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January, 1986Back to Top
Totalitarianism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his analysis of the present state of the unending debate on the concept of “totalitarianism” [“Is There Now, or Has There Ever Been, Such a Thing as Totalitarianism?,” October 1985].

Colonialism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: What can Joseph Epstein [“One Cheer for E.M. Forster,” September 1985] possibly mean by writing that E.M. Forster's dislike of the “Anglo-Indians” (A Passage to India)” came through accompanied by serious political consequences”? Mr.

The Networks & the Hostages
by Our Readers
To the Editor: David Bar-Illan's article, “Israel, the Hostages, and the Networks” [September 1985] documents yet another case of a baffling and most destructive fever—the extraordinary addiction of Western cultures to self-reproach, self-hatred, and ultimately self-destruction.

Nairobi
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I read Michael Levin's article about the United Nations Decade for Women Conference held in Nairobi [“What Nairobi Wrought,” October 1985] with much surprise, having attended the conference as part of a delegation of twenty-three women representing the American Jewish Committee, the same organization that publishes COMMENTARY.

Losing the Peace
by Our Readers
To the Editor: John Colville's “How the West Lost the Peace in 1945” [September 1985] stirred me deeply. Mr. Colville is fully justified, in my opinion, in emphasizing the awful ironies that marked the outcome of World War II.

South Africa
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Paul Johnson's article on South Africa [“The Race for South Africa,” September 1985] is the best analysis of that tragic situation which has been published to date.

Behind the Black-Jewish Split
by Glenn Loury
Relations between American blacks and Jews have become strained in recent years. These two groups, long allies in the historic struggle for social justice in this country, find themselves now at loggerheads over issues which each perceives as vital to its interests.

Do We Still Need Europe?
by Eliot Cohen
For an American to suggest that we should investigate our strategic interest in Europe can sound positively subversive—tantamount to repudiating our commitment to Europe altogether, or denying Europe's value to American security.

New York Down, Washington Up
by Tod Lindberg
SUCH, such is the power of New York in the imagination that many people- I count myself among them-declare upon arriv- ing that they will never leave.

A Misdiagnosis of American Medicine
by Florence Ruderman
During most of human history, medicine has seemed a very minor factor in social life. For millennia, great minds analyzed and speculated on the interrelations of society and government, law, religion, and other institutions; no comparable thought was devoted to the inter-relations of society and medicine. This was still true when sociology came into being as a modern discipline.

Professor Vendler's Garden of Verses
by James Gardner
It is a commonplace that the putting-together of a literary anthology is in itself a creative act. One might even be justified in invoking Harold Bloom's already too-famous phrase and say that an “anxiety of influence” pursues anthologists no less than poets, for anthologists are interested not only in promoting those poets they most admire, but also in assailing earlier anthologists upon whose compilations they may themselves have been bred.

Dinner With Butler and Eisenhower
by Edward Comte
One does not hear the word “dignity” anymore, except in the curious phrase “dying with dignity.” Nobody speaks of living with dignity.

Settlers
by Edith Pearlman
One sunday morning at eight o'clock Peter Loy stood on the corner of Congdon Street and Brighton Avenue, waiting for the bus downtown.

Common Ground, by J. Anthony Lukas
by James Wilson
The Judge & the SchoolsCommon Ground: A Turbulent Decade in the Lives of Three American Families. by J. Anthony Lukas Knopf.

The German Jew, by H.I. Bach
by Richard Levy
Redemption from Without The German Jew: A Synthesis of Judaism and Western Civilization, 1730-1930. by H. I. Bach Oxford University Press. 255 pp.

Liberalism and Its Challengers, by Alonzo L. Hamby
by Roger Kaplan
Losing Hope Liberalism and its Challengers: Fdr to Reagan. by Alonzo L. Hamby Oxford University Press. 386 pp. $24.95. Twice in a row, American voters have elected by large majorities the most conservative presidential candidate since Herbert Hoover.

Alien Powers, by Kenneth Minogue
by Edward Pearce
Marxism's Legacy Alien Powers: The Pure Theory of Ideology. by Kenneth Minogue St. Martin's. 255 pp. $27.50. One does not lightly pick up a book whose subtitle is “The Pure Theory of Ideology,” even if the title proper suggests something by Arthur C.

The Victim's Song, by Alice R. Kaminsky
by Rachel Abrams
“Only a Murder” The Victim's Song. by Alice R. Kaminsky Prometheus. 268 pp. $19.95. Years ago, long before I became a mother, a friend of mine was raped and murdered.

Reader Letters January 1986
by Nathan Glazer
TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Paul Johnson's article on South Africa ["The Race for South Afri- ca," September 1985] is the best analysis of that tragic situation which has been published to date.

February, 1986Back to Top
Russian Writers
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have read with the greatest interest the discussion on Russian writers in your November 1985 letters columns occasioned by Fernanda Eberstadt's article, “Out of the Drawer and Into the West” [July 1985].

Psychoanalysis
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The November 1985 issue contains a letter I wrote concerning Dr. Robert Jay Lifton. Regrettably, my letter could be read to suggest that membership in the American Academy of Psychoanalysis equates with being a “psychoanalyst.” As a matter of fact, some allied scientists, who have contributed much to the field of psychoanalysis, have been invited to become Scientific Associate members of the Academy, although they may or may not see themselves as psychoanalysts.

1945 & After
by Our Readers
To the Editor: John Colville, in “How the West Lost the Peace in 1945” [September 1985], says more in six-and-a-half pages than some historians have said in hundreds of pages.

Resistance in Vietnam
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Maggie Gallagher and Charles Bork make a persuasive case for support for international resistance movements in “The New Freedom Fighters” [September 1985].

Hiroshima
by Our Readers
To the Editor: “The Cult of Hiroshima” by André Ryerson [October 1985], which finds “something not quite right” about commemorating the fortieth anniversary of the holocaust of August 6, 1945, disturbed me greatly.

Italian Jews
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am responding to Fernanda Eberstadt's article, “Reading Primo Levi” [October 1985]. I neither wish to nor am I able to discuss Miss Eberstadt's opinions on the literary merits of my books; to our common good fortune, in your country as in mine, freedom of criticism exists.

How the Constitution Disappeared
by Lino Graglia
Attorney General Edwin Meese's recent statement in a speech to the American Bar Association that judges should interpret the Constitution to mean what it was originally intended to mean probably did not strike most people as controversial.

Liberalism and Zionism
by Edward Alexander
“Liberalism is always being surprised.” That was how Lionel Trilling used to describe the characteristic liberal failure to imagine what reason and seductive common sense appeared to gainsay.

The Lost Honor of Geraldine Ferraro
by James Adams
In the American television film The Lost Honor of Kathryn Beck, Mario Thomas plays a Midwestern single woman whose life turns into a living hell after a chance affair with a fugitive terrorist.

Execution Day in Riyadh
by Clifford Hallam
And the execution began! . . . Many did not care to watch it but lay with eyes closed in the sand; they all knew; now Justice was being done. —Kafka, “In the Penal Colony” Soon after I arrived in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, in 1980 to teach at the university, a new colleague pointed out the parking lot called Dira Square, in which executions took place. “There it is, right next to the Friday Mosque.

Kafka's Father, Agnon's Mother, Bellow's Cousins
by Robert Alter
What happens in the fictional representation of the family? Fiction is informed by an impulse to generalize, to symbolize, to make the particular somehow exemplary—and often, I would add, exemplary of aspects of existence by no means limited to social institutions and their consequences in individual lives.

Who's Afraid of Women's Studies?
by Elizabeth Lilla
Kenyon College is a tiny liberal-arts school in rural Ohio. It is probably best known for its literary quarterly, the Kenyon Review, although it has also earned a fine reputation for its traditional curriculum and devotion to teaching.

In the House of Glass
by Ken Chowder
IT WAS, after all, a remarkable piece of apparatus. Hagen grabbed the brass ring; tricklingly the flush began. He made his way back to his chair and sat, like the foreigner he was, not in but on it.

Citizens and Soldiers, by Eliot A. Cohen
by Philip Gold
Bearing Arms Citizens and Soldiers: The Dilemmas of Military Service. by Eliot A. Cohen. Cornell University Press. 227 pp. $22.50. Thirteen years ago, the United States became the only great power in history to attempt to meet its global military commitments entirely through the use of citizen volunteers.

Selected Letters of Cyrus Adler, edited by Ira Robinson
by Jonathan Sarna
“Sir Oracle” Selected Letters of Cyrus Adler. by Ira Robinson. Jewish Publication Society. Vol. 1, 403 pp. Vol. 2, 398 pp. $50.00. When Cyrus Adler graduated from the University of Pennsylvania, his classmates, who considered him a trifle arrogant, pictured him as a question mark.

Peace and Survival, by David Gress
by Jeffrey Herf
The New Neutralism Peace and Survival: West Germany, the Peace Movement, and European Security. by David Gress. Hoover. 266 pp. $15.95. In this period of relative calm after the storm over the installing of cruise and Pershing missiles in Europe, “continuity” is the key word for many observers of West German politics.

The Faraway Music, by Svetlana Allilueva
by Anita Grossman
Svetlana in Wonderland The Faraway Music. by Svetlana Allilueva. Lancer International (New Delhi). 192 pp. 115 rupees. In the flurry of publicity surrounding the return of Stalin's daughter Svetlana Allilueva to the Soviet Union in October 1984, few commentators noted that months before her departure she had published a third volume of memoirs, a sequel to Twenty Letters to a Friend and Only One Year.

Oral Roberts, by David Edwin Harrell, Jr.
by Terry Teachout
Preacher's Progress Oral Roberts: An American Life. by David Edwin Harrell, JR. Indiana University Press. 622 pp. $16.95. “I was trying to play golf with Oral Roberts the other day,” Bob Hope once cracked, “but the holes kept healing up.” Quite a bit of revealing social data is embedded in that homely one-liner.

Cutting Edges, by Charles Krauthammer
by Larry Nachman
Holding the Center Cutting Edges: Making Sense of the Eighties. by Charles Krauthammer. Random House. 221 pp. $17.95. Cutting Edges is an anthology of Charles Krauthammer's recent columns written, by and large, for the New Republic in which he appears regularly.

Reader Letters February 1986
by Raymond Rosenthal
TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: In his analysis of the present state of the unending debate on the concept of "totalitarianism" ["Is There Now, or Has There Ever Been, Such a Thing as Totali- tarianism?," October 1985].

March, 1986Back to Top
Blacks and Jews
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Despite Glenn C. Loury's statement in his article, “Behind the Black-Jewish Split” [January], neither the Reverend Joseph Lowery, Dr.

Animal Rights
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his review of In Defense of Animals, edited by Peter Singer [Books in Review, October 1985], Ronald Bailey takes for granted that it is self-evident that human beings, being moral creatures, have inherent rights, while animals, not regarded as moral creatures, cannot be said to have inherent rights.

Espionage & the CIA
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “Who Killed the CIA?” [October 1985], Edward Jay Epstein explains that the “technical collection” of strategic data (like space photography) cannot replace espionage.

Religion
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Reading Werner J. Dannhauser's “Religion and the Conservatives” [December 1985], I am reminded of an incident in the 1930's in the 116th Street subway station near Columbia University and the Union Theological Seminary.

The Jewish Vote
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have been following with great interest the series of articles you have recently published concerning the Jewish response to the current political climate, a series that includes the excellent and witty article by Milton Himmelfarb, “Another Look at the Jewish Vote” [December 1985].

Symposium
by Our Readers
To the Editor: COMMENTARY's 40th-anniversary symposium, “How Has the United States Met Its Major Challenges Since 1945?” [November 1985], is a worthy contribution to public discussion by a magazine from which we have become accustomed to expect much, but what it reveals about the weaknesses of the Center-Right coalition of “responsible” conservatives, neoconservatives, “cold-war” liberals, and others of that ilk is somewhat disturbing, at least to me.

In Occupied Poland
by Martin Krygier
My family comes from Warsaw. My parents were born and lived there until the outbreak of World War II. They are Polish Jews, for whom the adjective is no less important than the noun.

Naked Racial Preference
by Carl Cohen
The Board of Education in Jackson, Michigan, between 1972 and 1981, repeatedly laid off high-seniority white teachers to protect the jobs of others, with less seniority, who were “Black, American Indian, Oriental, or of Spanish descendancy.” Those white teachers contend that they were discriminated against unjustly on the basis of their race, denied their constitutional right to the equal protection of the laws.

Son, Father, Judge
by Hanoch Bartov
Now Jephthah the Gileadite was a mighty man of valor, and he was the son of an harlot: and Gilead begat Jephthah.

Vietnam: How We Deceived Ourselves
by Doan Toai
On May 11, 1978, I took a bus to the airport for the weekly 5 P.M. Air France refugee flight from Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon) to Paris.

Back to Criminal Psychology
by Joseph Adelson
Seeing on my desk a copy of Crime and Human Nature by James Q. Wilson and Richard J. Herrnstein,1 a colleague asked if that was the book arguing that “crime is biological.” It does not, but it is easy to see how and why he came to think so.

Truffaut & Other Auteurs
by Richard Grenier
Who is the author of a movie? What is an “auteur,” anyway? What was in the mind of the late François Truffaut and his friends when they thrust this idea upon the world some thirty years ago? The concept has certainly served its purpose as far as the Truffaut circle is concerned, in that it contributed effectively to establishing its members as France's leading and most talked-about film directors.

E.L. Doctorow's
by Carol Iannone
By self-proclamation, E.L. Doctorow is not an Ernest Hemingway or a Norman Mailer. “I tend not to get in fights in bars,” he announced reassuringly in a recent interview, “I don't go hunting for big game in Africa.

Reinhold Niebuhr: A Biography, by Richard Fox
by Richard Neuhaus
Theologian & Activist Reinhold Niebuhr: A Biography. by Richard Fox. Pantheon. 340 pp. $19.95. The dust jacket declares, and at least some reviewers agree, that Richard Fox's Reinhold Niebuhr is the definitive biography.

Star Warriors, by William J. Broad
by Gerald Steinberg
The Making of SDI Star Warriors: A Penetrating Look into The Lives of The Young Scientists Behind Our Space Age Weaponry. by William J.

My Father, His Daughter, by Yael Dayan
by Daniel Casse
Dayan & His World My Father, His Daughter. by Yaël Dayan. Farrar, Straus & Giroux. 289 pp. $17.95. In 1967, during the Six-Day War, the Israeli government press office circulated a photograph of Moshe and Yaël Dayan that appeared in hundreds of newspapers in Europe and North America.

Petain: Hero or Traitor?, by Herbert R. Lottman
by Edward Pearce
The Marshal Pétain: Hero or Traitor? by Herbert R. Lottman. Morrow. 416 pp. $17.95. Philippe Pétain died in 1951, a prisoner on the Isle D'Yeu below the Brittany peninsula where he was held for the final six years of his life, lurching and wheezing between lucid intervals to an end at the cruel age of ninety-five.

Politics, by Edward I. Koch with William Rauch
by Eric Breindel
Richies & Regulars Politics. by Edward I. Koch With William Rauch. Simon and Schuster. 255 pp. $17.95. Politics is a rambling, highly personal, and exceedingly funny account of the battles of Edward I.

Reader Letters March 1986
by Werner Dannhauser
TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: COMMENTARY'S 40th-anniversary symposium, "How Has the United States Met Its Major Challenges Since 1945?" [November 1985], is a worthy contribution to public discussion by a magazine from which we have become accus- tomed to expect much, but what it reveals about the weaknesses of the Center-Right coalition of "respon- sible" conservatives, neoconserva- tives, "cold-war" liberals, and oth- ers of that ilk is somewhat disturb- ing, at least to me.... Daniel Patrick Moynihan, whose style of writing is lively and there- fore cheering, nevertheless is on my list of disquieting contributors to the symposium.

April, 1986Back to Top
East-West Art
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I wish to protest against the tenor, and in particular the conclusion, of James Gardner's “Indian Art—and Ours” [April].

Violent Death
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In her review of The Victim's Song by Alice R. Kaminsky [Books in Review, January], Rachel Abrams makes us feel what Mrs.

German Jews
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Although it may be an exercise in futility, I would like to call attention to some of the doubtful assumptions in Richard S.

Totalitarianism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Walter Laqueur's article on totalitarianism [“Is There Now, or Has There Ever Been, Such a Thing as Totalitarianism?,” October 1985] is notable for its exacting scholarship and thorough command of the subject, and yet it strangely elides the critical question raised in its very first paragraph: .

Butler at Columbia
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his article, “Dinner with Butler and Eisenhower” [January], Edward Le Comte raises the question of Nicholas Murray Butler's attitude toward Jews but offers no answer other than a repetition of Diana Trilling's account of the circumstances surrounding her husband's appointment to Columbia's English department. I have recently spoken about this matter with long-time Columbia faculty members I.I.

N.Y. vs. D.C.
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As a former midtown Manhattanite (one of the “real” New Yorkers), I found Tod Lindberg's “New York Down, Washington Up” [January] a refreshing answer to all those people who look at me as if I'm crazy when they learn that I left “the city” without regret and indeed even with a certain pleasure. Like Mr.

The Black-Jewish Split
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Glenn C. Loury's ascription of “profoundly anti-Western” political views to America's black political and intellectual elite [“Behind the Black-Jewish Split,” January] regrettably coincides with COMMENTARY's more general effort to consign the Left-liberal intellectual elite to the anti-Western camp.

How Not to Occupy the West Bank
by Menahem Milson
Since the Six-Day War of 1967, when Israel conquered the West Bank from Jordan (which had annexed it in 1948) and the Gaza Strip from Egypt (which had been holding it under military government), these areas have been under an Israeli military government.

Therefore Choose Death?
by Paul Appelbaum
Like the serpent that coils around the staff of Aesculapius, the god of healing, contemporary law is now thoroughly intertwined with the practice of medicine.

Ethiopia: The Communist Uses of Famine
by Arch Puddington
Toward the end of 1984, at the height of a famine which has claimed the lives of hundreds of thousands of its citizens, the Ethiopian government launched one of the most farreaching social experiments of recent memory.

A Russian Writer's Jewish Fate
by Simon Markish
With the U.S. publication of Life and Fate,1 his masterwork, the name of the Russian writer Vasily Grossman (1905-64) will, one hopes, become more familiar to the American reader than has hitherto been the case.

E.B. White, Dark & Lite
by Joseph Epstein
When E.B. White died, at the age of eighty-six, on October 1, 1985, his obituarist in the New York Times referred to him as “one of the nation's most precious literary resources,” and the newspaper backed up the statement by running a six-column-across obituary of the kind it generally grants only to indisputably major statesmen and artists.

Indian Art-and Ours
by James Gardner
When in 1526 he finally turned to assess the country he had just conquered, Babur, the prodigious founder of the Mughal dynasty, was not impressed.

Why Computers Can't Be Poets
by William Barrett
There is no royal road to learning, the ancients said; but in our culture, now, all roads seem, in one way or another, to lead to the computer.

The Heavens and the Earth, by Walter McDougall
by Angelo Codevilla
Technology & the Technocrats The Heavens and the Earth: A Political History of the Space Age. by Walter Mcdougall. Basic Books. 576 pp.

Beyond Belief, by Deborah E. Lipstadt
by Daniel Casse
Reporting the Holocaust Beyond Belief: The American Press and the Coming of the Holocaust 1933-1945. by Deborah E. Lipstadt. Free Press. 370 pp.

Dickens and the Social Order, by Myron Magnet
by Robert Alter
Dickens as Conservative Dickens and the Social Order. by Myron Magnet. University of Pennsylvania Press. 544 pp. $39.95. The novels of Charles Dickens often create an initial impression of great simplicity, compensated for by extraordinary intensity—in contrast, say, to the novels of George Eliot, which are long on complexity and short on intensity.

Military Incompetence, by Richard A. Gabriel
by J. Simon
Litany of Disaster Military Incompetence. by Richard A. Gabriel. Hill & Wang. 208 pp. $16.95. “If a military force cannot perform well on the battlefield, then anything else it might do doesn't really matter.” So writes Richard Gabriel in Military Incompetence, an analysis of five of this country's most recent military actions: the Mayaguez rescue mission, the Iran rescue mission, Beirut, Grenada, and a failed rescue mission in Vietnam.

Without God, Without Creed, by James Turner
by Richard Neuhaus
The Rise of Atheism Without God, Without Creed: The Origins of Unbelief in America. by James Turner. Johns Hopkins University Press. 316 pp.

Reader Letters April 1986
by Walter Laqueur
TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Glenn C. Loury's ascription of "profoundly anti-Western" polit- ical views to America's black po- litical and intellectual elite ["Be- hind the Black-Jewish Split," January] regrettably coincides with COMMENTARY'S more general effort to consign the Left-liberal intel- lectual elite to the anti-Western camp.

May, 1986Back to Top
Oral Roberts
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I think Terry Teachout's review of Oral Roberts by David Edwin Harrell, Jr. [Books in Review, February] is an excellent and fair-minded assessment of the book—not an easy thing to do with such a controversial personality and movement.

Saudi Arabia
by Our Readers
To the Editor: “Execution Day in Riyadh” by Clifford Hallam [February] was read with great interest by my wife and me.

Women's Studies at Kenyon
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The following is a letter signed by 75 members of the Kenyon College faculty responding to Elizabeth Lilla's article, “Who's Afraid of Women's Studies?” [February].

American Medicine
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In her article, “A Misdiagnosis of American Medicine” [January], Florence A. Ruderman comes to the highly original judgment that my work is tainted by an incoherent Marxism.

How SDI Is Being Undone From Within
by Angelo Codevilla
A people without walls is a people without any choice. —Aristotle, Politics, Book 7, Chapter 11 Protection against enemy attack is not just a military necessity.

The Arab World Discovers Anti-Semitism
by Bernard Lewis
Since 1945, certain Arab countries have been the only places in the world where hard-core, Nazi-style anti-Semitism is publicly and officially endorsed and propagated. In the Western world, since the defeat of the Nazi Reich, anti-Semitism, though by no means dead, is clandestine or hypocritical, and cannot be openly avowed by anyone with serious political ambitions or cultural pretensions.

Montezuma's Literary Revenge
by Fernanda Eberstadt
An intent observer approaching the fiction, essays, paintings, and sculpture of 20th-century Mexico will be impressed by one outstanding feature these works of art share.

Religion in Post-Protestant America
by Peter Berger
In June 1985 the U.S. Supreme Court overruled an Alabama statute authorizing public schools in that state to observe a one-minute silence “for meditation or voluntary prayer.” The reasoning behind the decision was that the statute represented an establishment of religion and thereby violated the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, which states that “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.” I was abroad a few weeks after this decision and was put in the position of trying to explain it to a group of by no means unfriendly Europeans.

Gorbachev and the Jews
by Allan Kagedan
In early 1985, on the eve of Mikhail Gorbachev's accession to power, rumors began circulating of a possible resumption of large-scale Jewish emigration from the Soviet Union.

Close Calls
by Johanna Kaplan
Stranger in Paradise (?) The stork swooped in on ever-elegant Polly Treadwell at 12:25 A.M. Wednesday with a 6-pound 8-ounce baby girl.

The Later, and Greater, Strauss
by Samuel Lipman
All the material necessary for an evaluation of Richard Strauss (1864-1949) as a composer sub specie aeternitatis is now available.

With the Contras, by Christopher Dickey
by Penn Kemble
Fighting the Sandinistas With the Contras: A Reporter in the Wilds of Nicaragua. by Christopher Dickey. Simon and Schuster. 327 pp. $18.95. Christopher Dickey's book about the contras is a blood-flecked account of how in his view U.S.

The Affair: The Case of Alfred Dreyfus, by Jean-Denis Bredin
by Scott McConnell
Cause Célèbre The Affair: The Case of Alfred Dreyfus. by Jean-Denis Bredin. Translated by Jeffrey Mehlman. Braziller. 628 pp. $24.95. Before Captain Alfred Dreyfus was charged with high treason in 1894, he was a thirty-four-year-old, career-conscious officer on the French army general staff.

The Moral Life of Children; The Political Life of Children, by Robert Coles
by Larry Nachman
Soul-Gazer The Moral Life of Children. by Robert Coles. Atlantic Monthly Press. 302 pp. $19.95. The Political Life of Children. by Robert Coles. Atlantic Monthly Press.

Setting Municipal Priorities 1986, edited by Charles Brecher and Raymond D. Horton; Political Crisis/Fiscal Crisis, by Martin Sh
by Jules Cohn
Approaching the City Setting Municipal Priorities 1986. by Charles Brecher and Raymond D. Horton. New York University Press. 476 pp. $30.00. Political Crisis/Fiscal Crisis. by Martin Shefter. Basic Books.

The Holocaust, by Martin Gilbert
by Theodore Hamerow
A Pitiless Tableau The Holocaust: A History of the Jews of Europe During the Second World War. by Martin Gilbert. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Reader Letters May 1986
by Daniel Bell
TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: In her article, "A Misdiagnosis of American Medicine" [January], Florence A. Ruderman comes to the highly original judgment that my work is tainted by an incoher- ent Marxism.

June, 1986Back to Top
Conscription
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I enjoyed Philip Gold's review of Eliot A. Cohen's Citizens and Soldiers [Books in Review, February]. But surely he is wrong to say that the U.S.

Reinhold Niebuhr
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I appreciate Richard John Neuhaus's decision to “strain to be fair” in his review of my Reinhold Niebuhr: A Biography [Books in Review, March].

Zionism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Perhaps the most distasteful thing about Edward Alexander's crass attack on me in his article “Liberalism and Zionism” [February] is that he has forced me to take up the most unimaginable distortions of my book, The Tragedy of Zionism—I mean for the sake of people who might interpret silence on my part as a kind of concession to the truth.

The Constitution & the Court
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his challenging article, “How the Constitution Disappeared” [February], Lino A. Graglia assails, most eloquently and forcefully, the “judicial activism” of Supreme Court Justice William J.

The Family, the Nation, and Senator Moynihan
by Glenn Loury
Last year, Daniel Patrick Moynihan—Democrat, the senior U. Senator from New York, former U. Ambassador to India and to the United Nations, and once professor of government at Harvard—returned to Cambridge to deliver the prestigious Godkin Lectures at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government.

Nicaragua: A Speech to My Former Comrades on the Left
by David Horowitz
Twenty-five years ago I was one of the founders of the New Left. I was one of the organizers of the first political demonstrations on the Berkeley campus—and indeed on any campus—to protest our government's anti-Communist policies in Cuba and Vietnam.

Where Arabism and Zionism Differ
by Elie Kedourie
Arabism and Zionism are ideologies. In other words, they offer a blueprint for political action based on historical arguments which purport to establish the true character of, respectively, Arabs and Jews.

The Scandal of “Peace Education”
by Andre Ryerson
In the fall of 1982 the leaders of the nuclear-freeze movement, still buoyed by what they considered a popular tide, introduced to America's schools the subject of nuclear war, and what they judged fit to prevent it.

Reflections on the Art of Lying
by Dafna Allon
“What is truth?” said jesting Pilate; and would not stay for an answer. . . . Poesy . . .

Variant Text
by Allegra Goodman
Dear Aunt Ida, Attalia is screaming under the piano. She has taken it into her head that she needs a pair of boots.

The Political-Literary Complex
by Carol Iannone
At one point during point their week of deliberations and festivities, the writers who had assembled in New York last January for the 48th International PEN Congress were counseled by one of their number to “go back to your ivory towers.” But in truth many of the 700 or so delegates to the conference from some 40 countries did not seem ivory-tower types to begin with.

Murrow: His Life and Times, by A.M. Sperber
by Terry Teachout
“Some” of the News Murrow: His Life and Times. by A.M. Sperber. Freundlich Books. 816 pp. $22.95. Television news leaves few clear traces in our collective memory.

The Utopian Dilemma, by Murray Friedman
by Lucy Dawidowicz
The Golden Age & After The Utopian Dilemma: American Judaism And Public Policy by Murray Friedman. Foreword by Michael Novak. Ethics and Public Policy Center, distributed by Seth Press.

Franklin of Philadelphia, by Esmond Wright
by Diana Schaub
The Poet of Common Sense Franklin Of Philadelphia. by Esmond Wright. Harvard University Press. 404 pp. $25.00. Franklin of Philadelphia seems an odd title for the biography of a native Bostonian who spent nearly twenty-six years abroad in London and Paris.

The Unwanted, by Michael R. Marrus
by Larry Nachman
Nowhere to Go The Unwanted: European Refugees In The Twentieth Century by Michael R. Marrus. Oxford University Press. 414 pp. $24.95. “Home,” Robert Frost once wrote, “is the place where, when you have to go there, they have to take you in.” But suppose there is no such place.

The Outside Story, by Richard Brookhiser
by Gregory Fossedal
The Campaign Trail The Outside Story: How Democrats and Republicans Reelected Ronald Reagan. by Richard Brookhiser. Double-day. 298 pp. $17.95. Richard Brookhiser, the managing editor of National Review, has written a thorough and interesting account of the 1984 election, tapping the impressions he formed as one of the magazine's chief reporters on presidential races since 1980.

Reader Letters June 1986
by Richard Neuhaus
TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: In his challenging article, "How the Constitution Disappeared" [Feb- ruary], Lino A. Graglia assails, most eloquently and forcefully, the "ju- dicial activism" of Supreme Court Justice William J.

July, 1986Back to Top
The Press and the Holocaust
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was gratified by Daniel Casse's review and kind remarks regarding my book, Beyond Belief: The American Press and the Coming of the Holocaust, 1933-1945 [Books in Re view, April]. He seems, however, to have misunderstood one important aspect of the book.

The Fate of Vietnam
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As an American who lived through the Vietnam-war years, I felt a curious mixture of sorrow, anger, and vindication on reading “Vietnam: How We Deceived Our selves” by Doan Van Toai [March].

Ethiopia
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was surprised that Arch Puddington [“Ethiopia: The Communist Uses of Famine,” April] did not mention that from 1978 through 1982 the Ethiopian government received $1 billion in official Western aid, including substantial U.S.

Art and Civilization
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As I read James Gardner's “Indian Art—and Ours” [April], my reactions turned from confusion to dismay. Initially it appeared that Mr.

Affirmative Action
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I wish to thank Carl Cohen for his splendid article, “Naked Racial Preference” [March]. I was especially interested in his discussion of “role models” in the Wygant case, since here in Minnesota the state community-college system has as signed itself the task of selecting “positive role models” for its preferred employees.

Death and the Doctors
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “Therefore Choose Death?” [April] Paul S. Appelbaum and Joel Klein perform an important service in calling attention to the “abandonment by the medical profession of an unambivalent commitment to the treatment of the ill.” They correctly identify a principal cause of this phenomenon: pressure by courts and ethicists to adopt individual autonomy as the primary good.

Losing Central America
by Max Singer
One of the keys to the outcome of the Nicaraguan conflict is the anomalous reaction to it around the world.

Syria: The Cuba of the Middle East?
by Daniel Pipes
When U.S. Navy jet fighters attacked Syrian positions in Lebanon in December 1983, they did so because these positions were deemed intolerable to vital American interests.

Petropower and Soviet Expansion
by Edward Epstein
The constant focus on the attitudes of individual Soviet leaders, measured by their public pronouncements, style, and degree of apparent enlightenment, obscures the extent to which Soviet foreign policy depends on an underlying economic reality: the world price of a barrel of oil. To maintain over 150,000 technicians in 76 countries, constructing everything from oil refineries and nuclear reactors to SAM anti-aircraft missile systems, the Soviet Union must either earn or borrow substantial amounts of foreign ex change.1 In 1985, for example, the Soviet Union provided foreign military and economic aid estimated at more than $20 billion (not including the covert assistance it funneled to a score of guerrilla movements).

Whose Palestine?
by Rael Isaac
In the spring of 1984, Harper & Row published, to almost universal critical acclaim, a 600-page book by the journalist Joan Peters called From Time Immemorial: The Origins of the Arab-Jewish Conflict Over Palestine.

Miss Pym and Mr. Larkin
by Joseph Epstein
Has Anglophilia, like virginity past the age of twenty, become a dead letter? Impossible to answer such a question with anything approaching precision, but my suspicion is that, if Anglophilia is not yet dead, it is well on its way to dying.

The Staged 60's
by Louis Rapoport
In The fast-moving life he led, Bill Spiel-man never strayed far from the old friends he had made along the way.

Ortega y Gasset Revisited
by Richard Neuhaus
Nobody claims that Spain has been at the center of 20th-century thought. In truth, even the more literate among us, pressed to name a major Spanish influence, would likely come up with no more than Un-amuno (Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo, 1864-1936) and perhaps “that other Spanish philosopher,” Ortega (José Ortega y Gasset, 1883-1955).

Star Wars, by Alun Chalfont
by Stephen Rosen
Defending the West Star Wars: Suicide or Survival? by Alun Chalfont. Little, Brown. 169 pp. $16.95. This brief, undogmatic book by the chairman of the House of Lords' All-Party Defense Group may not make many ripples in the ever-growing community of American defense intellectuals since it does not uncover military incompetence, develop war-winning strategies, or warn of impending disaster.

The Big Dance, by John Castellucci
by Harvey Klehr
“The Family” The Big Dance. by John Castellucci. Dodd, Mead. 358 pp. $17.95. Two policemen and one guard were murdered during the bungled holdup of an armored Brinks truck near Nyack, New York on October 20, 1981.

Heroes and Hustlers, Hard Hats and Holy Men, by Ze'ev Chafets
by Micah Morrison
Ordinary People Heroes and Hustlers, Hard Hats and Holy Men: Inside the New Israel. by Ze'ev Chafets. Morrow. 249 pp. $17.95. In his first book, Double Vision: How America's Press Distorts Our View of the Middle East, Ze'ev Chafets, who served as chief of the Israel government press office for most of the Begin era, gave the Western media a well-documented (and well-deserved) bashing for their unprofessional and sometimes downright dishonest coverage of various aspects of the Arab-Israeli conflict.

The Last Two Years of Salvador Allende, by Nathaniel Davis
by Alvin Bernstein
Clean Hands The Last Two Years of Salvador Allende. by Nathaniel Davis. Cornell University Press. 480 pp. $24.95. This past March, after Ferdinand Marcos left the Philippines, President Reagan dispatched a message to Congress declaring his opposition to right- as well as left-wing tyrannies.

The Passion of Ayn Rand, by Barbara Branden
by Terry Teachout
The Goddess That Failed The Passion of Ayn Rand. by Barbara Branden. Doubleday. 421 pp. $19.95. The history of any ideology is in large part a catalogue of purges, a sour and acrid rule to which the American Right has been no exception.

Reader Letters July 1986
by P.T. Bauer
TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: In "Therefore Choose Death?" [April] Paul S. Appelbaum and Joel Klein perform an important service in calling attention to the "abandonment by the medical pro- fession of an unambivalent com- mitment to the treatment of the ill." They correctly identify a prin- cipal cause of this phenomenon: pressure by courts and ethicists to adopt individual autonomy as the primary good.

August, 1986Back to Top
Richard Strauss
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was a member of the Metropolitan Opera for thirty years, singing in practically all the operas of Richard Strauss.

Erik Erikson
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was very interested in Larry D. Nachman's review of two recent books on children by Robert Coles [Books in Review, May].

Computers & Poets
by Our Readers
To the Editor: William Barrett's article, “Why Computers Can't Be Poets” [April], shows a fundamental misunderstanding of Alan Turing's famous essay, “Can a Machine Think?” Mr.

Sandinistas & Contras
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Penn Kemble has written a needed corrective to the otherwise uncritical reviews of Christopher Dickey's With the Contras [Books in Review, May].

SDI
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Angelo M. Codevilla's excellent article, “How SDI Is Being Undone From Within” [May], demonstrates how President Reagan's priority program for defending the United States from Soviet attack is being smothered not only by some in Congress but by bureaucrats within his own administration. Clearly there are important questions concerning alternative technologies and cost-benefit tradeoffs which must be addressed before the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is ready for deployment.

Why Reagan Won and Stockman Lost
by James Wilson
Liberals and conservatives alike spend a lot of time wishing the United States did not have its present Constitution. Out of power, each group finds plenty of occasions to applaud the system of checks and balances that impede political change.

Paying Less Attention to the Middle East
by Richard Haass
Few ideas have been more influential in the shaping of American foreign policy in the Middle East than that which can be summed up in the shorthand phrase, “territory for peace.” For nearly two decades, virtually everything that has been thought or said about this region has been informed by United Nations Security Council Resolution 242, with its call for the “establishment of a just and lasting peace in the Middle East”—a peace to be brought about by Israel's returning most if not all of the territories it conquered in the 1967 war in exchange for the recognition of its neighbors and the right to exist. Implicit in American acceptance of the territory-for-peace model is the belief that the status quo—that is, a Middle East with Israel in possession of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the Golan Heights, and a unified Jerusalem—is not only unjust but inherently unstable, and hence threatening to American interests.

Feminism, Stage Three
by Michael Levin
To judge by the recent eruption of books, articles, and editorials with titles like The Crisis of the Working Mother, The Divorce Revolution, Not as Far as You Think, Smart Women/Foolish Choices, “The Birth Dearth,” and “A Mother's Choice,”1 confusion and distress have overtaken much of American womanhood.

In Berlin Again
by Lucy Dawidowicz
In October 1985 I went to Berlin for the third time in my life. My first visit, on Sunday, August 27, 1939, had lasted barely two hours.

The Prince of English Poets
by Fernanda Eberstadt
Few English men of letters have enjoyed greater recognition during their lifetime—or suffered a more degrading post-mortem—than Alexander Pope, author of such masterpieces of the mock-heroic epic as The Rape of the Lock and The Dunciad.

Yalta and the Neoconservatives
by Paul Seabury
Last January, in an article in the New York Review of Books entitled “Neoconservative History,” Theodore Draper delivered himself of a fevered attack on four pieces in COMMENTARY which he accused of slandering Franklin D.

Archeology as Politics
by Hershel Shanks
One of the world's most prominent academics, specializing in the history of the ancient Near East during the Roman period, has accused Israeli archeologists and historians of that most heinous of scholarly crimes: distorting facts for political purposes and deliberately misinterpreting history.

Hydra of Carnage, edited by Uri Ra'anan et al.
by Angelo Codevilla
The Terrorist Mosaic Hydra of Carnage. by Uri Ra'anan, Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Jr., Richard H. Shultz, Ernst Halperin, Igor Lukes. Lexington. 638 pp.

Against All Hope, by Armando Valladares
by Mark Falcoff
Castro's Gulag Against All Hope: The Prison Memoirs of Armando Valladares. by Armando Valladares. Translated by Andrew Hurley. Knopf. 381 pp. $18.95. The 20th century, possibly because it has been a century rich in failed utopian experiments, has also been an epoch of anti-utopian literature.

The Road from Babylon, by Chaim Raphael
by Robert Seltzer
The Southern Jewries The Road from Babylon: The Story of Sephardi and Oriental Jews. by Chaim Raphael. Harper & Row. 294 pp. $22.95. Chaim Raphael has in the past written on the Jewish response to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in The Walls of Jerusalem, commented on the Passover seder in A Feast of History, and, most recently, reflected on the dynamic interplay among the Hebrew Bible, the rabbinic tradition, and Jewish history in The Springs of Jewish Life.

Pollock and After, edited by Francis Frascina
by James Gardner
The New York School Pollock and After: The Critical Debate. by Francis Frascina. Harper & Row. 280 pp. $19.50. A variety of considerations has caused the defunct New York School to emerge once more as a matter of urgency in the critical discussion of contemporary art.

Morality, Reason, and Power, by Gaddis Smith; The Uncertain Crusade, by Joshua Muravchik
by Michael Ledeen
Words and Deeds Morality, Reason, and Power: American Diplomacy in the Carter Years. by Gaddis Smith. Hill & Wang. 296 pp. $18.95. The Uncertain Crusade: Jimmy Carter and the Dilemmas of Human Rights Policy. by Joshua Muravchik. Hamilton Press.

Reader Letters August 1986
by William Barrett
TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Angelo M. Codevilla's excellent article, "How SDI Is Being Undone From Within" [May], demonstrates how President Reagan's priority program for defending the United States from Soviet attack is being smothered not only by some in Congress but by bureaucrats with- in his own administration. Clearly there are important ques- tions concerning alternative tech- nologies and cost-benefit tradeoffs which must be addressed before the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is ready for deployment.

September, 1986Back to Top
Religious America
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “Religion in Post-Protestant America” [May], Peter L. Berger has provided a stimulating discussion of the constitutional setting of church-state relations and an intriguing proposal for the churches' role in “post-Protestant” America, but his analysis of the larger issue of religion and politics is based on a flawed concept. The notion of the “naked public square,” popularized by Richard John Neuhaus, is not without serious problems, yet Mr.

Why Hart Lost
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am . . . grateful to COMMENTARY and to Gregory A. Fossedal for taking note of my book, The Outside Story [Books in Review, June].

A Neglected Novelist
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I always enjoy Joseph Epstein's sensitive writings about authors and books, and none more so than his perceptive appreciation of E.B.

The Question of Belief
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Richard John Neuhaus, in his review of James Turner's Without God, Without Creed: The Origins of Unbelief in America [Books in Review, April], treats atheism and atheists quite unseriously.

Fun City
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his review of my recent book on New York, Political Crisis/Fiscal Crisis [Books in Review, May], Jules Cohn asserts that I uncritically adopt the outlook of those who claim to be reformers, ignoring the problems with such “reforms” as Mayor Lindsay's plan to decentralize the city's school system.

Israel's West Bank Policy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I agree with Menahem Milson [“How Not to Occupy the West Bank,” April] that nonintervention has been one of the principles of Israeli administration of day-today life on the West Bank, although I am not sure it has been “the guiding principle,” as he claims.

Family Matters
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “The Family, the Nation, and Senator Moynihan” [June], Glenn C. Loury cites two well-known experiments undertaken by the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC)—Supported Work and Project Redirection—to support some of his points.

Will Gorbachev Reform the Soviet Union?
by Vladimir Bukovsky
The current “crisis” of the Soviet system about which everybody has been talking must seem very strange to an outside observer: there are no starving crowds or dead bodies along the roads, no riots or clashes with the police, virtually nothing to show or hide on the evening news.

Sandinista Anti-Semitism and Its Apologists
by Joshua Muravchik
In May 1983, the Anti-Defamation League (ADL), an organization dealing with instances of anti-Semitism worldwide, issued a statement denouncing Sandinista Nicaragua as “a country without Jews, but not without anti-Semitism.” The statement set forth the complaints of a number of Nicaraguan Jewish refugees who said that they had been compelled to leave the country on account of threats and harassment by the Sandinistas, that their personal property had been unjustly confiscated, and that their synagogue had been expropriated.

The Demotion of Man
by Peter Shaw
In the 20th century, the ordered universe broke apart into atoms, and man found himself alone. William Butler Yeats expressed the new sense of breakdown in a famous phrase, “the center cannot hold” (from his poem “The Second Coming”); it is at the heart as well of T.S.

A Case of Academic Freedom
by Joseph Epstein
My office in the English department at Northwestern University is in University Hall, an American gothic joke of a building whose architect might have been inspired by Charles Addams, if the building weren't much older than the cartoonist.

The Manchester Connection
by Chaim Raphael
Well-acquainted with grief—as Isaiah puts it—is a customary mode of lookng at Jewish history, but one is entitled, sometimes, to try a different approach, to look for surprises.

Yuppies in Rhyme
by Carol Iannone
To have written the “perfect book for the 1980's” may sound like a dubious achievement, but in the case of Vikram Seth's first novel, The Golden Gate,1 a publisher's blurb may for once approach accuracy.

Marriage and Morals Among the Victorians, by Gertrude Himmelfarb
by Myron Magnet
The Life of Ideas Marriage and Morals Among the Victorians. by Gertrude Himmelfarb. Knopf. 253 pp. $19.95. There is nothing academic about Gertrude Himmelfarb's splendid collection of essays, Marriage and Morals Among the Victorians.

Game Plan, by Zbigniew Brzezinski
by Eliot Cohen
World Struggle Game Plan: A Geostrategic Framework for the Conduct of the U.S.-Soviet Contest. by Zebigniew Brzezinski. Atlantic Monthly Press. 288 pp. $18.95. This reviewer must confess to having some initial doubts about a book whose dust jacket sports endorsements from both Richard Nixon and Jimmy Carter.

Joining the Club: A History of Jews and Yale, by Dan A. Oren
by Gideon Rose
Caste, Class & Quota Joining the Club: A History of Jews and Yale. by Dan A. Oren. Yale University Press. 440 pp. $29.95. When an outraged Yale trustee complained that too many Jews had been admitted to the Yale class of 1933, the chairman of admissions, Robert Corwin, agreed: “The list as published reads like some of the ‘begat’ portions of the Old Testament and might easily be mistaken for a recent roll call at the Wailing Wall.” Corwin, in fact, was the man most responsible for the unacknowledged 10-percent quota for Jewish students in effect at Yale from 1923 through the early 1960's.

Soviet Defectors, by Vladislav Krasnov
by Juliana Pilon
Flight to Freedom Soviet Defectors: The KGB Wanted List. by Valdislav Karsnov. Hoover Institution. 264 pp. $16.95. Only a slave society produces defections, a word still burdened by a pejorative root signifying a failure, or lack, but which has come to denote the opposite: proof that even at the risk of death, the human spirit refuses enslavement.

God's Choice, by Alan Peshkin
by Terry Teachout
Inside a Christian School God's Choice: The Total World of a Fundamentalist Charistian School. by Alan Peshkin. University of Chicago Press. 349 pp.

Dispensations: The Future of South Africa as South Africans See It, by Richard John Neuhaus
by Samuel Huntington
Talking to South Africans Dispensations: The Future of South Africa as South Africans See It. by Richard John Neuhaus. Eerdmans. 317 pp. $16.95. The subtitle of Richard John Neuhaus's important and fascinating book is “The Future of South Africa as South Africans See It.” Happily the book does not live up to the subtitle.

Reader Letters September 1986
by Peter Berger
TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: In "The Family, the Nation, and Senator Moynihan" [June], Glenn C. Loury cites two well-known ex- periments undertaken by the Man- power Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC)-Supported Work and Project Redirection-to support some of his points.

October, 1986Back to Top
Soviet Jewry
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Contrary to what Allan Kagedan maintains in “Gorbachev and the Jews” [May], the decline of Jewish emigration from the Soviet Union was not determined exclusively by internal considerations.

Anti-Communism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to commend David Horowitz [“Nicaragua: A Speech to My Former Comrades on the Left,” June] for his intellectual courage in repudiating his earlier pro-Communist views, and for his realization that firm anti-Communism is the only sane position for the Western democracies.

“Whose Palestine?”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: “Whose Palestine?” by Erich Isaac and Rael Jean Isaac [July] is a valuable addition to the growing literature on Joan Peters's From Time Immemorial.

Team B: The Reality Behind the Myth
by Richard Pipes
Four years ago, the Secretary of Defense, Caspar Weinberger, in answer to a question whether the United States expected to emerge victorious from a nuclear war, responded that anyone in his position who did not prepare to prevail in a war deserved to be impeached.

The Tenured Left
by Stephen Balch
Like ionized particles transiting a cloud chamber, two quite different campus projects involving tiny fractions of the collegiate population have recently succeeded in precipitating reactions of surprising scope and visibility.

Shcharansky's Secret
by Edward Alexander
To the memory of Jonathan Shulewitz On the Ides of March 1977, Anatoly Shcharansky, while in the company of two friends and two Western correspondents, was seized by agents of the KGB, the Soviet secret police, and taken to Lefortovo Prison in Moscow to be investigated for “crimes against the state.” Although the young mathematician and computer scientist had been active in the dissident movement on behalf of human rights, as well as in the Jewish movement for the right to emigrate to Israel, no one doubted that he had been arrested and accused of treason as a Jewish leader. In his biography of Shcharansky1 Martin Gilbert points out that not a single non-Jewish member of the Helsinki monitoring group to which Shcharansky belonged was interrogated in his case.

Sodomy and the Supreme Court
by David Jr.
Until 1961, sodomy—which takes its name from the biblical report of the city of Sodom, destroyed by fire and brimstone because of the wickedness of its men—was a crime in every American state and in the District of Columbia.

Our Conservatism and Theirs
by Peter Berger
In common with any other ideological camp, conservatives quarrel among themselves, but it is only recently that their quarrels have begun attracting the attention of outsiders.

The Truth About Titoism
by Nora Beloff
When Mikhail Gorbachev told his Party Congress this year that “the international Communist movement” was a powerful entity, comprising one-third of the world's population and that, though its component parties did not always agree on everything, they were all pursuing “the same common objective,” he was manifestly including Yugoslavia.

Walter Laqueur at Sixty-Five
by Roger Kaplan
To commemorate his sixty-fifth birthday, there has just appeared a bibliography of the writings of Walter Laqueur,1 the prolific, erudite, polyglot, polydisciplinary historian and journalist who is known not least for his longstanding association with COMMENTARY.

America Can Win, by Gary Hart, with William S. Lind
by Alvin Bernstein
Warring on the Pentagon America Can Win: The Case for Military Reform. by Gary Hart, with William S. Lind. Adler & Adler. 301 pp.

Third World Ideology and Western Reality, by Carlos Rangel
by Scott McConnell
The Lure of Socialism Third World Ideology and Western Reality: Manufacturing Political Myth. by Carlos Rangel. Transaction Books. 180 pp. $19.95. In the post-colonial era, few political events have come to seem more predictable than the proclamation by a new Third World government that it intends to pursue a socialist path of development.

Camp David, By William B. Quandt; Sadat and Begin, by Melvin R. Friedlander
by S. Singer
Who Won at Camp David? Camp David: Peacemaking and Politics. by William B. Quandt. Brookings Institution. 420 pp. $32.95. Sadat and Begin: The Domestic Politics of Peacemaking. by Melvin R.

The Lyrical Left, by Edward Abrahams
by Kenneth Lynn
A Usable Past? The Lyrical Left: Randolph Bourne, Alfred Stieglitz, and the Origins of Cultural Radicalism in America. by Edward Abrahams. University Press of Virginia.

The Rise of the Counter-Establishment, by Sidney Blumenthal
by Joshua Muravchik
Diatribe The Rise of the Counter-Establishment. by Sidney Blumenthal. Times Books. 369 pp. $19.95. Sidney Blumenthal began his career as a political reporter by writing for “alternative” newspapers in the Boston area and contributing to magazines of the radical Left like the Nation and the Progressive.

Reader Letters October 1986
by Rael Isaac
TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: "Whose Palestine?" by Erich Isaac and Rael Jean Isaac [July] is a valuable addition to the growing literature on Joan Peters's From Time Immemorial.

November, 1986Back to Top
Sandinistas & Contras
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Penn Kemble, in his exchange with Ronald Radosh [Letters from Readers, August, in a discussion of Mr. Kemble's review of With the Contras by Christopher Dickey, Books in Review, May], shows formidable skill in dispatching an argument, but the argument is not mine—and neither, I would warrant, is it Mr.

“Variant Text”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: “Variant Text” by Allegra Goodman [June] is both a beautiful and delightful story. It has great freshness and artistry.

Ayn Rand
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Terry Teachout's review of Barbara Branden's The Passion of Ayn Rand [Books in Review; July] is a serious lapse in COMMENTARY's usually high standard.

Ortega y Gasset
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was most heartily pleased with Richard John Neuhaus's informed consideration of Ortega y Gasset [“Ortega y Gasset Revisited,” July].

Yalta
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was most interested in Paul Seabury's “Yalta and the Neoconservatives” [August]. . . . I cannot accept the argument put forth by Theodore Draper that the Soviet occupation of Poland was a fait accompli before Yalta.

The “Protocols”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I immensely enjoyed Dafna Alton's “Reflections on the Art of Lying” [June], but would like to make one correction.

A Hostage's Release
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “Syria: The Cuba of the Middle East?” [July], Daniel Pipes cites my experience as an American hostage.

The New Feminism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “Feminism, Stage Three” [August], Michael Levin maintains that I support only “parental leave and day care.” His own view of the matter is this: “One would think that the goal of anyone who takes seriously the problems of the mother who must work would be to make her working unnecessary, and one way to help do so would be to increase the dependent deduction for minors on the federal income tax.” The fact of the matter is that I support parental leave and day care, as Mr.

“Peace Education”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: André Ryerson's attack on the curriculum unit Choices prepared by the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) and the National Education Association (NEA) [“The Scandal of ‘Peace Education,’” June] is an obvious hatchet job prepared by an individual with no training or experience in the education of middle-school students.

The Hate That Dare Not Speak Its Name
by Norman Podhoretz
Last March, in a special issue commemorating its 120th anniversary, the Nation published an article by the novelist Gore Vidal entitled “The Empire Lovers Strike Back” which impressed me and many other people as the most blatantly anti-Semitic outburst to have appeared in a respectable American periodical since World War II.

Shades of Containment
by Steven Sturm
To expiate the crimes they all too customarily commit against the Republic, politicians are properly made to suffer one agony or another once they have answered the Final Roll Call.

“And That's What I Like About the South”
by Joseph Epstein
A brief cautionary tale for those who do not believe in fate. In my twenty-second year, in the middle of a two-year hitch as a draftee in the peacetime U.S.

Middle East Perplexities
by Elie Kedourie
There is a famous episode in Stendhal's novel, The Charterhouse of Parma, in which the hero, Fabrice del Dongo, participates in the battle of Waterloo without realizing at the time, and even until some time afterward, that he has taken part in—been part of—a momentous event.

Lionel Trilling and His Critics
by Lionel Abel
I want to call attention to an event in our literary life which is probably not without political meaning: a number of writers who once sharply attacked Lionel Trilling (died 1975) have recently recanted, substituting praise for their former criticism.

Nicaraguan Journey
by Stephen Schwartz
I arrived in Nicaragua early in July, at the height of the recent round of confrontations between the Sandinistas and the country's internal opposition.

The Powerful Simplifiers
by John Sisk
That notable economist, Henry David Thoreau, writes in Walden: “Simplicity, simplicity, simplicity! I say, let your affairs be as two or three, and not a hundred or a thousand; instead of a million count half a dozen, and keep your accounts on your thumb nail.” Later in a memorable passage he adapts this pre-Keynesian program to the situation of “honest, hardworking, but shiftless” John Field, an Irishman living with his wife and several children in a ramshackle house and scraping a mean living from rented land.

Less Than One, by Joseph Brodsky
by Fernanda Eberstadt
For Art's Sake Less Than One. by Joseph Brodsky. Farrar, Straus & Giroux. 501 pp. $25.00. In 1972, Joseph Brodsky, a poet with a prison record (for “parasitism”) at home and a high critical reputation abroad, was exiled from the Soviet Union.

The Mythmaker, by Hyam Maccoby
by Jaroslav Pelikan
The Real Paul? The Mythmaker: Paul and the Invention of Christianity. by Hyam Maccoby. Harper & Row.237 pp. $17.95. The New Testament speaks of Jesus Christ as “a sign spoken against” and “a stone of stumbling.” But at least since the 18th-century Enlightenment, it has been the apostle Paul who has often been cast in the role of (in the words of Thomas Jefferson) “first corrupter of the doctrines of Jesus”; for Jefferson, who twice took upon himself the task of “abstracting what is really his from the rubbish in which it is buried” in the New Testament, found the assignment of separating the “diamonds” from the “dung” and of identifying the authentic religion of Jesus to be “obvious and easy,” carrying it out in two or three evenings after the day's work was done.

Storm Over Biology, by Bernard D. Davis
by Edward Wilson
Truth in Science Storm Over Biology: Essays on Science, Sentiment, and Public Policy. by Bernard D. Davis. Prometheus Books. 324 pp. $22.95. The success of science is due in great part to its emphasis on objectivity: the separating of evidence from preconceptions and the willingness to draw conclusions even when they conflict with traditional beliefs.

Suing the Press, by Rodney A. Smolla; Talking Back to the Media, by Peter Hannaford
by Daniel Casse
The Libel Explosion Suing The Press. by Rodney A. Smolla Oxford University Press. 277 pp. $18.95. Talking Back to the Media. by Peter Hannaford. Facts on File.184 pp.

The FBI-KGB War, by Robert J. Lamphere and Tom Shachtman
by Harvey Klehr
Soviet Espionage The FBI-KGB War: A Special Agent's Story. by Robert J. Lamphere and Tom Shachtman. Random House. 320 pp.$18.95. For most of Robert Lamphere's fourteen years in the Federal Bureau of Investigation, he specialized in Soviet espionage cases.

Nuclear Ethics, by Joseph S. Nye, Jr.
by David Gress
Blinking Owls Nuclear Ethics. by Joseph S. Nye, Jr. Free Press. 160 pp. $14.95. Of the writing of books on nuclear weapons and morality there is no end.

Reader Letters November 1986
by Leon Poliakov
To THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Andre Ryerson's attack on the curriculum unit Choices prepared by the Union of Concerned Scien- tists (UCS) and the National Edu- cation Association (NEA) ["The Scandal of 'Peace Education," June] is an obvious hatchet job pre- pared by an individual with no training or experience in the edu- cation of middle-school students. It is noteworthy only for its serious omissions, misrepresentations, and misunderstandings of the context within which the unit is used. Mr.

December, 1986Back to Top
Germans and Jews
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was deeply moved by Lucy S. Dawidowicz's article, “In Berlin Again” [August], not only because of its excellence, but because I had recently returned from a ten-day study mission to Germany after some forty years and had similar feelings. It is a new and better Germany—or, at least, today's Germans (those of the post-World War II generation) cannot be judged by their fathers and mothers or by our feelings and memories. Germans and Jews are inextricably related.

The Soviet Union
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “Will Gorbachev Reform the Soviet Union?” [September], Vladimir Bukovsky says: “The scale of reform [in the Soviet Union] will be inversely proportional to the scale of Western economic assistance.” The importance of this statement cannot be overemphasized.

The Middle East
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Richard N. Haass's article, “Paying Less Attention to the Middle East” [August], is a refreshing contribution to the layman's understanding of the current predicament in the Middle East, and I think that even some so-called experts might learn something new from it.

Academic Freedom
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Joseph Epstein's “A Case of Academic Freedom” [September] is as devastating in its impact as it is disciplined in its appreciation of the politicization of scholarship in at least one major university.

How the Nicaraguan Resistance Can Win
by Penn Kemble
United States military aid is at last beginning to flow to the Nicaraguan resistance. The question of whether the U.S.

Palestine for the Syrians?
by Daniel Pipes
During a meeting with leaders of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in 1976, Syrian President Hafez al-Assad referred to Palestine as a region of Syria, as Southern Syria.

Capitalism and Selfishness
by Andre Ryerson
Clearly, a civilization that feels guilty for everything it is and does will lack the energy and conviction to defend itself. —Jean-François Revel Western societies are routinely denounced from within and without for the sin of selfishness—a sin with which they are said to be afflicted not in some incidental or private way, but deep down and by the very nature of their social system. In its milder forms the opprobrium finds expression in a kind of embarrassed silence that tends to fall whenever a cleric or professor makes bold to raise for discussion the moral basis of a capitalist economy.

The Judaism Born in America
by Howard Singer
The Conservative movement in Judaism, currently celebrating its centennial, is the largest Jewish “denomination” in the United States. Over 800 synagogues are affiliated with its national lay organization, the United Synagogue of America.

Wish List A Story
by Allegra Goodman
A sheik rushes through Heathrow airport followed by his wives and children and his childrens' servants, each pushing a luggage cart.

For Whom the Bell Tolled
by Jeffrey Hart
It is now fifty years ago, the “wound in the heart.” Rightist risings against the Republican government occurred throughout Spain and succeeded in Seville, Galicia, and Badajoz.

W.E.B. Du Bois: Up to Slavery
by Eric Sundquist
In his exceptional satire on American race relations in the early 20th century, Black No More (1931), the black journalist George Schuyler caricatured W.E.B.

“The Target is Destroyed” by Seymour Hersh
by Angelo Codevilla
Slaughter of Innocents “The Target is Destroyed” by Seymour M. Hersh. Random House. 282 pp. $17.95. Seymour Hersh, the famous investigative reporter, clearly means to convince his readers to stop thinking so harshly about the Soviet Union for shooting down a civilian passenger plane on September 1, 1983, killing 269 innoment men, women, and children; instead, he means them to think harshly of the President of the United States and of most of the people who run U.S.

Going to the Territory, by Ralph Ellison
by George Johnston
Man of Letters Going to the Territory. by Ralph Ellison. Random House. 338 pp. $19.95. In 1965, the book-review supplement of the old New York Herald Tribune asked two hundred critics to pick the best American novels published since World War II.

Thinking in Time, by Richard E. Neustadt and Ernest R. May
by Larry Nachman
Manual of Statecraft Thinking in Time: The Uses of History for Decision Makers. by Richard E. Neustadt and Ernest R. May. Free Press.

Mexico: Chaos on Our Doorstep, by Sol W. Sanders
by Lauren Weiner
Unstable Neighbor Mexico: Chaos on our Doorstep. by Sol W. Sanders. Madison Books. 222 pp. $18.95. The major difference between Mexico and most of the rest of Latin America is that in Mexico, civilians unambiguously control the political life of the country, and have done so ever since the ruling Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI) tamed the military in the 1930's and 40's.

The Nazi Doctors, by Robert Jay Lifton
by Daniel Goldhagen
Healers as Killers The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide. by Robert Jay Lifton. Basic Books. 561 pp. $19.95. The barbarism of the Nazis stops most people cold.

Reader Letters December 1986
by Joseph Epstein
TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Joseph Epstein's "A Case of Aca- demic Freedom" [September] is as devastating in its impact as it is disciplined in its appreciation of the politicization of scholarship in at least one major university.