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January, 2002Back to Top
Women at Work
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Noemie Emery's review of Naomi Wolf's Misconceptions: Truth, Lies, and the Unexpected on the Journey to Motherhood was delightful [Books in Review, October 2001]. What I find most striking about the “feminism” of Wolf and her peers is that, for the most part, it amounts to nothing more than an elaborate, politicized defense of careerism.

Poland and the Jews
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Robert S. Wistrich's superb review of Neighbors: The Destruction of the Jewish Community of Jedwabne, Poland by Jan T.

Israel
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Norman Podhoretz does an excellent job of describing the bankruptcy of the Middle-East “peace process” [“Oslo: The Peacemongers Return,” October 2001].

Going Pro
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Though an excellent article in most respects, Chester E. Finn's “The Cost of College Sports” [October 2001] fails to address a key factor in our college athletics programs: namely, that they have become a farm-club system for professional sports. So what are colleges to do? As I see it, their choice is either to abolish college athletics entirely and thereby discontinue this arrangement, or to start awarding two sorts of degrees, one representing proficiency in academic work and the other in athletics. Peter H.

Business at the EU
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Congratulations to Irwin Stelzer for his superb piece, “Is Europe a Threat?” [October 2001]. I wholeheartedly agree with his assessment of the situation in Europe at the moment and the dangers for American companies.

A Classic
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Thank you so much for Nancy Yos's “Civilization Meets the Durants” [October 2001]. It is beautifully written. At the heart of her disillusionment with Will Durant are two issues on which I can shed some light: his literary style and his competence as a historian. I should begin by saying that Will and Ariel Durant knew me from the day I was born in 1931.

Peacemongers in Israel; business in the EU; women at work; etc.
by Our Readers
Israel TO THE EDITOR: Norman Podhoretz does an excellent job of describ- ing the bankruptcy of the Middle-East "peace process" ["Oslo: The Peacemongers Return," October 2001].

Pius XII and the Holocaust
by And Critics
Michael Novak: Kevin Madigan does not make a persuasive case that Pope Pius XII failed either the Jews of Europe or his own high office [“What the Vatican Knew About the Holocaust, and When,” October 2001].

Who Is the Enemy?
by Daniel Pipes
With whom, or what, is the United States at war? The answer to this question has far-reaching implications for strategy, for public diplomacy, and for foreign and domestic policy alike.

The Human-Rights Lobby Meets Terrorism
by Arch Puddington
In the months since the September 11 terrorist attacks on the United States, the world's two leading human-rights organizations—Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch—have been very busy.

Surfing the Novel
by Joseph Epstein
Reading novels has so long been a habit of mine that by now it qualifies as a full-blown addiction. My modus operandi is to alternate between the new and the old; frequently I have bookmarks in both simultaneously, hoping to keep up with the latest offerings while attempting to fill in some of the many gaps in my reading before I depart the planet.

Succeeding Giuliani
by Fred Siegel
The best preparation for entering the barely believable world of New York City politics is an evening of Gilbert and Sullivan.

The Tehran Temptation
by Michael Rubin
Should the United States seek a rapprochement with Iran? After more than two decades of enmity, this question is now very much before us. Speaking at the United Nations in early November, the Iranian president, Mohammed Khatami, announced that the “nation of Iran has no problem with the people and the nation of America.” In light of the unending flow of vituperation that Iran has poured out on the “Great Satan,” these were startling words.

The Last German Master
by Terry Teachout
Few reputations in classical music have fluctuated so widely as that of the German composer Paul Hindemith. From the mid-1920's on, he was acknowledged both as one of the key modernist composers of the 20th century—a peer of Igor Stravinsky and Béla Bartók—and as a teacher and theorist whose influence on younger musicians was unrivaled.

Ivory Towers on Sand by Martin Kramer
by Hillel Halkin
Ivory Towers on Sand by Martin Kramer Washington Institute. 137 pp. $19.95 This is a small monograph about large misjudgments. Martin Kramer, an American-trained Arabist who lives and teaches in Israel and has directed the Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies at Tel Aviv University, presents a clear thesis.

On My Honor by Jay Mechling
by Kay Hymowitz
On My Honor: Boy Scouts and the Making of American Youth by Jay Mechling Chicago. 360 pp. $30.00 In 1953, at the age of eight, a Miami boy named Jay Mechling joined the Cub Scouts.

War in a Time of Peace by David Halberstam
by Jacob Heilbrunn
War in a Time of Peace: Bush, Clinton, and the Generals by David Halberstam Scribner. 543 pp. $28.00 David Halberstam's War in a Time of Peace is one of the first attempts to define what was noteworthy about American foreign policy in the Clinton era.

Out of Its Mind by J. Allan Hobson and Jonathan Leonard
by Kevin Shapiro
Out of its Mind: Psychiatry in Crisis by J. Allan Hobson and Jonathan Leonard Perseus. 288 pp. $26.00 In 1895, Sigmund Freud, then thirty-nine and known primarily for his work in neuropathology and clinical neurology, set out to “furnish a psychology that shall be a natural science”—in other words, to build a brain-based psychology on the same epistemological footing as biology, chemistry, and physics.

Reaching for Glory edited by Michael Beschloss
by Mark Falcoff
Reaching for Glory: Lyndon Johnson's Secret White House Tapes, 1964-65 edited by Michael Beschloss Simon & Schuster. 480 pp. $30.00 Like Dracula, Lyndon Johnson refuses to die.

Holy War, Inc. by Peter L. Bergen
by Marin Strmecki
Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden by Peter L. Bergen Free Press. 304 pp. $26.00 Osama Bin Laden is the man who dared to wage war against a superpower, and a cottage industry of analysts and reporters has been racing to explain him to the public.

February, 2002Back to Top
Ready to Die
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Thank you for Hillel Halkin's thoughtful review of my book, At the Entrance to the Garden of Eden: A Jew's Search for God with Christians and Muslims in the Holy Land [Books in Review, November 2001]. But on one point, at least, he should have read more attentively.

Radicals
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Michael J. Lewis writes that “Williams has no great tradition of radical politics” [“War Comes to Williams,” November 2001].

Oppenheimer
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his review of Edward Teller's autobiography [Books in Review, November 2001], Dan Seligman expresses what has become a common misjudgment among conservatives: that the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was right to conclude that J.

Islam Here
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “The Danger Within: Militant Islam in America” [November 2001], Daniel Pipes accuses me and others of working to bring an Islamic revolution to the U.S.

Demonizing Israel
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I attended the nongovernmental-organization (NGO) section of the UN World Conference Against Racism and agree entirely with Arch Puddington's analysis of its disgraceful proceedings [“The Wages of Durban,” November 2001].

Counterterrorism Before September 11
by And Critics
Daniel Patrick Moynihan: During the Reagan administration I was awarded the Seal Medallion of the Central Intelligence Agency. This is among its highest honors and was given, I assume, for eight years' service on the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, the last four as vice chairman with Barry Goldwater as chairman. This has mattered to me, and hence I was deeply troubled by Gabriel Schoenfeld's lead article [“Could September 11 Have Been Averted?”] in the December issue, which charges me with having introduced legislation that included what “might aptly be labeled the Free Admission for Terrorists clause.” The bill (never passed) was designed to put an end to the “lookout lists” for persons with “unacceptable opinions.” These were a legacy of the McCarthy era, which no longer served our interests in any way.

How to Win World War IV
by Norman Podhoretz
Ever since the very beginning of the war into which the United States was violently hurled on September 11, efforts have been made to define its nature.

The Return of Anti-Semitism
by Hillel Halkin
“I have awakened to anti-Semitism these days,” wrote the American Jewish author Jonathan Rosen in an article in the New York Times Magazine last November. An odd statement for someone as well-versed as he in Jewish matters.

Judging Richard Posner
by Gertrude Himmelfarb
Declaration of interest: I am one of the many public intellectuals criticized in Richard A. Posner's latest book, Public Intellectuals: A Study of Decline1 Indeed, I apparently have the distinction of having inspired it.

Can Terrorists Get the Bomb?
by Gary Milhollin
The story began over a meal in late October. A high British official told a reporter from the London Times that Osama bin Laden had the bomb, or at least that he had gotten bomb components, or nuclear materials, and that the source was Pakistan.

Why Ashcroft Is Wrong on Assisted Suicide
by Nelson Lund
Alone among the American states, Oregon has legalized physician-assisted suicide. This step was thoroughly debated and solemnly taken by the voters of Oregon not once but twice.

The Great American Songbook: A Critical Guide
by Terry Teachout
Of America's many contributions to the arts, the most widely influential—perhaps even more influential than jazz—may ultimately prove to be the body of popular song created during the 20th century by the commercial composers and lyricists who worked on Broadway and Tin Pan Alley and in Hollywood. The men (and a few women) who wrote these songs did not exist in a cultural or artistic vacuum.

Jack by Jack Welch with John A. Byrne
by Dan Seligman
Jack: Straight from the Gut by Jack Welch with John A. Byrne Warner. 479 pp. $29.95 As I write, Jack Welch's autobiography sits in the No.

The Strange Death of American Liberalism by H.W Brands
by Damon Linker
The Strange Death of American Liberalism by H.W. Brands Yale. 200 pp. $22.50 “Big Government is Back in Style”—or so declared a recent headline in the New York Times.

Coloring the News by William McGowan
by Vincent Carroll
Coloring the News: How Crusading for Diversity Has Corrupted American Journalism by William McGowan Encounter. 278 pp. $25.95 In 1997, in one of the more brutal recent incidents of interracial violence in this country, three white teenagers from rural Michigan ended up in the wrong neighborhood of Flint and were set upon by a gang of black youths.

America's First Dynasty by Richard Brookhiser
by Noemie Emery
America's First Dynasty: The Adamses, 1735-1918 by Richard Brookhiser Free Press. 256 pp. $25.00 As Americans nowadays know, democracies have their own form of royalty.

Who Rules in Science by James Robert Brown
by Kevin Shapiro
Who Rules in Science: An Opinionated Guide to the Wars by James Robert Brown Harvard. 256 pp. $26.00 Few terms, when uttered in academic circles, are so instantly polarizing as the phrase “social construction.” Taken at face value, the notion is innocuous enough: some things that we come to know, like the rules of baseball and the letters of the alphabet, are not objective truths about the universe but products of social convention.

March, 2002Back to Top
Pius XII
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Two of the letters that Kevin Madigan answers in his recent exchange with critics [“Controversy,” January] make erroneous statements about my own work on Pius XII and the Holocaust.

Movie Music
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Though I cannot fathom what led Terry Teachout to write on Miklós Rózsa more than five years after the composer's death, his article [“The Double Life of Miklós Rózsa,” December 2001] is nevertheless a welcome addition to the literature on one of the 20th century's great artists. I must take exception, however, with Mr.

Mind and Matter
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Paul R. McHugh's “Romancing Depression” [December 2001] skillfully reveals the dangerous imprecision and lack of critical discrimination of Andrew Solomon's much-touted Noonday Demon: An Atlas of Depression.

Divorce
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In her discussion of William J. Bennett's The Broken Hearth [Books in Review, December 2001], Kay S. Hymowitz might have said more about the book's claim, with respect to divorce, that many “young [married] mothers .

"Bush v. Gore" and the Conservatives
by And Critics
Peter Berkowitz: Gary Rosen is right to take issue with those conservatives who reject the legal reasoning underlying the Supreme Court's per-curiam decision in Bush v.

Back to Politics as Usual?
by Daniel Casse
A front-page item in the New York Times last September reported that congressional Republican leaders were already in a panic about the November 2002 mid-term elections.

With God in Baton Rouge
by Jennifer Moses
I'm driving my minivan down Florida Boulevard in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, past the SnackShack, the Ford dealership, the U-Lock-It, and the Super Chicken, listening to Lorraine, who is sitting in the seat next to me, talking.

Sex and the Marriage Market
by James Wilson
Everyone knows that this country has suffered a remarkable rise in the number of single-parent, female-headed families, and that things were not always this way.

Socialism's Last Stand
by Joshua Muravchik
About a year ago, kibbutz Mishmar David in central Israel voted, 50 to 1, to dissolve. Deeply in debt (like most kibbutzim), it decided to sell off some land to settle its obligations and then to give each member title to his own dwelling and a share in the kibbutz's factory.

Retrying the Rosenbergs (Again)
by Mark Falcoff
The innocence of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, executed in 1953 for conspiring to commit espionage for the Soviet Union, has for decades been one of the most treasured myths of the American Left.

The Great American Songbook: Part 2
by Terry Teachout
“Strange how potent cheap music is,” Noel Coward wrote in Private Lives. That droll tribute to the power of popular song has been quoted countless times—but Coward, himself a fine songwriter, overlooked the fact that there was and is nothing “cheap” about the immaculate craftsmanship of the composers, lyricists, and performers who were responsible for the creation and dissemination of what has come to be known as the Great American Songbook.

Bias by Bernard Goldberg
by Dan Seligman
Bias: A CBS Insider Exposes How the Media Distort the News by Bernard Goldberg Regnery. 232 pp. $27.95 The most interesting parts of this unexpected best-seller—in recent weeks, No.

Sakharov by Richard Lourie
by Aleksa Djilas
Sakharov: A Biography by Richard Lourie Brandeis. 453 pp. $30.00 In the West, Andrei Sakharov is rightly considered one of the greatest Russians of the last century.

A New History of Jazz by Alyn Shipton
by Richard Sudhalter
A New History of Jazz by Alyn Shipton Continuum. 965 pp. $35.00 Writing a synoptic history of jazz these days has become an ever more daunting task as both the music and its audience continue their fragmentation into ever-tinier stylistic categories and segments.

Crashing the Party by Ralph Nader
by Jacob Heilbrunn
Crashing the Party: How to Tell the Truth and Still run for President by Ralph Nader St. Martin's Press. 352 pp.

American Jihad by Steven Emerson
by Terry Eastland
American Jihad: The Terrorists Living among Us by Steven Emerson Free Press. 261 pp. $26.00 On September 11, Americans learned that international terrorists were living in their midst.

April, 2002Back to Top
Radical Islam
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Daniel Pipes states that some 100 to 150 million people worldwide embrace radical Islam, and that some 500 million other Muslims “concur with its rank anti-Americanism,” sympathizing more with Osama bin Laden and the Taliban than with the United States [“Who Is the Enemy?” January]. But having answered the question posed by his article's title, Mr.

New York City
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his article on the topsy-turvy world of New York City politics [“Succeeding Giuliani,” January], Fred Siegel overlooks the role played by two topsy-turvy policies: campaign finance and its stepchild, mandatory term limits. Political campaigns in New York City are expensive; it takes a lot of money to get a message out to voters.

Human Rights
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Bravo to Adrian Karatnycky and Arch Puddington for their article about Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch [“The Human-Rights Lobby Meets Terrorism,” January].

Bosnia
by Our Readers
To the Editor: According to Jacob Heilbrunn [Books in Review, January], David Halberstam in War in a Time of Peace criticizes the first Bush administration for its “too cautious” policy toward Yugoslavia, and particularly its reluctance to back what Mr.

Radical Islam; New York City politics; Bosnia; etc.
by Our Readers
Radical Islam TO THE EDITOR: Daniel Pipes states that some 100 to 150 million peo- ple worldwide embrace rad- ical Islam, and that some 500 million other Muslims "con- cur with its rank anti-Amer- icanism," sympathizing more with Osama bin Laden and the Taliban than with the United States ["Who Is the Enemy?" January].

Jewish-Christian Dialogue
by And Critics
While pleased with Jon D. Levenson's designation of us as “four highly-regarded professors of Jewish studies” [“How Not to Conduct Jewish-Christian Dialogue,” December 2001], we are dismayed by his wholesale dismissal of our efforts in writing and publishing Dabru Emet, a dismissal epitomized by his closing charge that our efforts pose “hazards to Jewish practice and identity” and that to deny this (as we have explicitly done) is “whistling in the dark.” Truth be told, Mr.

Israel's War
by Efraim Karsh
Late in February, in the first such action since Yasir Arafat's Palestinian Authority opened its war of attrition in October 2000, Israel undertook military operations against terrorist bases in two Pstinian refugee camps.

The Return of the "Jackal Bins"
by Norman Podhoretz
Following is the text (slightly modified) of the Francis Boyer Award Lecture, delivered in Washington at the annual dinner of the American Enterprise Institute on February 13, 2002, under the title “America at War: ‘The One Thing Needful.’ ” _____________   It is now almost exactly five months since the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, and the question I want to explore tonight is whether September 11 hurled us into a new era of American history. Certainly, this is how it seemed.

Too Many Immigrants?
by Tamar Jacoby
Of all the issues Americans have had to re-think in the wake of September 11, few seem more baffling than immigration.

Remembering Robert Warshow
by Midge Decter
In only a few years it will be a half-century since the death of Robert Warshow, a writer and critic of enormous grace and power who also served for some eight years as the managing editor of this magazine.

Visions of Ground Zero
by Michael J. Lewis
What happens when some of America's most valuable commercial property becomes the locus of an epic national event? At present, the void where the World Trade Center once stood in New York City is the nation's most poignant pilgrimage destination—a bleak and unsettling place that is at once a crime scene, a battlefield, and a cemetery.

The Great American Songbook: Part 3
by Terry Teachout
Though America flooded the Western world with countless pop-culture exports during the 20th century, it is hard to think of one that has given more lasting pleasure to more people than our vast catalogue of pre-rock popular song—unless it is our comparably long list of pre-rock popular singers. Like jazz, the other musical idiom with which American popular song is indissolubly commingled, the Great American Songbook (as the finest of these songs have come to be collectively known) is no longer seen as purely popular.

Soros by Michael T. Kaufman
by Dan Seligman
Soros: The Life and Times of a Messianic Billionaire by Michael T. Kaufman Knopf. 344 pp. $27.50 Nobody has ever satisfactorily explained the magical accomplishments of the Hungarian Jews.

The Future of Life by Edward O. Wilson
by Kevin Shapiro
The Future of Life by Edward O. Wilson Knopf. 256 pp. $22.00 One of the stranger phenomena in the recent history of science is the brilliant researcher who, at the end of a productive career in one field, moves on to another, embracing sometimes far-fetched projects.

Uncivil Wars by David Horowitz
by Jacob Heilbrunn
Uncivil Wars: The Controversy over Reparations for Slavery by David Horowitz Encounter. 137 pp. $21.95 David Horowitz was inducted into the culture wars at a tender age.

See No Evil by Robert Baer
by Kenneth Timmerman
See No Evil: The True Story of a Ground Soldier in the CIA's War on Terrorism by Robert Baer Crown. 284 pp.

Virtually Jewish by Ruth Ellen Gruber
by Hillel Halkin
Virtually Jewish: Reinventing Jewish Culture in Europe by Ruth Ellen Gruber University of California. 330 pp. $35.00 _____________   Not long ago, I came across an item in the newspapers about a major new institute for Jewish studies being created in Stockholm by the Swedish government.

May, 2002Back to Top
The Battle Ahead
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Norman Podhoretz has written the equivalent, for World War IV, of George F. Kennan's “X” article, the essay published anonymously in Foreign Affairs in 1947 that set forth the American strategy for the cold war [“How to Win World War IV,” February]. Mr.

Nuclear Terror
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Gary Milhollin dangerously underestimates the reality of the nuclear threat [“Can Terrorists Get the Bomb?,” February]. He states that the amount of uranium required to make a gun-type bomb is 120 pounds.

Intellectuals
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Gertrude Himmelfarb's discussion of my book, Public Intellectuals: A Study of Decline, is intelligent, responsible, and very interesting [“Judging Richard Posner,” February].

Death with Dignity?
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Nelson Lund would apparently rather appease assisted suicide than defeat it [“Why Ashcroft is Wrong on Assisted Suicide,” February].

Anti-Semitism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Israel is morally undermined not by anti-Semites, as Hillel Halkin would have us believe, but by racist Israeli laws, and by those like Mr.

Hearts, Minds, and the War Against Terror
by Joshua Muravchik
The scoop appeared in the New York Times in February: as part of “a new effort to influence public sentiment and policy makers in both friendly and unfriendly countries,” it revealed, the Pentagon was “developing plans to provide news items, possibly even false ones, to foreign media organizations” (emphasis added). According to the Times, what had prompted the creation of this so-called Office of Strategic Influence (OSI) was the worry of “many administration officials” that “the United States was losing support in the Islamic world after American warplanes began bombing Afghanistan.” And what had prompted the leak of the story? It seems that a number of people inside the Pentagon, whether for reasons of principle or for reasons of turf, were concerned that the new office, by combining the tasks of public relations with those of covert operations, would thereby taint the former.

Judaism Beyond Words
by David Gelernter
Introduction As far as we know, Samuel Pepys ventured into a London synagogue only once. Once was enough. Pepys is the celebrated 17th-century diarist, and the day he visited the Creechurch Lane Synagogue happened to be Simhat Torah, the holiday marking the completion of the yearly cycle of Torah reading.

Trading with the Enemy
by Gary Milhollin
In March, President Bush marked the six-month anniversary of September 11 by warning us once again of the peril posed by weapons of mass destruction.

Uncle Jack
by Joseph Epstein
Last Thursday, heading out from the Loop to my apartment in Hyde Park, I was listening to a golden-oldie station.

How Inept Is the FBI?
by Gabriel Schoenfeld
Two narratives stand in mutual contradiction. In one of them, Wen Ho Lee, a computer scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, is what the New York Times called him in June 1999: a man possibly “responsible for the most damaging espionage of the post-cold-war era,” and almost certainly guilty of providing the nation's most precious secrets to Communist China.

Nazis, Jews, and "Mirroring Evil"
by Steven Munson
Mirroring Evil: Nazi Imagery/ Recent Art, on view at the Jewish Museum in New York through June 30, is a group show that engendered a storm of controversy even before it opened in March.

The Great American Songbook: A Conclusion
by Terry Teachout
“Let me make the songs of a nation,” the Scottish statesman Andrew Fletcher declared in 1703, “and I care not who makes its laws.” This oft-quoted remark applies with particular force to the huge body of pre-rock popular songs written in the 20th century and now known collectively as the Great American Songbook.

Our Posthuman Future by Francis Fukuyama
by Kevin Shapiro
Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution by Francis Fukuyama Farrar, Straus & Giroux. 256 pp. $25.00 A great deal has changed since our prehistorical forebears emerged from the African savanna some 200 centuries ago.

The Long Recessional by David Gilmour
by David Pryce-Jones
The Long Recessional: The Imperial Life of Rudyard Kipling by David Gilmour Farrar, Straus & Giroux. 368 pp. $26.00 Rudyard Kipling was as great a writer as any in the English language.

Woman's Inhumanity to Woman by Phyllis Chesler
by Kay Hymowitz
Woman's Inhumanity to Woman by Phyllis Chesler Thunder's Mouth Press. 551 pp. $22.95 In 1970 Phyllis Chesler strode onto the feminist stage with a speech to the American Psychological Association demanding that the profession pay a million dollars in reparations for all the poorly “adjusted” women whom its members had tranquilized, seduced, hospitalized, raped, electro-shocked, and lobotomized.

The Savage Wars of Peace by Max Boot
by Frederick Kagan
The Savage Wars of Peace: Small Wars and the Rise of American Power by Max Boot Basic. 384 pp. $30.00 Few books published this decade will be timelier than Max Boot's The Savage Wars of Peace.

Blinded by the Right by David Brock
by Dan Seligman
Blinded by the Right: The Conscience of an Ex-Conservative by David Brock Crown. 336 pp. $25.95 David Brock, once a conservative journalist and now a liberal journalist, has written a memoir with two possible selling points. First, there is the book's thesis: that the country's free institutions are threatened by a far-reaching conservative conspiracy.

June, 2002Back to Top
Treason
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mark Falcoff writes that Ronald Radosh and Joyce Milton, among others, “have argued that Ethel Rosenberg's role was not significant enough to justify the punishment she received” [“Retrying the Rosenbergs (Again),” March].

Kibbutzniks
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I read Joshua Muravchik's article on the fall of Israel's kibbutz movement with great interest [“Socialism's Last Stand,” March].

Illegitimacy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: James Q. Wilson is wrong in claiming that slavery contributed to the rampant rise in illegitimacy in the black community [“Sex and the Marriage Market,” March].

Hallelujah
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Jennifer Moses' essay, “With God in Baton Rouge” [March], made me ache. Here is a Jew, obviously searching for something spiritual in life, having to learn about God from non-Jews rather than from the people who brought the idea of God to the world.

Divorce
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Kay S. Hymowitz is clueless when it comes to family issues, as evidenced by her reply to Miklós Hernadi's letter [“Letters from Readers,” March].

Anti-Semitism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Hillel Halkin has performed a valuable service in exploring new realities in “The Return of Anti-Semitism” [February]. Clearly, as Mr.

Israel and the Anti-Semites
by Gabriel Schoenfeld
Has a new and potent form of anti-Semitism come to life in the world? If so, what does it portend? Let us for the moment bracket off the Muslim world.

Why the Settlements Should Stay
by Hillel Halkin
The settlements! If only they didn't exist! If only Israel understood the folly of them! They have been a ruinous drain on its resources, a flagrant violation of international law, a systematic effort to dispossess the Palestinians, an intolerable presence on Palestinian soil, and, in short, “the greatest Israeli obstacle to peace,” as the New York Times recently put it in hardly its first editorial on the subject.

Socialism's Nine Lives
by Midge Decter
To anyone in 21st-century America who has never succumbed to the temptation, buying into socialism must seem at best an exotic and at worst a deeply perverse thing to do.

Birth of a Snob
by Joseph Epstein
Snobbery: is it innate, or learned? Snobs: are they born, or made? Perhaps the best way to begin answering this question is by adducing a case I happen to know fairly well—my own. My social origins are a bit complicated: culturally lower-middle-class but with middle- and, later, upper-middle-class financial backing.

Tales of Suburban High
by Kay Hymowitz
When Americans think about public education, they tend to see a stark divide. On the one hand, there are the failed school systems of our big cities, blackboard jungles where drugs abound, gangs rule the hallways, and dropouts outnumber the barely literate graduates.

The Ashes of Napoleon
by Algis Valiunas
Victor Hugo was a madman who thought he was Victor Hugo, quipped the French dramatist Jean Cocteau. If that is so, how crazy did Napoleon have to be in order to think he was Napoleon? Making oneself the supreme French writer of the 19th century may have required an immense capacity for self-aggrandizement; becoming the very embodiment of French glory and the greatest man of action since Julius Caesar—getting a million of his countrymen to die for his name and causing the death of four million others—called for a sense of ordained magnificence beside which even the most monumental egotism pales. As Paul Johnson points out in his dazzlingly compendious new biography in the Penguin Lives series, more books have been written about Napoleon than about any other man except for Jesus Christ.

What Was the Matter with Rachmaninoff?
by Terry Teachout
In 1927, the British music-hall duo Flotsam & Jetsam recorded a comic song, “What Was the Matter with Rachmaninov?,” in which they lamented the popularity of the once-ubiquitous Prelude in C-Sharp Minor among hapless amateur pianists: “Then there's another one down the street/Who must be trying it with her feet/She's the one who gives you fits/Whenever she comes to the difficult bits.” It was not only in music halls, however, that Sergei Rachmaninoff was criticized for being too popular.1 Few classical composers of significance have received so many unfavorable reviews over so long a period of time, and there can be little doubt that Rachmaninoff's bad press arose in large part from the fact that his compositions were hugely successful with concertgoers who disliked most other 20th-century music. As recently as the 1970's, critical disdain for Rachmaninoff was so widespread that even his few open admirers, among them COMMENTARY's Samuel Lipman, struck a defensive note: “Whatever Rachmaninoff's exact rank as a composer, it was his achievement to reflect his own world—simply, honestly, and directly”2 Far more typical was the outright contempt of the American composer Walter Piston, who once confronted Gary Graffman after a performance of the Second Piano Concerto, asking, “How can you play such junk?” Similar sentiments can be found in the article about Rachmaninoff in the 1954 edition of Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians: As a composer he can hardly be said to have belonged to his time at all.

Why We Fight by William J. Bennett
by David Pryce-Jones
Why We Fight: Moral Clarity and the War on Terrorism by William J. Bennett Doubleday. 175 pp. $19.95 Before September 11, it is safe to say, very few people in the Western world had grasped the fact that there were Muslims with a rage in them so overwhelming that they were prepared to kill several thousand Americans just because they were American.

The Orchards of Syon by Geoffrey Hill
by Thomas Jeffers
The Orchards of Syon by Geoffrey Hill Counterpoint. 77 pp. $24.00 Literary critics refer to the late 20th century as the age of the postmodern.

Unholy War by John L. Esposito
by Patrick Clawson
Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam by John L. Esposito Oxford. 180 pp. $25.00 In the wake of September 11, few things have been more important to the United States than to understand why we were attacked.

The Death Penalty by Stuart Banner
by Jonathan Kay
The Death Penalty: An American History by Stuart Banner Harvard. 408 pp. $29.95 Is the death penalty on its way out in the United States? Given the recent successes of its opponents, one might begin to think so.

Six Days of War by Michael B. Oren
by Victor Davis Hanson
Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East by Michael B. Oren Oxford. 419 pp. $30.00 Iseael won two conflicts with its neighbors before the Six-Day war, and one after it.

July, 2002Back to Top
Israel
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his excellent article [“Israel's War,” April], Efraim Karsh argues that a complete Israeli military victory over Palestinian terrorist organizations is a necessary first step toward achieving a durable peace in the Middle East.

Immigration
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Tamar Jacoby's article [“Too Many Immigrants?,” April] sent shock waves through our little immigration-reform community, not so much because of her arguments as because of her unwontedly civil tone, which we appreciated.

Counterintelligence
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his article “How Inept Is the FBI?” [May], Gabriel Schoenfeld raises questions about my “disinterestedness” in reviewing two books about the Wen Ho Lee affair for the Weekly Standard.

Our Enemies, the Saudis
by Victor Davis Hanson
Even if we were not attempting to prosecute a war against terror, the time would have long since arrived to reconsider our relations with Saudi Arabia.

The UN on the Loose
by Joshua Muravchik
This spring, the United Nations Commission on Human Rights held its 58th annual meeting, the month-long event at which it conducts all of its business.

Does the U.S. Finally Understand Israel?
by Michael Oren
Has the Bush administration taken a new and promising turn in American policy toward Israel? Many people have thought so, and have pointed to signs that seem to illustrate that new turn.

France's Jewish Problem
by Michel Gurfinkiel
In 1928, the young New York intellectual Sidney Hook embarked on a tour of Europe that included a stay of several months in Germany.

What Occupation?
by Efraim Karsh
No term has dominated the discourse of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict more than “occupation.” For decades now, hardly a day has passed without some mention in the international media of Israel's supposedly illegitimate presence on Palestinian lands.

Lifestyles of the Rich and Infertile
by Lisa Schiffren
Shortly after September 11, there began to appear an unusual number of paeans to family life—unusual, at least, for the more fashionable precincts of New York City.

Cheering "Metamorphoses"
by William Meyers
In London, theatergoers who have become weary with the leftish works of Harold Pinter, Cheryl Churchill, David Hare, and their like can often turn to Tom Stoppard for relief.

Toscanini Lives
by Terry Teachout
Arturo Toscanini was the most admired of 20th-century conductors—and, in certain circles, the most reviled. Throughout the first half of his seven-decade-long career, Toscanini was spoken and written of in near-worshipful tones, not merely by critics and the public but also by most of his fellow musicians.

Dostoevsky by Joseph Frank
by Thomas Jeffers
Dostoevsky: The Mantle of the Prophet, 1871-1881 by Joseph Frank Princeton. 812 pp. $35.00 In 1976, when he was a fifty-eight-year-old Princeton professor of comparative literature, Joseph Frank brought out the first volume of what has become a magisterial life of Fyodor Dostoevsky; at eighty-four, he has now published the fifth and last volume.

The Russia Hand by Strobe Talbott
by Jacob Heilbrunn
The Russia Hand: A Memoir of Presidential Diplomacy by Strobe Talbott Random House. 480 pp. $29.95 Strobe Talbott has devoted much of his career to chronicling the cold war, a subject he fundamentally misunderstood while the great conflict between the U.S.

Collision Course by Hugh Davis Graham
by Terry Eastland
Collision Course: The Strange Convergence of Affirmative Action and Immigration Policy in America by Hugh Davis Graham Oxford. 246 pp. $30.00 During the Senate floor debate on the Civil-Rights Act of 1964, Hubert Humphrey memorably defended the legislation against the charge that it would lead to racial preferences.

Brushes with History ed. by Peter G. Meyer
by Michael J. Lewis
Brushes with History: Writing on Art from the Nation, 1865-2001 Edited by Peter G. Meyer with an introduction by Arthur C.

Brown by Richard Rodriguez
by Dan Seligman
Brown: The Last Discovery of America by Richard Rodriguez Viking. 232 pp. $24.95 Among people who think deeply about sociopolitical matters, the color brown was last rated a heavyweight subject in early 2000.

The New Bill James Historical Baseball Abstract by Bill James
by David Guaspari
The New Bill James Historical Baseball Abstract by Bill James Free Press. 998 pp. $45.00 The soul of America is routinely sought in baseball.

September, 2002Back to Top
What Judaism Means
by Our Readers
To the Editor: David Gelernter's fascinating article, “Judaism Beyond Words” [May], qualifies as neither history nor law (halakhah), but it makes sense of the subjective experience of contemporary Jews.

Wen Ho Lee
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It is disappointing that Gabriel Schoenfeld's serious, perhaps even libelous, allegation [Letters, July-August] that my “misconduct did immense damage to our government's ability to combat the very real and ongoing Chinese espionage” should be based on nothing more than a restatement of the allegations of the Bellows report. Mr.

Trade vs. Security
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his discussion of weapons proliferation and export controls, Gary Milhollin addresses issues of critical importance [“Trading with the Enemy,” May].

Public Diplomacy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Joshua Muravchik recommends a variety of methods for teaching the Islamic world to behave itself [“Hearts, Minds, and the War Against Terror,” May].

In Praise of the Bush Doctrine
by Norman Podhoretz
It has been said—by me, among others—that George W. Bush bears a closer political resemblance to Ronald Reagan than to his father. The first, and most obvious, similarity is that “Dubya,” like Reagan before him, was and still is very widely regarded as insufficiently intelligent or well-informed to be President.

Defeating the Oil Weapon
by R. James Woolsey
The wealth produced by oil is what underlies, almost exclusively, the strength of three major groups in the Middle East—Islamists, both Shiite and Sunni, and Baathists—that have chosen to be at war with us.

Can Any Good Come of Radical Islam?
by Francis Fukuyama
What is going on in the Muslim world? Why-does it produce suicide hijackers on the one hand and, on the other, lethargic and haphazardly capitalist societies that have delivered neither economic development nor democracy? A good if partial answer to these questions—partial because it is limited to the Arab region of that world—can be found in a United Nations “development report” issued in July.

Judaism Beyond Words: Part 2
by David Gelernter
Introduction There are 13.2 million Jews in the world, which in population terms puts world Jewry in the same league as Guatemala and nowhere near Madagascar.

Victory for Vouchers?
by Paul Peterson
In the most anticipated decision of its recent term, the Supreme Court ruled, in the case of Zelman v. Simmons-Harris, that the school-voucher program in Cleveland, Ohio did not violate the Constitution's ban on the “establishment” of religion.

The Mau-Mauing of Bjorn Lomborg
by David Schoenbrod
The power of the environmentalist movement rests on many factors, from widespread (and often misplaced) fears about pollution to the wholly laudable conservationist instincts of ordinary people.

Why Listening Will Never Be the Same
by Terry Teachout
Last year, for the first time, blank compact discs outsold pre-recorded ones. This statistic has been widely reported in the news media, usually in connection with the fact that sales of pre-recorded CD's in the U.S.

Across the Sabbath River by Hillel Halkin
by Jon Levenson
Across the Sabbath River: In Search of a Lost Tribe of Israel by Hillel Halkin Houghton Mifflin. 392 pp. $28.00 The idea that the Israelites—the people later called the “Jews”—once lost ten of their twelve tribes begins with two notices in the biblical book of Kings.

The Gatekeepers by Jacques Steinberg
by Dan Seligman
The Gatekeepers: Inside the Admissions Process of a Premier College by Jacques Steinberg Viking. 292 pp. $25.95 Jacques Steinberg's The Gatekeepers, an account of the admissions system at Wesleyan University, is enormously readable.

Chesnutt ed. by Werner Sollors
by Phillip Richards
Chesnutt: Stories, Novels, and Essays Edited by Werner Sollors Library of America. 939 pp. $35.00 This new entry in the Library of America introduces the general reader to Charles W.

Defying Hitler by Sebastian Haffner
by Daniel Johnson
Defying Hitler: A Memoir by Sebastian Haffner Translated by Oliver Pretzel Farrar, Straus & Giroux. 309 pp. $24.00 From the English title of this book one might expect it to be another rehearsal of the doomed German resistance to the Third Reich.

Supreme Command by Eliot A. Cohen
by Victor Davis Hanson
Supreme Command: Soldiers, Statesmen, and Leadership in Wartime by Eliot A. Cohen Free Press. 320 pp. $25.00 In his influential 1957 study, The Soldier and the State, Samuel Huntington codified the main doctrines of American civilian control of the military.


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October, 2002Back to Top
The Settlements
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Hillel Halkin cogently explains the ambiguities and complexities surrounding the problem of the Israeli settlements [“Why the Settlements Should Stay,” June].

Socialism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “Socialism's Nine Lives” [June] Midge Decter writes, with her usual felicity, as though socialism were merely the vestigial neurosis of misfit intellectuals.

Education Blues
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Kay S. Hymowitz is mostly on the mark in “Tales of Suburban High” [June], but she brushes off too easily what she refers to as “the woeful influence of the religion of self-esteem” in America's schools.

Arguing Anti-Semitism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: My message, as far as Gabriel Schoenfeld's article on anti-Semitism is concerned [“Israel and the Anti-Semites,” June] is, in apposite street language, come off it!

Goodbye to Europe?
by Victor Davis Hanson
In the aftermath of the catastrophe that struck the United States last September 11, few things can have been more dismaying to Americans than the attitude adopted by many of our closest European allies, whose sympathy for the loss of life was quickly replaced by skepticism, if not outright hostility, toward American motives and American policy.

On Ignoring Anti-Semitism
by Ruth Wisse
“Hitler is dead.” In April 1945, a headline containing those three words might have heralded the collapse of Nazi Germany and the beginning of the end of World War II.

The Fallaci Affair
by Christopher Caldwell
During the cold war, Italy's—and perhaps the world's—best-known journalist was Oriana Fallaci, famed for both her war-zone reporting and her pugnacious interviews with heads of state.

One Nation Under God?
by Adam Wolfson
In the immediate wake of September 11 and the rise of Islamic terrorism as America's deadliest foe, some commentators predicted a retreat from expressions of religiosity here in the United States, if not a rollback in our steadily increasing accommodation of religious concerns in the public square.

Iraq: The Snare of Inspections
by Gary Milhollin
Every time war clouds gather over Baghdad, Saddam Hussein has a habit of hinting that he may allow UN arms inspectors to return.

Plagiarism High and Low
by Thomas Jeffers
Oscar Wilde to James McNeill Whistler: “I wish I'd said that, Jimmy.” Whistler: “Don't worry, Oscar, you will.” As flippancies go, this is one you are not likely to hear any time soon.

Gauguin's Genius
by Steven Munson
In the chain of painterly innovation that would come to define modernism in art, Paul Gauguin formed a key link.

Lives of the (Jazz) Artists
by Terry Teachout
All art is in some sense autobiographical, if only because it is self-expressive—a fact that many artists are understandably reluctant to admit.

Koba the Dread by Martin Amis
by David Pryce-Jones
Koba the Dread: Laughter and the Twenty Million by Martin Amis Talk Miramax Books. 306 pp. $24.95 The abasement of so many Western intellectuals before Communism is one of the mysteries of the 20th century.

Sandy Koufax by Jane Leavy
by J. Bottum
Sandy Koufax: A Lefty's Legacy by Jane Leavy HarperCollins. 304 pp. $23.95 The problem is not to figure out why Sandy Koufax was a great pitcher.

Cuba Confidential by Ann Louise Bardach; Cuba Diaries by Isadora Tattlin
by Mark Falcoff
Cuba Confidential: Love and Vengeance in Miami and Havana by Ann Louise Bardach Random Home. 397 pp. $25.95 Cuba Diaries: An American Housewife in Havana by Isadora Tattlin Algonquin Books.

Intellectuals and the American Presidency by Tevi Troy
by James Nuechterlein
Intellectuals and the American Presidency: Philosophers, Jesters, or Technicians? by Tevi Troy Rowman & Littlefield. 255 pp. $27.95 The first duty of presidential aides is to make their boss look as good as possible.

James Burnham and the Struggle for the World by Daniel Kelly; Principles and Heresies by Kevin J. Smant
by Joshua Muravchik
James Burnham and the Struggle for the World: A Life by Daniel Kelly Intercollegiate Studies Institute. 475 pp. $29.95 Principles and Heresies: Frank S.

November, 2002Back to Top
The West Bank
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It would be churlish to single out for praise only one of the exceptional articles in the July-August COMMENTARY, but to anyone who has an interest in the truth about the current situation in the Middle East, I would especially recommend Efraim Karsh's myth-shattering essay, “What Occupation?” Even though it may be too late to dispel the fiction of a Palestinian nationality springing full-blown from the propaganda mills of the PLO, it should not be too late to disabuse ourselves of the fiction of Israeli “oppression” and degrading “occupation.” Mr.

Riyadh and Us
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In taking aim at the U.S.-Saudi partnership [“Our Enemies, the Saudis,” July-August], Victor Davis Hanson writes as if he is shocked by the discovery of a monster in his own backyard.

La Question Juive
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Michel Gurfinkiel's article on French anti-Semitism is more balanced than most of what has been written on the subject [“France's Jewish Problem,” July-August].

Bush and Sharon
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “Does the U.S. Finally Understand Israel?” [July-August], Michael B. Oren deftly describes how the State Department's view of Israel as an “obstacle to peace” in the Middle East has perversely affected both Arab expectations and the approach to the region taken by successive U.S.

Jihad and the Professors
by Daniel Pipes
Last spring, the faculty of Harvard College selected a graduating senior named Zayed Yasin to deliver a speech at the university's commencement exercises in June.

Russia's Revolution
by Leon Aron
The characters of nature are legible, it is true; but they are not plain enough to enable those who run to read them. —Edmund Burke, On Taste Post-Communist Russia's ten-year-old experiment in democracy, civil and political liberty, and a free market is not unlike the movement of a long, disorderly caravan on a vast and swampy plain—stopping, stumbling, occasionally all but drowning in muck, yet stubbornly creaking forward.

Judaism Beyond Words: Part 3
by David Gelernter
Introduction Most American Jews, I would bet, know more about Christianity than about Judaism. (Not that they are big experts on Christianity.) And yet explaining Judaism is a booming industry in this country.

Paying for Jefferson's Sins
by Algis Valiunas
At a moment when national unity has assumed special importance, a novel demand by a group of black activists is raising the possibility that race relations in the U.S.

Fishing for Cancer
by David Schoenbrod
Among President Bush's critics during his first two years in office—setting aside the area of foreign policy—none has been more vocal or more effective than the environmental movement.

You Could Also Love a Rich Girl
by Joseph Epstein
The week after Ronald Block, my associate editor of two years, left to take a job at Newsweek, I put an ad in the New York Times classifieds.

Mourning Without Meaning
by Michael J. Lewis
Anyone who followed the ceremonies marking the anniversary of September 11 would have been struck by the exceptional dignity of the coverage.

Moral (and Musical) Equivalence
by Terry Teachout
Until recently, the avant-garde British artist Damien Hirst was best known in this country for his participation in Sensation, the notorious 1999 exhibition at the Brooklyn Museum of Art in which he displayed a “sculpture” consisting of the carcass of a pig, sawed in half and immersed in a formaldehyde-filled tank.

The Prophets by Norman Podhoretz
by Hillel Halkin
The Prophets: Who They Were, What They Are by Norman Podhoretz Free Press. 390 pp. $30.00 Norman Podhoretz, whose eminence as a literary, cultural, and political critic hardly needs reviewing for readers of COMMENTARY, has many feathers in his cap, but biblical scholarship is not one of them.

The Skeptic by Terry Teachout
by John Gross
The Skeptic: A Life of H.L. Mencken by Terry Teachout HarperCollins. 496 pp. $29.95 H.L. Mencken's historical significance is beyond dispute. As the scourge of the American “booboisie”—a target pursued relentlessly in his voluminous newspaper columns and in the six collected volumes of his journalism, Prejudices (1919-27)—he has a permanent place in the mythology of the 1920's.

Secrets by Daniel Ellsberg
by Jacob Heilbrunn
Secrets: A Memoir of Vietnam and the Pentagon Papers by Daniel Ellsberg Viking. 480 pp. $29.95 Of the members of the American foreign-policy establishment who disowned the Vietnam war, Daniel Ellsberg was the most unusual and perhaps also the most influential.

An Unlikely Conservative by Linda Chavez
by Dan Seligman
An Unlikely Conservative: The Transformation of an Ex-Liberal by Linda Chavez Basic. 255 pp. $26.00 In 1970, the Ford Foundation identified Linda Chavez—then a financially strapped graduate student with a husband (himself in graduate school) and a two-year-old child—as a finalist in a fellowship competition for minority students and flew her to New York for the decisive interview.

Slander by Ann Coulter
by Gary Rosen
Slander: Liberal Lies About the American Right by Ann Coulter Crown. 256 pp. $25.95 Among the recurring characters on NBC's acclaimed show The West Wing, the most improbable is a sharp-tongued, right-wing lady lawyer who, having bested a top White House staffer on one of the political talk shows, is invited to join the Democratic administration.

December, 2002Back to Top
Oil Dependence
by Our Readers
To the Editor: R. James Woolsey argues that American dependence on Persian Gulf oil generally, and Saudi oil in particular, creates a vulnerability that would be reduced by cutting U.S.

Music Technology
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Terry Teachout describes wonderful changes coming in the way we listen to music, all occasioned by the incredible increase in freedom and flexibility that listeners now have thanks to digital technology [“Why Listening Will Never Be the Same,” September].

Jewish Images
by Our Readers
To the Editor: According to the second installment of David Gelernter's mystical, Zen-like, free-association fancies, Judaism is fully definable in neither halakhic nor historical terms [“Judaism Beyond Words: Part 2,” September].

Environmentalist Manna
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “The Mau-Mauing of Bjørn Lomborg” [September], David Schoenbrod identifies Science as a participant in what he calls the “wildly intemperate response of the key scientific journals.” This claim is supported by his assertions that our review of Lomborg's book “bore the derisive title ‘Manna from Heaven,’ ” and that “Science refused to publish any replies to its attack, not even a brief letter from Lomborg himself.” When we decided to review the book, Science's book editor and I quickly decided to steer clear of the “usual suspects”—scientists who had staked out positions in the environmental debate.

Modernizing Islam
by And Critics
Martin Kramer: What happens when a really big reality (like 9/11) collides head-on with a really big idea (like Francis Fukuyama's “end of history”)? Inevitably, the idea crumples to absorb the shock.

The Bush Manifesto
by Joshua Muravchik
The “National Security Strategy of the United States” is a document that usually passes unnoticed. Commenting on the most ambitious one produced during the eight years of Bill Clinton's presidency, William Safire quipped that it “has been kept secret by the fiendishly clever device of making it public.” In truth, these reports, which are supposed to be issued annually, and in the name of the President, are always made public and almost always ignored.

Has Darwin Met His Match?
by David Berlinski
The Reverend William Paley published Natural Theology: Or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity, Collected from the Appearances of Nature in 1802, shortly after the French astronomer and mathematician Pierre-Simon Laplace brought out the first two volumes of his Traité du Mécanique Céleste.

"I Love Iraq, Bomb Texas"
by Victor Davis Hanson
With this autumn's discussion in Washington over what to do about Iraq there arrived also the season of protests. They were everywhere.

The Great Jewish Language War
by Hillel Halkin
Man trakht un got lakht: man thinks and God laughs, the Yiddish saying goes. I grew up thinking of Yiddish as an enemy and am now (among other things) a translator of Yiddish literature.

Saddam and the Palestinians
by Efraim Karsh
Among the arguments that have been advanced against the Bush administration's policy on Iraq, few have resonated more widely, or among a more diverse set of critics, than the idea that the U.S.

Gouldism
by Terry Teachout
In Thomas Harris's best-selling 1988 horror novel The Silence of the Lambs, Hannibal Lecter, a psychiatrist turned serial killer, tells his captors that he is willing to help them track down another murderer in return for certain privileges.

I Don't Know How She Does It by Allison Person
by Kay Hymowitz
I Don't Know How She Does It: The Life of Kate Reddy, Working Mother by Allison Pearson Knopf. 352 pp. $23.00 The idea that women can “have it all” has seen better days.

The Threatening Storm by Kenneth M. Pollack
by Frederick Kagan
The Threatening Storm: The Case for Invading Iraq by Kenneth M. Pollack Random House. 384 pp. $25.95 The invasion of Iraq is an essential requirement of American and global security.

In the Image by Dara Horn
by David Gelernter
In the Image by Dara Horn Norton. 278 pp. $24.95 In this beautiful first novel, twenty-five-year-old Dara Horn meets you like a torch-bearer in the dark entryway of a mysterious castle, and you follow her into a fascinating labyrinth without looking back.

The War Against the Terror Masters by Michael A. Ledeen
by Marin Strmecki
The War against the Terror Masters: Why it Happened. Where We are Now. How We'll Win. by Michael A. Ledeen St. Martin's Press.

The Blank Slate by Steven Pinker
by Kevin Shapiro
The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature by Steven Pinker Viking. 528 pp. $27.95 Why is the idea of an inborn human nature so controversial? What does it imply about how our society should be organized, about our conceptions of equality and justice, about education, religion, the media, the arts? Would we really be better off if there were no such thing as human nature—or if we chose to ignore it? These are the questions Steven Pinker tackles in a passionately argued defense of the thesis that the natural history of our species places powerful constraints on who we are and how we think. Pinker, a professor of psychology at MIT, established his academic reputation by studying how children acquire the rules of grammar.




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