by Morris B. Abram. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. 280 pp. $14.95. Morris Abram is a former president of Brandeis University, of the American Jewish Committee, and of the Field Foundation; a former candidate for the Senate from New York; and a man who has held many official appointments, from the United Nations to committees investigating nursing homes in New York.

Boredom
by Robert Nisbet
Among the forces that have shaped human behavior boredom is one of the most insistent and universal. Although scarcely as measurable a factor in history as war, disease, economic depression, famine, and revolution, it is far from invisible in either the present or the past.

October, 1982Back to Top
Richard Pryor
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . Richard Grenier's article on Richard Pryor [“Black Comedy,” June] is simply the best essay I have read concerning Pryor.

Economists
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The main contribution of Melville J. Ulmer's article [“What Economists Know,” July]. . . is to substantiate once again the dictum of the contemporary English philosopher, Karl Popper, to the effect that social planners should be cautious in their social engineering lest they make a bad situation worse.

Kissenger
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Norman Podhoretz in “Kissinger Reconsidered” [June] pays due tribute to the literary excellence of the first two volumes of Henry Kissinger's memoirs.

Pluralism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Nathan Glazer's article, “Ethnicity—North, South, West” [May], exhibits his usual qualities of political realism and a grasp of historical circumstance and process, combined with an animus against the legitimation and, worse, the encouragement of group conflict.

Delegitimatizing Israel
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Bravo, bravo, bravo for Ruth R. Wisse's article, “The Delegitimation of Israel” [July]. It is a milestone in the tradition of Norman Podhoretz's “The Abandonment of Israel” [July 1976]. Mrs.

Verification and Arms Control
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . It is regrettable that Edward Jay Epstein [“Disinformation: Or, Why the CIA Cannot Verify an Arms-Control Agreement,” July] does not mention the administration's proposal to the Soviet Union that we agree on cooperative measures of verification to supplement what are called “national technical means,” i.e., satellite photography and electronic surveillance.

Lebanon: The Case for the War
by Robert Tucker
Each of the Arab-Israeli wars has been distinctive. Each has developed in ways that confounded the expectations of observers and each has given rise to consequences that were unforeseen at the time.

A New Direction for the Democrats?
by Penn Kemble
For the past two years, it has sometimes been hard to comprehend—beyond the label—just who and what the Democrats are, let alone where they are going.

The Missiles of October: Twenty Years Later
by Peter Rodman
Like all great events, the Cuban missile crisis of October 1962 left a mark in the lessons its contemporaries drew from it.

The Stalinist Follies
by Eric Breindel
In June 1949, Paul Robeson arrived in the Soviet Union on one of his periodic pilgrimages. According to a new account by his son, Paul, Jr.,1 Robeson was immediately alarmed by the political atmosphere, sensing the virulently anti-Semitic character of the state-orchestrated campaign against “Zionism,” “Titoism,” and “cosmopolitanism.” Concerned about his many friends in the quasi-official Jewish cultural community, the “People's Artist” of American Communism sought to make contact with them.

Malamud in Decline
by Joseph Epstein
When do we give up on a novelist? Sometimes, if it be foul enough, a single sentence will do the job.

Fassbinder & the Bloomingdale's Factor
by Richard Grenier
Mike Frankovich, the veteran Hollywood producer, used to say, “Everybody's got two businesses: his own, and the movie business.” By this he meant that, wherever he went in Beverly Hills, people with no connection with the film industry whatever were always telling him that he should have known that film A was going to be a blockbuster at the box office and film B a turkey, that star X wasn't worth a plugged nickel but that star Y was dynamite.

The Real Anti-Semitism in America, by Nathan and Ruth Ann Perlmutter
by Lucy Dawidowicz
America & the Jews The Real Anti-Semitism in America. by Nathan and Ruth Ann Perlmutter. Arbor House. 303 pp. $15.50. About two years ago, the level of anti-Semitic violence throughout the United States seemed suddenly on the rise.

John Foster Dulles, by Ronald W. Pruessen
by Arnold Beichman
Revisionist Biography John Foster Dulles: The Road to Power. by Ronald W. Pruessen. Free Press. 575 pp. $19.95. This is the first of a projected two-volume intellectual biography of John Foster Dulles, Eisenhower's Secretary of State from 1953 to 1959.

Spain, the Jews, and Franco, by Haim Avni
by Mark Falcoff
Sephardim Spain, the Jews, and Franco. by Haim Avni. Translated from the Hebrew by Emanuel Shimoni. Jewish Publication Society. 268 pp. $19.95. In 1492, after centuries of coexistence with their Christian (and Muslim) neighbors, the Jews of Spain were ordered to embrace Catholicism or quit the country altogether.

The Best Defense, by Alan M. Dershowitz
by Joseph Bishop
Defending the Guilty The Best Defense. by Alan M. Dershowitz. Random House. 425 pp. $16.95. For years I vaguely disapproved of Alan Dershowitz, although I was hardly acquainted with him.

The Rebbetzin
by Chaim Grade
1. The Graipewo RAV1 and his wife had reached their later years. Their children were all married and lived in Horadna.

November, 1982Back to Top
Afghanistan
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In the fall of 1980, the CIA interviewed law students at the University of Michigan for positions within the Agency.

Reconstructionism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Seymour Siegel describes properly the social and intellectual circumstances which prompted Mordecai M. Kaplan to embark upon his lifelong project of “reconstructing” Judaism for the 20th century [“Mordecai M.

Einstein
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Sidney Hook's article on his correspondence with Albert Einstein concerning the probity of the Soviet Union [“My Running Debate with Einstein,” July] is provocative not only in itself but also because of a certain reticence in Mr.

Thinking About Nuclear War
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In telling us “How to Think About Nuclear War” [August], Edward N. Luttwak attacks those who support the nuclear freeze because they regard nuclear deterrence as dangerous, immoral, irrational, and/or unnecessary.

Is the Jewish Community Split?
by Earl Raab
According to Time magazine in September, “Most American Jews are apprehensive, if not heartsick about the anguished debate that has broken out inside their community on the actions of Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin's government.” That was, and remains, the conventional journalistic wisdom about what has been happening in the American Jewish community, and some version of it could be read or heard in all the media over the last months.

The Mandarin and the Commissar
by Leopold Tyrmand
I went to China. What I was most interested in seeing and probing was the difference between Chinese Communism and the one I knew firsthand from Eastern Europe. My relationship to Communism is that of an innocent, moderately amused victim: I did not do anything to it (had no chance to, actually), while Communism inflicted on me every possible abomination—from keeping me muzzled, unemployed, and destitute to throwing me into jails.

Evolution and Its Discontents
by Jeffrey Marsh
It is now a full century since Charles Darwin died, but the theory of evolution associated with his name remains a subject of heated controversy.

Culture Among the Nations
by Dorothy Rabinowitz
The Second UNESCO World Conference on Cultural Policies convened in Mexico City from July 26 to August 6. The following notes are excerpted from a record of events kept by the author, who attended as a member of the press. _____________   Day 1 The conference center is set in a bleak working-class section, a long drive from the shining tourist hotels where most of the delegations are housed.

The Worm in the Big Apple
by John Sisk
In Europe my wife and I were always aware that we were moving about in a violent world where kidnappings, purse snatchings, knee-cappings, bombings, and assassinations were as common as soccer matches, but it was always a media-based awareness; none of it touched us personally.

Appropriating the Holocaust
by Henryk Grynberg
The Holocaust must have been a great shock to Christian consciousness. Why else would Pope John XXIII have cried out—as he is said to have done—“Forgive us for crucifying Thee a second time in their flesh”? Why else would the Synod of the Evangelical Church of the Rhineland have passed a resolution declaring Christianity responsible for the Holocaust and nullifying former Church doctrine that the Jewish people have been rejected by God and replaced by the Church? As the German theologian, Heinz Kremers, has written: “The Holocaust signifies the crisis of our civilization, our culture, our policy, and our religion.

Shostakovich in Four Parts
by Samuel Lipman
When Dmitri Shostakovich died in Moscow seven years ago, he was mourned in his homeland as a great Soviet composer.

The Past Has Another Pattern, by George W. Ball
by Arch Puddington
Misplaced Priorities The Past has Another Pattern. by George W. Ball. Norton. 527 pp. $19.95. Although he has not held an important government position since briefly serving as U.S.

The Politics of Welfare, by Blanche Bernstein
by Roger Starr
Welfare and Society The Politics of Welfare. by Blanche Bernstein. Abt Books. 204 pp. $22.00. Blanche Bernstein is a public official who has become anathema to her former colleagues in the social-welfare community.

The Killing of Bonnie Garland, by illard Gaylin
by Naomi Munson
Triumph of the Therapeutic The Killing of Bonnie Garland. by Willard Gaylin. Simon & Schuster. 366 pp. $16.50. In the early morning hours of July 7, 1977, Richard Herrin, a recent Yale graduate, sat in his estranged girlfriend's bedroom at her parents' home in Scarsdale, New York.

Managers of Virtue: Public School Leadership in America, 1820-1980, by David Tyack and Elisabeth Hansot
by David Kirp
An Educational Tale Managers of Virtue: Public School Leadership in America, 1820-1980. by David Tyack and Elisabeth Hansot. Basic Books. 312 pp. $17.95. Books whose nominal subject is the history of schooling in America have often been thinly disguised didactics, with less to say about past circumstances than about present-day controversies.

When the Going Was Good!, by Jeffrey Hart
by Ronald Berman
The 50's When the Going was Good! by Jeffrey Hart. Crown. 320 pp. $15.95. One of the problems for the conservative imagination in this country is that it has had no recent experience in power.

December, 1982Back to Top
The Response to “J'Accuse&rdquo
by Sidney Hook
The correspondence on Norman Podhoretz's “J'Accuse” [September] has been so heavy that we have borrowed the space normally devoted to book reviews in order to convey a fair impression of it.

Banks, Tanks, and Freedom
by John Meer
Other [State Department] emergency teams have been known officially as “working groups” or “task forces.” But the Poland group is known as a “monitoring group.” .

Socialism & Its Irresponsibilities: The Case of Irving Howe
by Midge Decter
Anyone who wished to trace the tides and fortunes of American socialism since the 1930's could do worse than examine the intellectual and political development of Irving Howe: critic, writer, editor, and socialist par excellence.

Theologian of the Holocaust
by Hyam Maccoby
Of all the painful reconsiderations of the meaning of Jewish experience to which the Holocaust has given birth in our time, that undertaken over the last decades by the theologian Emil Fackenheim is perhaps the most rigorous and, at the same time, the most moving.

Scenes from the Cedar Bar
by Lionel Abel
I came back from Paris in the fall of 1951, and found that New York had changed in the three years I had been away.

The Record in Latin America
by Max Singer
Events over the last two years have not been all bad for the United States in Latin America. Honduras held its second free election in a row, and the elected Liberal party took power even though the armed forces preferred its opponents.

My Friend Martin
by Joseph Epstein
You can never know for certain what the next person thinks of you, but my guess is that Martin thought I was smart enough to get my work done and make a small name for myself in a large world, yet not as smart as he, who understood how hopelessly complicated the world was, an understanding which only rendered him impotent to make any sort of dent in it at all.

How to Read the Bible
by Chaim Raphael
In encountering a new translation of the Bible, one often thinks first of the changes one can expect to find from the most beloved of earlier renderings, the King James Version of 1611.

Why Herzog Differs
by Richard Grenier
One of the oddities of the age is the artist or intellectual who, deferring to the pervasive sanctities of the times, succeeds in misunderstanding his own temperament.




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