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January, 1997Back to Top
Nancy LaMott
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Readers of my essay, “Mourning Nancy LaMott” [May 1996], may wish to know that What's Good About Goodbye? (Midder Music MMCD006), an album of previously unissued recorded performances by Nancy LaMott, has just been released.

Missile Defense
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am not in a position to comment on the merits and accuracy of Angelo M. Codevilla's main ideas [“Defenseless America,” September 1996], but I can clearly refute his allegations that Ukraine is cooperating with Libya in the field of nuclear and/or missile technology.

Liberalism and the Culture
by Our Readers
To the Editor: “Liberalism and the Culture: A Turning of the Tide?” [October 1996] is a useful reminder that many liberals rather enjoy Western civilization.

Labor
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It is not surprising to find in the pages of COMMENTARY a vicious anti-labor article by Amity Shlaes bemoaning “Labor's Return” [October 1996].

Ilya Ehrenburg
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to take exception to Gary Saul Morson's dismissal of Ilya Ehrenburg's participation in The Black Book project, an anthology of first-hand accounts of the Holocaust on Soviet territory.

Bible Translation
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Robert Alter's article, “Beyond King James” [September 1996], struck home to me with a poignancy somewhat unusual for a typical COMMENTARY article.

A Farewell to Feminism
by Elizabeth Powers
She was intelligent and generous; it was a fine free nature; but what was she going to do with herself? This question was irregular, for with most women one had no occasion to ask it.

Why the Republicans Lost, and Won
by Joshua Muravchik
What was it that made the Republicans such hapless contenders in last November's race for the presidency? One short answer is: peace and prosperity.

Don Juan Zimmerman
by Joseph Epstein
In his terry-cloth robe, over his morning coffee, Donny Zimmerman read the Chicago Jewish Chronicle. Sometimes it contained an item about guys he had gone to high school with.

Toward a New Immigration Policy
by Peter Salins
After a rancorous debate, Congress made a number of changes this past year in the law affecting both legal and illegal immigrants.

Among the Abayudaya
by Irwin Berg
In almost every way, the Abayudaya, a tiny, native African tribe who live about 160 miles from Kampala, the capital of Uganda, are indistinguishable from their Christian and Muslim neighbors.

Democracy and the Religous Right
by Peter Berger
The contemporary religious Right has deep roots in American history, in effect running back to the very beginnings of American society in various forms of Protestant utopianism which then continued in wave after wave of revivalism.

Fanfare for Aaron Copland
by Terry Teachout
When Bill Clinton and Al Gore gave their victory speeches in Little Rock last November, the music used to introduce them was Aaron Copland's Appalachian Spring, a piece, one TV anchorman said, embodying “the spirit of the Midwest.” Indeed, the composer of such “all-American” works as Billy the Kid, Rodeo, and Appalachian Spring has become, by now, as iconic a figure in the history of our culture as F.

Will America Grow Up Before It Grows Old? by Peter G. Peterson
by Daniel Casse
Will America Grow Up Before It Grows Old? How the Coming Social Security Crisis Threatens You, Your Family, and Your Country by Peter G.

Ben-Gurion and the Holocaust by Shabtai Teveth
by Hillel Halkin
Ben-Gurion and the Holocaust by Shabtai Teveth Harcourt Brace. 310 pp. $30.00 Three years ago I wrote a harsh review for the weekly Forward of a book called The Seventh Million: The Israelis and the Holocaust by Tom Segev, an Israeli journalist turned popular historian.

Fool's Names, Fool's Faces by Andrew Ferguson
by Daniel Silver
Fools' Names, Fools' Faces by Andrew Ferguson Atlantic Monthly. 213 pp. $22.00 Politics and humor have been bedfellows forever. But the pairing of conservatism and humor has struck some—particularly liberals—as faintly oxymoronic.

Machiavelli's Virtue by Harvey C. Mansfield
by Michael Anton
Machiavelli's Virtue by Harvey C. Mansfield Chicago. 388 pp. $29.95 What hath Wicked Nick wrought? That is the question posed by Harvey Mansfield in Machiavelli's Virtue, his latest consideration of the still-controversial and still-misunderstood thought of Niccolò Machiavelli.

The Schools We Need by E. D. Hirsch, Jr.
by Wilfred McClay
The Schools We Need: And Why We Don't have them by E.D. Hirsch, Jr. Doubleday. 317 pp. $24.95 Why are American schools so bad? Why do our children routinely place near (or at) the bottom of the list when rated against students in other developed nations? Our education establishment, skilled in the art of self-exonerating spin, has a plethora of explanations for this dismal state of affairs.

February, 1997Back to Top
The Meretz Factor
by Our Readers
To the Editor: “Reading the Israeli Electorate” by Rael Jean Isaac and Erich Isaac [October 1996] contains a singular pack of lies about the Meretz party, which I now represent in the Knesset.

Solzhenitsyn
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Congratulations to Joseph Epstein and COMMENTARY for “Why Solzhenitsyn Will Not Go Away” [November 1996]. This is among the fullest and fairest treatments of Solzhenitsyn to appear in many a year and is characterized by an intellectual generosity almost wholly lacking in the typical approaches to the subject.

Music, and Movie Music
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I thoroughly enjoyed Terry Teachout's defense of middlebrow culture as a path to higher cultural levels [“Battle of the Brows,” October 1996].

Jewish Liberalism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was surprised to encounter in “Jewish Liberalism Revisited” by Charles S. Liebman and Steven M. Cohen [November 1996] the statement that “in most traditional sources, Jews are commanded to assist the Jewish poor, but not necessarily the non-Jewish poor.” It must have escaped the authors that the Babylonian Talmud (Gitin 61a) mandates that Jews support the non-Jewish poor.

Defense
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In their article about anti-military bias in the media with regard to spending, “The Anti-Defense League” [November 1996], Joshua Muravchik and Lawrence F.

On the Future of Conservatism
by Gertrude Himmelfarb
The November 1996 election and a number of other recent events have offered an opportunity for reassessment among conservatives. At issue is not only the meaning of the election results themselves but the present and future character of a movement which only two years ago seemed to some to be bringing about a “revolution” in American political life. Writing in COMMENTARY last March, Irwin M.

Genesis and the Talking Heads
by Hillel Halkin
It is when we think we are most original that we often most reflect the spirit of the times. Twelve or thirteen years ago, in a period of my life when I had begun, after a long interval of rarely opening the Bible, to study the weekly Torah reading with its traditional commentaries every Saturday, I had what I took to be an illumination about the book of Genesis.

Republicans for Quotas
by Richard Morgan
On election day this past November, California voters rejected Bob Dole's presidential candidacy by a margin of 51 to 38 percent.

Reading Closely Again
by Christopher Clausen
It may be hard to remember now, but a set of practices called the New Criticism was once the reigning orthodoxy in departments of literature in American universities.

Lights, Camera, Shakespeare
by Donald Lyons
It is sometimes foolishly asserted—recently, for example, by the critic Anthony Lane in the New Yorker—that Shakespeare “works” better on the screen than in the theater.

Whittaker Chambers by Sam Tanenhaus
by Mark Falcoff
Whittaker Chambers: A Biography by Sam Tanenhaus Random House. 610 pp. $35.00 The recent death of Alger Hiss makes the appearance of Sam Tanenhaus's book a particularly timely intellectual and political event.

The Hidden Hand by Daniel Pipes
by Joseph Shattan
The Hidden Hand: Middle East Fears of Conspiracy by Daniel Pipes St. Martin's. 404 pp. $45.00 The Hidden Hand is a remarkable work of scholarship.

Narcissism and Philanthropy by Gerald Freund
by Leslie Lenkowsky
Narcissism and Philanthropy: Ideas and Talent Denied by Gerald Freund Viking. 158 pp. $24.95 Philanthropy, Oscar Wilde once observed, is “the refuge of people who wish to annoy their fellow creatures.” To judge by his new book, the historian Gerald Freund would probably agree.

Jewish Power by J.J. Goldberg
by Marshall Breger
Jewish Power: Inside the American Jewish Establishment by J.J. Goldberg Addison Wesley. 422 pp. $25.00 The Jewish community has flourished mightily in the United States, a nation in which rabbis are invited to bless not only presidential inaugurations but also, on occasion, yachting regattas.

Plotting Hitler's Death by Joachim Fest
by Josef Joffe
Plotting Hitler's Death: The Story of the German Resistance by Joachim Fest translated by Bruce Little Metropolitan Books. 419 pp. $30.00 Germans have long harbored a strange ambivalence toward those of their countrymen who tried to kill Hitler.

March, 1997Back to Top
Unpleasant Mr. Eliot
by Our Readers
To the Editor: John Gross's analysis of T.S. Eliot's anti-Semitism [“Was T.S. Eliot a Scoundrel?,” November 1996] is perceptive, engaging, and fair.

Religious Liberty and the Schools
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Joseph P. Viteritti [“The Last Freedom: Religion, the Constitution, and the Schools,” November 1996] is correct in recognizing the First Amendment's anti-establishment clause as the ultimate barrier against federal aid to private and parochial schools.

Gay Rights and Wrongs
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I cannot address the unreason in Norman Podhoretz's polemic against lesbian and gay equality [“How the Gay-Rights Movement Won,” November 1996], but may I make two personal points? The first is Mr.

How the Intellectuals Took Over (And What to Do About It)
by David Gelernter
Here is a true story about a piece of ground on Long Island. It had a lawn on it and was doing fine.

Johnnie Cochran's Secret
by Christopher Caldwell
There is a juridical bittersweetness to the February 4 verdict in O.J. Simpson's civil trial, which found him “responsible” for the battery of his ex-wife Nicole Brown Simpson and the killing of her friend Ronald Goldman.

How Not to Deal With China
by Arthur Waldron
Sooner or later, if present trends continue without change, war is probable in Asia. Yet neither the United States nor its allies have begun to get serious enough about what will be required to prevent it. Like Europe at the turn of this century, Asia today is a region of increasingly strong nation-states: populous, economically dynamic, and militarily ever more capable.

Intermarriage, Inc.
by Wendy Shalit
For a number of years now, books have been available for American Jewish children which reflect simultaneously on Christmas and Hanukkah.

The Witches of Arthur Miller
by Midge Decter
In 1950, Arthur Miller began to think about writing The Crucible, a play whose ostensible subject was the Salem witch trials of 1692.

Schubert Lives
by Terry Teachout
Franz Schubert was born 200 years ago this past January, and the anniversary was marked by countless public performances and new recordings of his music.

The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order by Samuel P. Huntington
by Richard Pipes
The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order by Samuel P. Huntington Simon & Schuster. 367 pp. $26.00 The end of the cold war and the disintegration of the bipolar world have given rise to a flood of articles and books attempting to forecast the shape of the future.

The Book and the Sword by David Weiss Halivni
by Alan Mintz
The Book and the Sword: A Life of Learning in the Shadow of Destruction by David Weiss Halivni Farrar, Straus & Giroux.

What It Means to Be a Libertarian by Charles Murray
by Wilfred McClay
What It Means to Be a Libertarian: A Personal Interpretation by Charles Murray Broadway Books. 178 pp. $20.00 In thinking of libertarianism, what comes most readily to mind is a thoroughly individualistic, atomistic, freedom-loving, don't-tread-on-me mentality which exalts the autonomous self and the unregulated free market and vilifies government as a form of coercion or nannyism.

Executive Orders by Tom Clancy
by Seth Cropsey
Executive Orders by Tom Clancy Putnam. 874 pp. $27.95 Early in his famous novel, Flaubert writes that Emma Bovary “turned away from the calm life for excitement.

The Inheritance by Samuel G. Freedman
by Sol Stern
The Inheritance: How Three Families and America Moved from Roosevelt to Reagan and Beyond by Samuel G. Freedman Simon & Schuster. 464 pp.

April, 1997Back to Top
Uses of Biography
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Initially we chose to ignore Gary Saul Morson's review of our book, The Bones of Berdichev: The Life and Fate of Vasily Grossman [Books in Review, September 1996].

Ukraine
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Angelo M. Codevilla's assertion in response to letters by Ukrainian ambassador Yuri Shcherbak and myself [Letters from Readers, January 1997] that “in May 1996 the U.S.

The City Opera
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I write in response to Terry Teachout's article on the New York City Opera [“Not the Metropolitan Opera,” December 1996], of which I was chairman for twelve years and on whose board I still sit.

Israel and Netanyahu
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It is futile to argue with an ideologue, but particularly so when the ideologue is Norman Podhoretz. In “The Tragic Predicament of Benjamin Netanyahu” [December 1996], Mr.

Federalism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I read the lucid and cogent article by David B. Rivkin, Jr. and Lee A. Casey, “Federalism (Cont'd.)” [December 1996], with interest and sympathy. I served as law clerk to Justice Louis D.

Assisted Suicde
by Our Readers
To the Editor: “Courting Death: Assisted Suicide, Doctors, and the Law” by Leon R. Kass and Nelson Lund [December 1996], while tendentious and muddleheaded on the nature of our Constitution, is at heart—and, as a non-Jew, I can say this most persuasively—profoundly disrespectful of the Jewish tradition of religious tolerance.

A Classic
by Our Readers
To the Editor:Joseph Epstein's story, “Don Juan Zimmerman” [January], is exceptionally moving and beautiful. It deserves to be widely acknowledged as a classic example of the short story.P.

Assisted suicide; Israel and Netanyahu; federalism; etc.
by Our Readers
Assisted Suicide TO THE EDITOR: "Courting Death: Assist- ed Suicide, Doctors, and the Law" by Leon R. Kass and Nelson Lund [December 1996], while tendentious and muddleheaded on the nature of our Constitution, is at heart-and, as a non- Jew, I can say this most per- suasively-profoundly dis- respectful of the Jewish tra- dition of religious tolerance.

“Lolita,” My Mother-in-Law, the Marquis de Sade, and Larry Flynt
by Norman Podhoretz
Not long ago, the Library of America put out a beautiful new three-volume edition of the novels and memoirs of Vladimir Nabokov,1 and I decided to seize upon it as a convenient occasion for reacquainting myself with his work.

Day of the Race Men
by Tamar Jacoby
Long written off by many Americans as a bigot and a thug, Louis Farrakhan is still somehow in contention for the title of the nation's number-one black leader.

Our Interests and Our Honor
by Donald Kagan
For the last 2,500 years, at least, states have conducted their affairs and often gone to war moved by considerations that would not pass the test of “vital national interests.” On countless occasions they have acted to foster or to defend a collection of beliefs and feelings that have run, or appeared to run, counter to their secular practical needs, persisting in this course even when the danger has been evident and the cost high. Modern politicians and students of politics commonly call such motives irrational.

Demjanjuk: A Summing-Up
by Joshua Muravchik
On July 29, 1993, the Supreme Court of Israel, reversing a lower court's verdict, acquitted John Demjanjuk of having participated, as “Ivan the Terrible,” in the gassing operations at the Nazi death camp of Treblinka.

O, Brother!
by Joseph Epstein
The final quarter of the 20th century has not been kind to Big Ideas, especially those that set out, scientifically, to explain all of human nature.

Marketing in the New Middle East
by Eliyabu Kanovsky
When Israel and the PLO concluded the Oslo accords in 1993, more than a few people expressed great enthusiasm over the economic dividends that would assuredly flow from the dawning of a new era of cooperation in the Middle East.

Choreography by Jerome Robbins
by Terry Teachout
Fifty-three years ago this month, the curtain went up on Fancy Free, the first ballet by a twenty-five-year-old dancer from New York named Jerome Robbins.

The Dictionary of Global Culture edited by Kwame Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates, Jr.
by Samuel McCracken
The Dictionary of Global Culture edited by Kwame Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Knopf. 717 pp. $35.00 Our culture, Western culture, is one of the few that have ever reached out to know the best of others.

The Middle East by Bernard Lewis
by Robert Satloff
The Middle East: A Brief History of the Last 2,000 Years by Bernard Lewis Scribner. 433 pp. $30.00 This “brief history of the last 2,000 years,” by the 20th century's preeminent historian of the Islamic world, is written with its author's customary wit and gravity, sympathy and objectivity, breadth and precision.

Slouching Towards Gomorrah by Robert H. Bork
by Joseph Adelson
Slouching Towards Gomorrah: Modern Liberalism and American Decline by Robert H. Bork Regan Books. 382 pp. $25.00 This book, which became a (perhaps) unexpected best-seller, is a catalogue raisonnée of the legacy of the 1960's, and in particular of that decade's sudden explosion of hatred toward this country on the part of some of its most privileged citizens, the children of the liberal middle class.

A Tour of the Calculus by David Berlinski
by David Guaspari
A Tour of the Calculus by David Berlinski Pantheon. 331 pp. $27.50 Calculus Is a remarkable intellectual achievement—and a deeply consequential one, for it has made modern science, and especially modern physics, possible.

The Unknown Lenin edited by Richard Pipes
by George Weigel
The Unknown Lenin: From the Secret Archive edited by Richard Pipes Yale. 204 pp. $27.50 In 1970, the Paris-based Russian-émigré journal Herald of the Christian Movement published a letter dated March 1922 from V.I.

May, 1997Back to Top
The Future of Conservatism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Responding to your symposium, “On the Future of Conservatism” [February], I would like, first, to suggest that the mixed results of the November 1996 election were due to the fact that the electorate realizes that both political parties are dominated by people far from the political mainstream.

Saving Jews
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Hillel Halkin's favorable review of Shabtai Teveth's Ben-Gurion and the Holocaust [January] is a defense of the indefensible. Among many sinners against Labor Zionism Mr.

Immigration
by
To the Editor: In “Toward a New Immigration Policy” [January], Peter D. Salins writes that “whatever else our immigration policy has been recently, it has not been assimilationist, either in conception or in intent.” If what he means by immigration policy is immigrant policy—the question of how we treat the foreign-born once they are here—then he is absolutely correct.

Feminism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I read Elizabeth Powers's “A Farewell to Feminism” [January] hoping the author would help me to understand my own increasing sense of separation from the modern women's movement However, many of her criticisms are familiar and easily discredited: that feminism is against marriage and child-rearing, a supposition without any more substantiation here than elsewhere; that anger is a defining and discrediting attribute of most writing by avowed feminists, here supported by a single example, a book published a quarter of a century ago (Ingrid Bengis's Combat in the Erogenous Zone); and that women who choose to work are somehow denatured through their “abandonment of the female realm,” without attempting to define what that realm might be and how it may have changed, or revealing the author's own choices in the matter. It is too easy for Elizabeth Powers to label nameless women as caring little or nothing about marriage and children, to imagine that “most of these women have probably not dwelt on the consequence of the Faustian bargain they have struck” while avoiding mention of her own surely Faustian bargain as an intelligent woman of some ambition who seeks to write and publish as well as (I assume) to have some sort of personal life. Defenses of or attacks on feminism seem to cloud the minds of those who write them; this is, and always has been, a hot emotional topic.

Aaron Copland
by Our Readers
To the Editor: After reading Terry Teachout's “Samuel Barber's Revenge” [April 1996], I wrote a letter to the editor expressing my appreciation but also posing the question of why Aaron Copland rather than Barber had become America's de-facto composer-laureate.

Could We Fight a War If We Had To?
by Frederick Kagan
In 376 C.E., Rome did not know that it faced a deadly crisis. Although it had the best army in the world, its numbers were barely sufficient to meet the requirements of what we would now call two major regional contingencies (MRC's).

Arafat and the Uses of Terror
by Jonathan Torop
In the wake of recent acts of terrorism and anti-Israel violence by Palestinians, it seemed for a moment that even supporters of the “peace process” had begun to wonder about Yasir Arafat's commitment to his proclaimed goal of cooperation with Israel and to the renunciation of violence.

For the Love of Country
by Gertrude Himmelfarb
“The era of big government is over,” President Clinton announced in his State of the Union address in January 1995, responding to the mandate of the people as expressed in the newly elected Republican Congress.

All-City Adolescent
by Johanna Kaplan
Dan Gorelick's earliest sense of luxury, of the mysterious ways of the rich—their deep, scented rooms, their leisurely weekday comforts—was somehow bound up with the cream-colored Art Deco apartment houses which, once upon a time, in his childhood, had marked the Grand Concourse.

The Price of Managed Care
by Bruce Barron
Mostly as the result of a concatenation of unplanned and uncoordinated events, American medicine today is undergoing a tumultuous economic restructuring.

What Happened to
by Jeremy Bernstein
In the 1960's, when I began reporting on “deep” science for the New Yorker, William Shawn, its legendary editor, used to chide me for writing things that he thought readers might not understand.

The Anti-Modern Modernist
by Terry Teachout
In 1965, Leopold Stokowski and the American Symphony Orchestra gave the first performance of Charles Ives's Fourth Symphony at Carnegie Hall.

We Are All Multiculturalists Now by Nathan Glazer
by Linda Chavez
We are All Multiculturalists Now by Nathan Glazer Harvard University Press. 179 pp. $19.95 A debate over multiculturalism has been raging in the United States for much of the last decade.

The Dawn of Peace in Europe by Michael Mandelbaum
by Alvin Bernstein
The Dawn of Peace in Europe by Michael Mandelbaum Twentieth Century Fund. 207 pp. $19.95 This July, President Clinton and fifteen other heads of state will meet in Madrid to offer NATO membership to Poland, the Czech Republic, and Hungary.

Charlie Chaplin and His Times by Kenneth S. Lynn; Tramp by Joyce Milton
by Daniel Silver
Charlie Chaplin and His Times by Kenneth S. Lynn Simon & Schuster. 604 pp. $35.00 Tramp by Joyce Milton HarperCollins. 578 pp. $32.00 Of all the great actors from the golden age of silent-screen comedy, only Charlie Chaplin has retained some of the iconic status he enjoyed in his heyday, when he was the object of worldwide adulation on a scale that would not be seen again until Elvis Presley and the Beatles.

The Way We Really Are by Stephanie Coontz; The Assault on Parenthood by Dana Mack
by Elizabeth Kristol
The Way We Really are: Coming to Terms with America's Changing Families by Stephanie Coontz Basic. 238 pp. $23.00 The Assault on Parenthood: How Our Culture Undermines the Family by Dana Mack Simon & Schuster.

The New Oxford Book of Children's Verse, edited by Neil Philip
by J. Bottum
The New Oxford Book of Children's Verse edited by Neil Philip Oxford. 371 pp. $27.50 Of the making of anthologies there is no end—especially in the case of Oxford University Press, which has in print nearly 200 collections entitled The Oxford Book of.

Crazy Rhythm by Leonard Garment
by Andrew Ferguson
Crazy Rhythm: My Journey from Brooklyn, Jazz, and Wall Street to Nixon's White House by Leonard Garment Times Books. 448 pp. $27.50 Leonard Garment spent six years as a high-ranking staffer in the White House of his former law partner, Richard Nixon, from early in the first term (1968-72) to the bitter and truncated end of the second.

Out of America by Keith B. Richburg
by Arch Puddington
Out of America: A Black Man Confronts Africa by Keith B. Richburg Basic/New Republic. 257 pp. $24.00 Keith Richburg has written a harrowing account of his three-year tour of duty reporting for the Washington Post from Africa.

June, 1997Back to Top
The West
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his review of Samuel Huntington's The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order [Books in Review, March], Richard Pipes criticizes Huntington for failing to list private property, with its corollaries of political freedom and economic growth, as the sine qua non of Western civilization.

The Simpson Trial
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Christopher Caldwell [“Johnnie Cochran's Secret,” March] is partially right. O.J. Simpson is almost certainly guilty, and race was a central consideration in his criminal trial.

The Intellectuals
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Now let me see if I have got this right: according to David Gelernter [“How the Intellectuals Took Over (And What to Do About It),” March], up until the end of World War II, the most important criterion for admission to America's most prestigious universities was money and good breeding, and, as a direct consequence, our country enjoyed national civility even in times of conflict because our leaders were born and bred gentlemen. Then, inexplicably, the (largely Protestant) establishment heading these colleges committed class suicide by needlessly throwing open the gates to barbarian hordes of Jews and other in-your-face types, who were admitted primarily on the basis of (shudder!) intellect and who brought with them an attitude.

Intermarriage
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Wendy Shalit [“Intermarriage, Inc.,” March] is immensely informative about the cultural stresses in intermarriage. May I recommend that the partners in such a marriage read, together, the fundamental texts of both Judaism and Christianity? That is, they should sit down seriously—make time for doing so—and begin with the Torah.

Gay Rights
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I write in response to Norman Podhoretz's “How the Gay-Rights Movement Won” [November 1996] and the correspondence on the article in the March issue. My youngest son died of AIDS one year ago at the age of twenty-six.

Franz Schubert
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Bravo to Terry Teachout for “Schubert Lives” [March], in which, on the occasion of Franz Schubert's 200th birthday, he elegantly and accurately explores the composer's great art.

Conservatives
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The COMMENTARY symposium “On the Future of Conservatism” [February] proved to be excellent reading, but, unlike the other contributors, Irwin M.

Affirmative Action
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I salute Richard E. Morgan for his insightful article, “Republicans for Quotas” [February]. Mr. Morgan has it exactly right.

The intellectuals; affirmative action; intermarriage; etc.
by Our Readers
The Intellectuals TO THE EDITOR: Now let me see if I have got this right: according to David Gelernter ["How the Intellectuals Took Over (And What to Do About It)," March], up until the end of World War II, the most important criterion for admission to America's most prestigious universities was money and good breeding, and, as a direct conse- quence, our country enjoyed national civility even in times of conflict because our leaders were born and bred gentlemen. Then, inexplicably, the (largely Protestant) estab- lishment heading these col- leges committed class sui- cide by needlessly throwing open the gates to barbarian hordes of Jews and other in- your-face types, who were admitted primarily on the basis of (shudder!) intellect and who brought with them an attitude.

After Zionism: Reflections on Israel and the Diaspora
by Hillel Halkin
Almost Exactly 100 years ago, in August 1897, Theodor Herzl stepped out on the platform of the Municipal Casino in Basel, Switzerland, to launch the First Zionist Congress and the Zionist movement whose centenary is being marked this year.

European Union-A Disaster in the Making
by David Pryce-Jones
The political recovery of Europe since 1945 has been a story of unprecedented success. Communism has been brought down, and without a shot, let alone the sort of all-out war that earlier had been required to defeat Nazism.

Doing Daddy Down
by Elizabeth Powers
When I was a child, there were times when I thought my mother should leave my father. Children only slowly get a feel for the limits on action: if, I reasoned, my parents still had checks in their checkbook, then why could they not write one to purchase a new car (or bike, etc.)? If my mother sometimes felt as much pain as she clearly did because of my father, then why could not she and I, and later my sister and brother, simply move to Anaheim (one of my dream destinations, home of Disneyland and near movie studios that I hoped to crack) and start over again? My mother, so I thought, would find a new husband (someone powerful, with connections to movie studios), and life could resume afresh.

Abraham Cahan, the
by Seth Lipsky
A portrait of Abraham Cahan (1860-1951) is the first thing that greets a visitor to the offices of the Forward in New York.

Are We All Liberals Now?
by Adam Wolfson
A little over a year ago, President Clinton vetoed the first partial-birth abortion bill. The bill would have made it illegal for doctors to perform a procedure in which a fetus, usually in its final weeks of gestation, is completely delivered but for the head, whereupon the doctor inserts a needle into the skull and sucks out the brain fluids, thereby crushing the head and aborting the baby.

Politics & Pugilists
by Jonah Goldberg
It may have been the most poignant moment of this year's Oscar ceremonies. As Leon Gast and David Sonenberg made their way to the stage to receive an Academy Award for their documentary, When We Were Kings, all eyes and cameras were on the film's main figures, both of whom were also in attendance: the boxers Muhammad Ali and George Foreman.

The David Helfgott Show
by Terry Teachout
David Helfgott, a middle-aged, mentally-ill pianist from Australia, was all but unknown outside his native land a year ago; today, he is one of the hottest tickets in classical music.

A Matter of Interpretation by Antonin Scalia
by Franklin Hunt
A Matter of Interpretation: Federal Courts and the Law by Antonin Scalia Princeton. 159 pp. $19.95 In the 1950's, when the Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren began to restructure American politics and society along the lines of a rights-based liberalism, it relied heavily on expansive readings of the abstract constitutional language of “equal protection,” “due process,” “cruel and unusual punishment,” and “freedom of speech.” It even relied, in an opinion by Justice William O.

The Emigrants by W.G. Sebald
by Andre Aciman
The Emigrants by W.G. Sebald translated from the German by Michael Hulse New Directions. 237 pp. $22.95 W.G. Sebald was born in Germany, studied literature there as well as in Switzerland and in Manchester, England, and since 1970 has been teaching at the University of East Anglia, where he is now a professor of European literature.

Radical Son by David Horowitz
by Christopher Caldwell
Radical Son: A Generational Odyssey by David Horowitz Free Press. 468 pp. $27.50 In the mid-1980's, at a rally in support of Nicaragua's Communist government, David Horowitz was for some reason invited to speak.

The Creation of Dr. B by Richard Pollak
by Joseph Adelson
The Creation of Dr. B: A Biography of Bruno Bettelheim by Richard Pollak Simon & Schuster. 478 pp. $28.00 One of the strangest stories in the recent annals of social science is the Icarus-like career of Bruno Bettelheim (1903-90).

A People's Tragedy by Orlando Figes
by Daniel Mahoney
A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891-1924 by Orlando Figes Viking. 894 pp. $34.95 What explains the terrible trajectory taken by the Russian Revolution of 1917? This question has tended to divide students of the Russian past into two opposing camps.

Coming Apart by Roger Rosenblatt
by Elliott Abrams
Coming Apart: A Memoir of the Harvard Wars of 1969 by Roger Rosenblatt Little, Brown. 234 pp. $24.95 On April 9, 1969, approximately 135 left-wing Harvard students, many of them affiliated with Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), seized the central administrative office of the college in the heart of Harvard Yard.

July, 1997Back to Top
The "Race Men"
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In her excellent article, “Day of the Race Men” [April], Tamar Jacoby raises the $64,000 question: why do middle-class blacks, doing financially better than ever, identify and support the Farrakhans, Jacksons, and Sharptons? It all goes back to the 1960's and 1970's, beginning with the New York City teachers' strike and the establishment of community control in the city school system.

"Scientific American"
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Rather than reply point by point to Jeremy Bernstein's cranky rant [“What Happened to ‘Scientific American,’ ” May] and expose how ignorant of both science and publishing he has apparently become, I will confine myself to facts he conveniently omitted.

Pornography and Censorship
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to comment on Norman Podhoretz's “ ‘Lolita,’ My Mother-in-Law, the Marquis de Sade, and Larry Flynt” [April].

Multiculturalism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to correct one point in Linda Chavez's review of my book, We Are All Multiculturalists Now [Books in Review, May].

Cars and Their Enemies
by James Wilson
Imagine the country we now inhabit—big, urban, prosperous—with one exception: the automobile has not been invented. We have trains and bicycles, and some kind of self-powered buses and trucks, but no private cars driven by their owners for business or pleasure.

Judaism Without Limits
by Jack Wertheimer
Ever since last fall, when several Israeli religious parties introduced new legislation to grant Orthodox rabbis a formal monopoly over conversions to Judaism performed in the Jewish state, the issue of religious pluralism has taken center stage in the organized Jewish community of the United States.

"Eat People"-- A Chinese Reckoning
by Arthur Waldron
In the spring of 1986, the dissident Chinese writer Zheng Yi set out in search of his country's heart of darkness.

"Hava Nagila"-- A Memoir
by Anatoly Naiman
Pioneer called me late in the spring of 1967. It was a magazine, and quite a popular one, too. I was asked to write something about poetry for the Pioneers, the youngest Communists-to-be.

Why Iran Is (Still) a Menace
by Joshua Muravchik
Even before the surprise election of the “moderate,” Mohammed Khatami, in Iran's presidential election this May, a small chorus of foreign-policy writers and experts had begun to urge that Washington adopt a more accommodating attitude toward Iran.

Is Chess Finished?
by Boris Gulko
Not since American Patriot missiles knocked Iraqi Scuds out of the skies in the Persian Gulf war has a scientific achievement stirred so much public wonderment.

Missing Albert Shanker
by Arch Puddington
At a recent memorial meeting for Albert Shanker, who died this past February at the age of sixty-eight, speaker after speaker referred to the vacuum he left behind in American education.

Virgil Thomson's Brilliant Careers
by Terry Teachout
Virgil Thomson is among the most famous American composers of the 20th century, but not for his compositions. “We all loved his music,” Leonard Bernstein tactlessly but accurately said after his death in 1989, “and rarely performed it.” Thomson's fame derived from another talent: in 1940, he became chief music critic of the New York Herald Tribune, quickly winning acclaim as a writer of exceptional intelligence and force.

Promised Land, Crusader State by Walter A. McDougall
by Aaron Friedberg
Promised Land, Crusader State by Walter A. McDougall Houghton Mifflin. 286 pp. $26.00 We Americans do not have a very long history, but we make ample use of what we have.

Nazi Germany and the Jews by Saul Friedlander
by Robert Wistrich
Nazi Germany and the Jews Volume I: The Years of Persecution, 1933-1939 by Saul Friedländer HarperCollins. 436 pp. $30.00 Over the past 30 years, in books with titles like Pius XII and the Third Reich (1966), Prelude to Downfall: Hitler and the United States 1939-41 (1967), Reflections of Nazism (1984), and Probing the Limits of Representation: Nazism and the “Final Solution” (1992), Saul Friedländer has dealt in a sober, thought-provoking way with the nature, the meaning, and the consequences of Nazism and the Holocaust.

John Wayne's America by Garry Wills
by David Brooks
John Wayne's America: The Politics of Celebrity by Garry Wills Simon & Schuster. 380 pp. $26.00 The most interesting parts of this book are the pictures in the photo section.

In the Classroom by Mark Gerson
by Sol Stern
In the Classroom: Dispatches from an Inner-City School That Works by Mark Gerson Free Press. 238 pp. $23.00 Poor and minority children would clearly benefit if more graduates of the nation's elite colleges were encouraged to teach in the inner cities for a few years before entering their chosen professions.

W.B. Yeats: A Life by R.F. Foster
by Algis Valiunas
W.B. Yeats: A Life Volume I: The Apprentice Mage 1865-1914 by R.F. Foster Oxford. 640 pp. $35.00 William Butler Yeats was the greatest poet who wrote in English during the 20th century.

August, 1997Back to Top
NATO Expansion
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his review of The Dawn of Peace in Europe by Michael Mandelbaum [Books in Review, May] Alvin H.

Health Care
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his article, “The Price of Managed Care” [May], Bruce A. Barron was right on target in regard to the role of teaching hospitals in creating the health-care crisis.

"For the Love of Country"
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I recently moved to Denver, the city where Timothy McVeigh was just convicted of his appalling crimes. For that reason, as well as many others, I was grateful for Gertrude Himmelfarb's essay on patriotism, “For the Love of Country” [May], not just for its warning that the extremism of Left and Right feed off each other, but, more generally, because of its reminder that statecraft can be a noble calling: if our virtues are merely domestic and local, we rob ourselves of one of humanity's chief avenues for transcendence in the selfless devotion to a cause greater than ourselves. I was troubled, however, by her repeated use of the word “could,” as in “a sensible tax policy could encourage two-parent families,” or “divorce laws could be devised to deter the break-up of the family,” or “the courts could support .

Demjanjuk
by Our Readers
To the Editor: “Demjanjuk: A Summing-Up” by Joshua Muravchik [April]—in fact, a prosecution brief—was fascinating and, of course, damning. I have written about this case myself and studied it, including the evidence the U.S.

Democracies and Double Standards
by Robert Kagan
For citizens of the world's most powerful democracy, it ought to be a source of satisfaction, and even of pride, that peoples all over the planet have struggled to adopt our model of government—and, in recent years, have succeeded in doing so at an astonishingly high rate.

My War With Allen Ginsberg
by Norman Podhoretz
“Allen Ginsberg, Master Poet of Beat Generation, Dies at 70,” proclaimed the headline on the front page of the New York Times for April 6, 1997.

The Seduction of Steven Eskanazzi
by David Gelernter
“Absolutely not. Crazy. Ridiculous.” Eskanazzi's brain is fast and he always speaks fast. “Listen,” she says. “Please. Please.” Looking at the table. “For this,” he says, “this is the reason? Y'know what time it was in Jerusalem? I thought you were dying or something.” “It was a terrible thing to do,” she says, “but listen.

The Colonel and the Lady
by Joseph Epstein
I got a message from [Robert] Redford that they had decided not to shoot the one scene [in All the President's Men] in which I was portrayed.

What Adams Saw Over Jefferson's Wall
by Richard Samuelson
America is in the midst of a war between the religious and the secular: so declared the right-wing presidential candidate Patrick J.

An American Tragedy
by Carol Iannone
In an interview about his film Damage (1992), the late French director Louis Malle observed that when he began his career some decades ago, “it seemed like you had to really shake up the conventions of the society we lived in and come up with, you know, this need to liberate.” But, he continued, “now it seems like this has been done and now we are almost trying to pick up the pieces in a way.” Malle knew whereof he spoke.

No More Great Composers?
by Terry Teachout
Most newspaper critics are forgotten as soon as they retire—unless they happen to write a book. Take Harold C. Schonberg, who served as chief music critic of the New York Times-from 1960 to 1980 and was for many years one of the most powerful and controversial figures in the world of classical music.

Deadly Feasts by Richard Rhodes
by Laura Manuelidis
Deadly Feasts: Tracking the Secrets of a Terrifying New Plague by Richard Rhodes Simon & Schuster. 259 pp. $24.00 When I was a medical student in the early 1960's, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was another obscure dementia, and kuru was a new and curious neurological illness afflicting tribesmen in New Guinea.

Moral Judgment by James Q. Wilson; The Excuse Factory by Walter K. Olson
by Franklin Hunt
Moral Judgment: Does the Abuse Excuse Threaten Our Legal System? by James Q. Wilson Basic Books. 134 pp. $18.00 The Excuse Factory: How Employment Law is Paralyzing the American Workplace by Walter K.

Faith or Fear by Elliott Abrams
by Jon Levenson
Faith or Fear: How Jews can Survive in a Christian America by Elliott Abrams Free Press. 256 pp. $25.00 The grim data on Jewish assimilation and intermarriage that have called forth this book are by now well known.

Spielberg: A Biography by Joseph McBride; Steven Spielberg by John Baxter
by Daniel Silver
Spielberg: A Biography by Joseph McBride Simon & Schuster. 528 pp. $30.00 Steven Spielberg: The Unauthorized Biography by John Baxter HarperCollins. 457 pp. $25.00 During the 1930's and 40's, the heyday of the American movie business, film production was dominated by the studio system.

Just As I Am: The Autobiography of Billy Graham
by James Nuechterlein
Just As I Am: The Autobiography of Billy Graham HarperSanFrancisco/Zondervan 760 pp. $28.50 It is hardly a secret that non-believers are often alarmed by evangelical Christians and their ways; but evangelicals pose a problem even to many believers.

September, 1997Back to Top
Zionism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Hillel Halkin [“After Zionism: Reflections on Israel and the Diaspora,” June] says that he has mellowed in the twenty years since he published Letters to an American Jewish Friend, and in tone perhaps he has.

Miltary Preparedness
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In their article on the war-fighting readiness of U.S. military forces [“Could We Fight a War If We Had To?,” May], Frederick W.

Liberals and Choice
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Adam Wolfson [“Are We All Liberals Now?,” June] should heed Macaulay: “[A] little knowledge of history is now and then very useful to a person who undertakes to speculate on politics.” Mr.

Interpreting the Constitution
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his review of Antonin Scalia's A Matter of Interpretation: Federal Courts and the Law [June], Franklin Hunt's disagreement with well-accepted principles of constitutional interpretation begins with a distortion of Justice William O.

David Helfgott
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Terry Teachout [“The David Helfgott Show,” June] says that billing David Helfgott's series of piano recitals as “The Celebration of Life” represented an attempt to neutralize adverse criticism by “wrapping the pianist in greeting-card sanctimony.” In this, Mr.

A Strategy for Israel
by Douglas Feith
Yossi Beilin, Israel's impresario of the 1993 Oslo accords with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), appreciates the political power of an accomplished fact.

Is It All in the Genes?
by Francis Fukuyama
To pick up a newspaper these days is to be struck by the pace of developments in the biological sciences.

Why Welfare Reform Is Working
by Daniel Casse
On July 1, the “end of welfare as we know it” began in earnest. On that day, the federal legislation that President Clinton had signed nearly a year earlier went into effect, terminating a 62-year-old federal entitlement and creating, for the first time, a limit on how long one can receive federal welfare assistance. In Washington, however, it seems impossible to leave well enough alone.

Sex, Lies, and Infantry
by Walter McDougall
In a tender love song from the late 1970's, Bob Dylan asked, “Can you cook and sew and make flowers grow, do you understand my pain?” The line outraged feminists.

Godel's Universe
by Jeremy Bernstein
In the fall of 1957 I began a two-year fellowship at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. Although I was by then committed to a career in theoretical physics, I had been a mathematics major in college, and one of the residues of my undergraduate years was a feeling of awe for the work of Kurt Gödel, then a professor at the Institute. In a brief series of papers written in the early 1930's, when he was in his mid-twenties, Gödel had transformed forever the way we view mathematical truth.

God and Carl Sagan in Hollywood
by Daniel Silver
It is a truth universally acknowledged that Americans are an incorrigibly religious people: the overwhelming majority say they believe in God, and most attend houses of worship with some regularity.

Taking Sinatra Seriously
by Terry Teachout
What will Frank Sinatra be remembered for? In the decade prior to his retirement in 1995, his singing became a grotesque and embarrassing self-caricature.

Race, Crime, and the Law by Randall Kennedy
by James Wilson
Race, Crime, and the Law by Randall Kennedy Pantheon. 539 pp. $30.00Four decades ago, the civil-rights movement began in earnest.

We Now Know by John Lewis Gaddis; Man Without a Face by Markus Wolf
by Gabriel Schoenfeld
We now know: Rethinking Cold War History by John Lewis Gaddis Oxford. 425 pp. $30.00 Man Without a Face: The Autobiography of Communism's Greatest Spymaster by Markus Wolf with Anne McElvoy Times Books.

Mexico: Biography of Power by Enrique Krauze
by Stephen Schwartz
Mexico: Biography of Power by Enrique Krauze translated by Hank Heifetz HarperCollins. 872 pp. $35.00 Enrique Krauze, who was born in 1947 in Mexico City, is an outstanding younger member of the circle around the Mexican poet Octavio Paz, winner of the 1990 Nobel prize in literature.

Isaac Bashevis Singer: A Life by Janet Hadda
by Edward Alexander
Isaac Bashevis Singer: A Life by Janet Hadda Oxford. 243 pp. $27.50 Isaac Bashevis Singer was born in Poland in 1904 into a world of Jewish religious and cultural orthodoxy which no longer exists in Europe and of which there are only traces left in Israel and the United States.

The Time Bind by Arie Russell Hochschild
by Leslie Lenkowsky
The Time Bind: When Work Becomes Home and Home Becomes Work by Arlie Russell Hochschild Metropolitan Books. 316 pp. $22.50 Arlie Russell Hochschild, a sociologist at the University of California at Berkeley, is a sympathetic chronicler of the entry of women into the workforce and the growth of two-earner families.

October, 1997Back to Top
The Forward
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “Abraham Cahan, the ‘Forward,’ and Me” [June], Seth Lipsky makes some interesting personal observations which call for emendation, rebuttal, and a restoration of the historical record. To begin with, the differences between Abraham Cahan, the editor of the Jewish Daily Forward, and Baruch Charney Vladeck, the paper's business manager, were not because Vladeck's “politics were quite a bit to the Left of Cahan's,” as Mr.

Muhammad Ali
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Jonah Goldberg's “Politics and Pugilists” [June] is a penetrating meditation on the “Rumble in the Jungle” between Muhammad Ali and George Foreman depicted in the movie When We Were Kings.

Cars and Their Enemies
by Our Readers
To the Editor:I think James Q. Wilson [“Cars and Their Enemies,” July] protests too much. It is hard to see what the point of his carless-nation scenario is when no one of any consequence advocates it.

American (and Israeli) Jews
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “Judaism Without Limits” [July], Jack Wertheimer faults Conservative and Reform Jews in the U.S. for raising the issue of religious pluralism in Israel.

Albert Shanker
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Arch Puddington's excellent article, “Missing Albert Shanker” [July], captured much of the loss felt by many of us who knew and worked with Al.

The New Wealth of Nations
by Christopher DeMuth
The nations of North America, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan are wealthier today than they have ever been, wealthier than any others on the planet, wealthier by far than any societies in human history.

A Report Card on School Choice
by Paul Peterson
In educating its young, the world's greatest industrial power cannot keep up with its competition. Consider the findings of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study, which in 1995 tested over a half-million students in 41 countries.

Lithuanian Pastoral
by Dan Jacobson
No landscapes can be more deceitfully innocent in appearance than those of Lithuania. True, I visited the country in June, at the peak of the summer, when every growing thing was as thick, tall, green, and succulent as it ever would be.

Why Die for Danzig?
by Joshua Muravchik
With the procedures for admitting new members into NATO having been set in motion at July's summit meeting in Madrid, the debate over expanding the alliance has begun in earnest.

Mr. Bellow's Planet
by Hillel Halkin
Saul bellow's new novella, the critics agree, is not one of his major works. As James Wood put it in the New Republic, The Actual1 while having “its own nervous perfection,” is “slight .

The Worst Decision Since
by Wilfred McClay
Few pieces of congressional legislation in recent years have aroused less initial controversy than the Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA), a 1993 bill designed to overturn a Supreme Court ruling that appeared to many to threaten religious liberty.

An Unloved Romantic
by Terry Teachout
Hector Berlioz is famous, but not popular. He is, in fact, the only great composer of the 19th century never to have been popular.

The Myth of Rescue by William D. Rubinstein
by Walter Laqueur
The Myth of Rescue: Why the Democracies Could Not Have Saved More Jews From the Nazis by William D. Rubinstein Routledge. 267 pp.

American Scripture by Pauline Maier
by Gary Rosen
American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence by Pauline Maier Knopf. 304 pp. $27.50 On a hot July afternoon several years ago, Pauline Maier, a professor of history at MIT, took a break from an academic conference in Washington and set out for the National Archives, curious to see the aging sheets of parchment with which Americans declared independence in 1776 and, more than a decade later, established a national government.

Beyond All Reason by Daniel A. Farber and Suzanna Sherry
by Heather Donald
Beyond All Reason: The Radical Assault on Truth in American Law by Daniel A. Farber and Suzanna Sherry Oxford. 195 pp. $25.00 Dipping into a law review these days is an eye-opening experience.

Nature Writings by John Muir
by Algis Valiunas
Nature Writings by John Muir edited by William Cronon Library of America. 888 pp. $35.00 More Eloquently than any other American writer, John Muir, a man of the wilds, explored the significance that the wilds hold for civilization.

Liberal Racism by Jim Sleeper
by Christopher Caldwell
Liberal Racism by Jim Sleeper Viking. 195 pp. $21.95 Rare among liberals, Jim Sleeper declines to credit the good faith of everyone who claims to work on behalf of American blacks.

November, 1997Back to Top
The Wall of Separation
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his provocative article, “What Adams Saw Over Jefferson's Wall” [August], Richard A. Samuelson argues that John Adams was right in contending that religious opinion would, and should, play an important role in public debate.

Julius and the Colonel
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to add to Joseph Epstein's article, “The Colonel and the Lady” [August]. In the early 50's, when Eisenhower was President, there were two Jewish federal judges in the Northern District of Illinois, both of whom were appointed by Eisenhower at the request of Senator Everett Dirksen, a very powerful force in Washington. The first Jewish judge appointed by Eisenhower in Illinois was Julius Hoffman.

Great Composers
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I had two thoughts on Terry Teachout's most interesting article, “No More Great Composers?” [August]. First, it seems to me that Sergei Prokofiev stands above the other 20th-century figures Mr.

Democracy
by
To the Editor: Robert Kagan [“Democracies and Double Standards,” August] is dismayed that there is “a new distaste for promoting democracy abroad.” He sides with almost all who write about it these days in assuming that democracy is like pregnancy: either you are democratic or you are not, with no middle ground.

Chess
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I read with interest Boris Gulko's article, “Is Chess Finished?” [July]. As an amateur player and professional chess journalist, I have the greatest respect for Grandmaster Gulko's judgment in these matters.

Belief and Unbelief
by Our Readers
To the Editor: According to the review by Jon D. Levenson [August], Elliott Abrams argues in his new book, Faith or Fear: How Jews Can Survive in a Christian America, that unless American Jews become religiously observant, Judaism in the United States will die out.

Allen Ginsberg
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As Norman Podhoretz's “My War With Allen Ginsberg” [August] proves, there is no war like an old war.

What Good Is Government?
by William Bennett
Nobody needs to persuade most Americans that their national government is too big, taxes and regulates too much, and fails to accomplish enough of genuine public value.

Yiddish: Past, Present, Imperfect
by Ruth Wisse
On July 5 of this year, the foremost Yiddish scholar of the postwar generation, an Israeli citizen, died in Warsaw, Poland, and was buried in the Jewish cemetery on Okapowa Street.

Greenhouse Politics
by Jeremy Rabkin
Next month, world leaders will convene in Kyoto, Japan, to address the issue of global warming. The European Union (EU) has proposed that the developed countries commit themselves to dramatically reducing emissions of those gases thought to be responsible for trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere.

The Stain on Vanessa Stephen's Dress
by Elizabeth Powers
Like the prodigiously endowed child in Charles Baudelaire's prose poem, “The Gifts of the Fairies,” Virginia Woolf came into the world in 1882 with the touch of distinction on her.

The "Washington Post" vs. Israel
by Andrea Levin
Ever since the 1993 Rabin-Arafat handshake on the White House lawn, few major newspapers have followed the unfolding Israeli-Palestinian story so assiduously as the Washington Post.

What We Know About Day Care
by Joseph Adelson
When, several decades ago, I was beginning my own family, all the mothers of my acquaintance stayed at home to raise their children.

In and Out at the
by Midge Decter
If age is a measure of venerability—and when one is speaking of magazines, there is good reason to consider it so—then the New Republic can claim to be America's most venerable liberal weekly.

The File by Timothy Garton Ash
by David Pryce-Jones
The File: A Personal History by Timothy Garton Ash Random House. 262 pp. $23.00 The British journalist Timothy Garton Ash made his reputation in the late 1980's by writing thoughtful reportage on the liberation of Eastern Europe from Communism.

The One Best Way by Robert Kanigel
by Christopher Caldwell
The One Best Way: Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Enigma of Efficiency by Robert Kanigel Viking. 675 pp. $34.95 In last spring's elections in France, the soon-to-be victorious socialists implored voters not to give in to the tayloriste pressures of the global economy, or to allow French companies to become taylorisé.

Novels and Other Writings by Nathanael West
by Algis Valiunas
Novels and Other Writings by Nathanael West edited by Sacvan Bercovitch Library of America. 829 pp. $35.00 At the time of his death in a car wreck in 1940, Nathanael West was thirty-seven years old and had written four short novels, a play, and a number of movie scripts.

United Mind Workers by Charles Taylor Kerchner, Julia E. Koppich, and Joseph G. Weeres; The Teacher Unions by Myron Lieberman
by Chester Finn,
United Mind Workers by Charles Taylor Kerchner, Julia E. Koppich, and Joseph G. Weeres Jossey-Bass. 320 pp. $29.95 The Teacher Unions by Myron Lieberman Free Press.

Louis Armstrong by Laurence Bergreen
by David Ostwald
Louis Armstrong: An Extravagant Life by Laurence Bergreen Broadway Books. 564 pp. $30.00 In one way or another, most of the major biographies of Louis Armstrong have approached the story of this protean genius from a musical perspective.

December, 1997Back to Top
Women in the Military
by
To the Editor: Walter A. McDougall's article, “Sex, Lies, and Infantry” [September], is the most recent example of a disturbing tendency on the part of conservatives to join feminists in demeaning military men.

Welfare Reform
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Daniel Casse's excellent article, “Why Welfare Reform Is Working” [September], demonstrates the blinding power of liberal ideology. By any measure, the (conservative) 1996 welfare-reform bill has been a tremendous early success.

The New Biology
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Because the genetic research now being funded by the Human Genome Project and other sponsors is so important to all of us, Francis Fukuyama's article, “Is It All in the Genes?” [September], is particularly disappointing. He begins by claiming that anthropological theories depicting culture as the determining molder of individual and group identity are now being supplanted by those emphasizing inherited biogenetic characteristics.

Race and The Law
by Our Readers
To the Editor: James Q. Wilson's review of Randall Kennedy's Race, Crime, and the Law [September] is, as usual, subtle and persuasive.

Gödel's Universe
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It was a pleasure to read Jeremy Bernstein's graceful account of Kurt Gödel's life and profound accomplishment [“Gödel's Universe,” September]. I do wonder, though, that Mr.

Frank Sinatra
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “Taking Sinatra Seriously” [September], Terry Teach out is critical of Hofstra University's conference, Frank Sinatra: The Man, the Music, the Legend, planned for next year. As director of the conference, let me say that we at Hofstra are perplexed.

Cold-War Historian
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I believe Gabriel Schoenfeld's review of We Now Know by John Lewis Gaddis [September] was dead-on in its thrust, but the tone was unfair to the author.

The Scandal of the Law Schools
by Stephan Thernstrom
A gentle finger placed on scales that are otherwise evenly balanced: that is how proponents have long described the way affirmative action works at selective colleges and universities.

Politics and Jewish Giving
by Jack Wertheimer
Writing in these pages 35 years ago, the sociologist Marshall Sklare observed that Jewish philanthropy—“so high in its reputation”—provided an “exemplary case for those who wish to study or improve the state of American philanthropy” at large.1 To buttress his point, Sklare quoted a prominent American Catholic: “The Jews are the most highly organized group, and they have the most intelligent leadership.

The Campaign-Finance Follies
by Bradley Smith
In 1974, Congress passed amendments to the Federal Elections Campaign Act that, for the first time in our nation's history, seriously undertook to regulate political campaigns.

Daughters of the (Sexual) Revolution
by Wendy Shalit
The signals of distress currently coming from the fairer sex merit a hearing. They issue from books and magazine articles, and they are echoed in the often impossibly contradictory statements by leaders and spokesmen of the feminist movement on themes ranging from women in combat roles to the threat ostensibly posed to womankind by the all-male Promise Keepers. On the one hand, we are still being assured by feminists that any behavior on the part of men that suggests a protective attitude toward women is by definition sexist.

On Arab Rejectionism
by Daniel Pipes
In the two decades since President Anwar Sadat of Egypt made his famous trip to Jerusalem to address Israel's parliament, a consensus has emerged that the Arab effort to destroy Israel is a thing of the past.

Libertarians Abroad
by Arch Puddington
This past summer, a curious collection of foreign-policy types gathered at a conference in Washington, D.C., to declare their opposition to the expansion of NATO.

The New Tonalists
by Terry Teachout
A chapter in the history of American classical music is quietly drawing to a close, and—though unknown to most music lovers—another has already opened.For the past fifteen years, a group of American composers, collectively known as the minimalists, has dominated the new-music scene.

Ronald Reagan by Dinesh D'Souza
by James Nuechterlein
Ronald Reagan: How an Ordinary Man Became an Extraordinary Leader by Dinesh D'Souza Free Press. 292 pp. $25.00 Ronald Reagan, who was lucky in so many things, was perhaps luckiest of all in his enemies.

Drawing Life by David Gelernter
by Ruth Wisse
Drawing Life: Surviving the Unabomber by David Gelernter Free Press. 159 pp. $21.00 In June 1993, David Gelernter, a professor of computer science at Yale, received a unique summons to consider the problem of evil in America: a parcel addressed to him by an unknown person exploded upon opening, with a force that was intended to kill him.

Underworld by Don DeLillo
by Daniel Silver
Underworld by Don DeLillo Scribner. 827 pp. $27.50 After a long, wearying preoccupation with “minimalism,” it seems that American fiction has begun to return to more ambitious subjects.

The Future Once Happened Here by Fred Siegel
by Leslie Lenkowsky
The Future Once Happened Here: New York, D.C., L.A. and the Fate of America's Big Cities by Fred Siegel Free Press. 260 pp.

Jackie Robinson by Arnold Rampersad
by Donald Kagan
Jackie Robinson by Arnold Rampersad Knopf. 512 pp. $27.50 It is 50 years since Jack Roosevelt Robinson (1919-72) entered major-league baseball. Arnold Rampersad, a professor of literature and black studies at Princeton, has now written a biography that, balancing sympathy and admiration with fairness and objectivity, does justice both to Robinson's greatness as an athlete and to his role in the struggle for the rights and dignity of black Americans. Jackie Robinson was indeed a great athlete.