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January, 1951Back to Top
Crossman on the Germans
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I greatly enjoyed Richard Crossman's article “No German Rearming Without Atlantic Union,” in the December COMMENTARY. I enjoyed it first because I am an enthusiast for Atlantic Union, and also because in my reading on the subject of Israel, I thought Crossman's book was a magnificent job of scholarly detachment and objectivity.

The Battle of Scarsdale
by Our Readers
To the Editors: Naturally I was greatly interested in the story by Robert Shaplen [in the December COMMENTARY] on the Battle of Books in Scarsdale.

Rosenzweig and Hirsch
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Will Herberg's valuable article on Franz Rosenzweig (COMMENTARY, December 1950) requires correction on one point. “Rosenzweig's teaching on Christianity,” he writes, “is the first, and remains the only serious, attempt to develop a Jewish theological framework in which the two religions will be seen in their relation to God's providential plan for the salvation of mankind.” The fact is that a view very similar to that propounded by Rosenzweig was set forth by Rabbi Samuel Hirsch in his extraordinary Religionsphilosophie der Juden (1842).

Another Doctor's View
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I consider Lillian Blumberg's article “Does Psychoanalysis Cure?” a very penetrating piece of work, and have already showed it to several people in the field.

Miss Blumberg Replies
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I regret that Dr. Ostow has chosen to attack my competence rather than the questions raised in my article.

Does Psychoanalysis Cure?
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The article “Does Psychoanalysis Cure?” by Lillian Blumberg, in the November COMMENTARY, is open to several criticisms. First, the article is misleading.

The New Nazis of Germany:
The Totalitarians of the Eastern Zone

by Norbert Muhlen
In their quite proper concern over every sign of continuing or resurgent Nazism, leaders of American public opinion have sounded the alarm at the return of individual Nazis to government office or positions in industry and at individual acts and expressions of bigotry in the zones of occupation of the American and other Western powers.

The “Militant” Fight Against Anti-Semitism:
Education and Democratic Discussion Is the Better Way

by David Riesman
Stirred by Hitler's extermination of the Jews, and the wartime rise of anti-Semitic demagogues in the United States, American Jewry developed sizeable programs to fight prejudice and hatemongering, and to safeguard democratic rights generally.

Will Technology Destroy Civilization?
Why the Prophets of Doom Are Wrong

by Franz Borkenau
After World War I, a favorite theme for essayists was “the decline of the West.” After World War II, the theme became “the end of civilization,” even “the end of the world.” This progressive pessimism is allied to a corresponding progress in technology—from saturation bombing to atom bomb to hydrogen bomb.

Has the American Voter Swung Right?
The Mid-Term Election in Perspective

by Robert Bendiner
Political commentators from coast to coast have seen the results of our recent elections as a smashing repudiation of the Fair Deal and a “mandate” for conservatism in government.

by Harold Norse
Et esultavit . . . no, Johann Sebastian, not in the weak magnificat we (sickly) weave, a minor banner of our praise. That is not for us.

Simone Weil: Prophet Out of Israel:
A Saint of the Absurd

by Leslie Fiedler
Few contributions to COMMENTARY have excited so immediate and intense an impact as Simone Weil's essay “Hitler and the Idea of Greatness,” printed in our July issue.

Channel Crossing
by George Barker
And just by crossing the short sea To find the answer sitting there Combing out its snakey hair And with a smile regarding me Because it knows only too well That I shall never recognize The verities that I should prize And the lies that I should tell. I saw the question in the sky Ride like a gull to fool me, as The squat boat butted at the seas As grossly as through mysteries I Churn up a frothy wake of verbs Or stir a muddy residue Looking for the answer who Sanctifies as she disturbs. The horror of the question-mark Looking back I saw stand over The white and open page of Dover Huge as the horn of the scapegoat.

The Bohemian Who Wrote “Hatikvah”:
The Career of Naphtali Herz Imber

by Gerard Wilk
Jews all over the world are familiar with the song “Hatikvah,” now the official anthem of the State of Israel.

Israel's Zealots in Gaberdine:
The “Guardians of the City”

by Alfred Werner
One of the more spectacular aspects of life in Israel has been the emergence of a fanatical, ultra-Orthodox group calling itself the Neturei Karta—“Guardians of the City.” Its members have engaged in insulting and even violent behavior against non-observers of the Sabbath, have tried forcibly to close cafés and theaters, and have entered into political negotiations with those hostile to the existence of the new state.

A Story

by May Tabak
Herbert Sand set the last of the breakfast dishes away in the cupboard, hung the towels up to dry, turned to his wife Katy and said, “I guess that's all now.

From the American Scene: The Case of the Iron Mother-in-Law
by Louis Zara
“Periodically,” reports Louis Zara, “Mama Kramer rises to plague me: I shouldn't be surprised if she ends up in a volume all her own.” Meanwhile, we present the third Kramer story to appear in this department (the last one, “Boarders,” was in the November 1950 issue).

Cedars of Lebanon: Six Poems from the “Mahberoth”
by Immanuel Rome
Immanuel ben Solomon of Rome, called Manoello, the greatest Hebrew poet of medieval Italy, was born in Rome, about 1270.

On the Horizon: Alas for Jewish Folk Songs!
by Chemjo Vinaver
Once upon a time the publication of a book was considered an important matter. Among Jews it was the accepted custom for an author to submit his manuscript to the rabbinical authorities of his time for their haskomes (endorsement) before daring to publish it.

The Study of Man: How Children Become Prejudiced
by Miriam Reimann
In recent years, there has been much thought and discussion on the problem of meeting the impact of prejudice on children.

The New Image of the Common Man, by Carl J. Friedrich
by Max Beloff
The Idolatry of the Common Man The New Image of the Common Man. by Carl J. Friedrich. Beacon Press. 382 pp. $3.75.   The present book consists mainly of a reprint of Professor Friedrich's The New Belief in the Common Man, originally published in 1942, to which has been added a prologue and an epilogue that reassert the validity of his “common man” philosophy against the believers in “cultural elites” and the totalitarian protagonists of “mass man.” Professor Friedrich is not alone in his desire to provide some acceptable reinterpretation of democracy and its postulates, one less vulnerable than its predecessors to charges of a false rationalism.

The Twenty-fifth Hour, by C. Virgil Gheorghiu
by Golo Mann
America as Frankenstein The Twenty-fifth Hour. by C. Virgil Gheorghiu. Knopf. 404 pp. $3.50.   The Twenty-fifth Hour comes to America heralded by a considerable European fame.

Pilgrim People, by Anita Libman Lebeson; and A Documentary History of the Jews in the United States, edited by Morris U. Schappe
by Oscar Handlin
Our Still Unwritten Past Pilgrim People. by Anita Libman Lebeson. Harper. 624 pp. $6.00. A Documentary History of the Jews in the United States: 1654-1875. Edited with notes and introduction by Morris U.

Red Ribbon on a White Horse, by Anzia Yezierska
by Robert Langbaum
Ambiguous Pilgrimage Red Ribbon on a White Horse. by Anzia Yezierska. With an introduction by W. H. Auden. Scribner's. 220 pp. $2.75.   Anzia Yezierska achieved fame during the 20's with a novel called Hungry Hearts about Jewish immigrants on New York's Lower East Side.

The Legacy of Maimonides, by Ben Zion Bokser
by Emil Fackenheim
Maimonides and We The Legacy of Maimonides. by Ben Zion Bokser. Philosophical Library. 128 pp. $3.75.   If this book succeeds, in barely 130 pages, in portraying the religious thought of the great Jewish sage of the Middle Ages, it is the result of three virtues: the author's thorough knowledge of the subject, his gift of clear and concise statement, and his determination—in the main—to tell us what Maimonides actually said, instead of telling us what he should have said, or what he would say were he alive today. The last is perhaps what matters most.

Reader Letters January 1951
by Our Readers
Does Psychoanalysis Cure? To THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: The article "Does Psychoanalysis Cure?" by Lillian Blumberg, in the November COM- MENTARY, is open to several criticisms.

February, 1951Back to Top
Mr. Wilk's Reply
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mrs. Jacobs' letter reveals an intimate knowledge of the subject and I would` have welcomed an opportunity to discuss it with so well informed a reader before I tried to recapture the spirit of Imber and his day.

Imber and Zangwill
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I found Gerard H. Wilk's article, “The Bohemian Who Wrote ‘Hatikvah,’” in the January COMMENTARY, most interesting. Imber was such a character as S.

Mr. Poliakov Replies
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I believe Mr. Zens' argument may be summarized as follows: A. We are in agreement that the activities of the Holy See during the past war in the saving of Jewish lives in Europe were in every respect worthy of admiration. B.

The Vatican and the Jews
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In these troubled days, when unity among all groups in America is so desperately necessary, it is disturbing to see in a responsible publication such an article as that by L.

Toward Anglo-American Unity on Asia:
The Disagreements Are Real But Not Irreconcilable

by George Lichtheim
The intervention of the Chinese Communists in the Korean war has faced the United Nations with the necessity of making grave decisions on a matter about which its members—even excluding the Soviet bloc—are far from united.

Is Hitler Really Dead?
A Historian Examines the Evidence

by H. Trevor-Roper
After the end of the war in Europe, there was real doubt as to whether or not Hitler was still alive, especially in the absence of a corpus delicti and since there were so many conflicting accounts of his presumed death.

American Judaism: A Personal View
A Man of Letters Reflects on Modernist Religion

by David Daiches
Before taking leave of this country to return to England, David Daiches sets down some personal reflections on the situation of American Judaism as he sees it.

Wingate, Orwell, and the “Jewish Question”:
A Memoir

by T. Fyvel
T. R. Fyvel here relates some memories of two of his friends, the late General Orde Wingate and the late novelist George Orwell—men seemingly very different from one another, and yet with much in common, including a fascination with the Jewish revival of recent years—and speculates on what it was that so deeply caught the imagination of these two Englishmen.  _____________   While reading and pondering over some recent essays in COMMENTARY on Jewish “authenticity” (and the relation between Jewish and non-Jewish intellectuals), I found my thoughts taking me back to the memory of two English friends with whom chance had brought me into early contact, and whose like I shall hardly encounter again. Both friends were actually of Scottish descent, but preferred to regard themselves as English.

The Israeli Voter Ponders the “Moral Crisis”:
Pioneering Ideals Under the Test of Everyday Realities

by J. Teller
Founding fathers—and the high ideals that animate them—are always a little more than life-size—or at least seem to be so at the time.

America Through the Soviet Looking-Glass:
World Peace at the Mercy of Stereotypes and Delusions

by Martin Greenberg
The sense of frustration and bewilderment experienced by citizens of the democratic nations in the face of Russian propaganda and “diplomacy” arises, Martin Greenberg suggests, from the fact that Russian political behavior, far from being the product of cold realism and calculation that it is often thought to be, stems from deep and apparently chronic psychological confusions.

The Courts Deal a Blow to Segregation:
The “Separate But Equal” Doctrine Begins to Crumble

by Milton Konvitz
With so many people voicing alarm for the state of American civil rights, it is easy to overlook the fact that the year just past, for all its political turmoil, or perhaps because of it, was marked by significant progress in some of the more difficult areas.

Pillar of a Cloud
A Story

by Eva Rosenfeld
Eva Rosenfeld is by profession a sociologist, trained to the notation of facts; but the “facts” often demand that special quickening of perception which belongs to fiction.

Time of Year
by Saul Touster
Concerted winter holds back spring, But nothing holds great thaws rumbling Under our desultory feet, And under the earth we know that still, Remembering, time must hesitate until The unction of our days is summer sweet Alive to the flowering need, The bees buzzing the arbor heed, With civil energy, the lust Of seasons.

From the American Scene: Bronx Housewife
by Donald Paneth
Donald Paneth, who contributed a portrait of an old-clothes peddler to our June 1950 issue, here offers a sketch of a Jewish housewife in the Bronx, drawn from the life—the by-no-means humdrum events of a not untypical woman's career, along with her opinions and personal faith.  _____________   In the declining afternoon, Mrs.

by Milton Kaplan
Impatient with the awkward Ear, Who cannot keep the pace of plan, Eye rides the rim of mind's frontier To scout intent with outstretched scan. Lagging behind, inept and shy, Uneasy partner of the great, Ear shambles slowly after Eye, Immersed in some absurd debate Of thunder versus cobble-clatter, Or axle-screeching versus birds, Content to linger on the matter Until Eye gallops back with words. Eye tugs reluctant Ear by rote To draw him from protracted blunder, But tangent-strange, a random note Deflects Ear sidelong into wonder. _____________  

Cedars of Lebanon: Seven Secular Poems
by Solomon Gabirol
The history of contacts between peoples has few pages brighter than the Jewish Golden Age in Moorish Spain. Under the impress of Arab culture, not only new forms but new attitudes and sympathies domesticated in the Hebrew mind.

On the Horizon: “Death of a Salesman” in the Original
by George Ross
Joseph Buloff's Yiddish production of Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman, the most ambitious undertaking of the current Yiddish theater season, is now being played at the Parkway Theater in Brooklyn.

The Study of Man: The Image of Man in the Social Sciences
by Reinhard Bendix
Reinhard Bendix, associate professor of sociology at the University of California in Berkeley, here examines perhaps the most basic and significant of the assumptions that guide work in the social sciences, or in any other intellectual discipline: the image of man in the mind of the scientist or scholar—for it is in terms of this image that he chooses his problems, decides how he is to work, formulates his conclusions, and determines to whom he is to address them.

In Search, by Meyer Levin
by Arthur Hertzberg
You Can Come Home Again In Search. By Meyer Levin. Horizon Press. 524 pp. $3.75.   In the concluding pages of this autobiography, Meyer Levin tells a story about himself as a very young man: “Once in Paris, in a general talk about aims in life, Marek Swarc asked me ‘What do you want? What do you want to be?’ and the definition that slipped out was a bit startling to me, for I blurted, ‘A good Jew.’ “So, quite like one of Sartre's heroes, Meyer Levin has spent his life searching for authenticity, attempting to relate himself as an artist, an honest man, and a Jew to a world which, as he is painfully aware, often frustrates the artist, subverts personal integrity, and rejects the Jew.

The Life of Mahatma Gandhi, by Louis Fischer
by Hazel Whitman
Toward an Understanding of Gandhi The Life of Mahatma Gandhi. By Louis Fischer. Harper. 558 pp. $5.00.   Men like Gandhi do not happen very often—no oftener perhaps than men like Buddha, Jesus, and Mohammed.

The Family Moskat, by Isaac Bashevis Singer
by Solomon Bloom
Before the Deluge The Family Moskat. By Isaac Bashevis Singer. Translated from the Yiddish by A. H. Gross. Knopf. 611 pp. $3.95.   Two Yiddish writers have supplied us, from a wide experience and observation, with the best introduction to Jewish life in Poland before the Extermination.

Anti-Semitism in Modern France, by Robert F. Byrnes
by Hannah Arendt
The Road to the Dreyfus Affair Anti-Semitism in Modern France. By Robert F. Byrnes. Rutgers University Press. 348 pp. $5.00.   Anti-Semitism is a deplorably neglected area of modern history, and every contribution that does more than simply add another title to the formidable library of apologetics, anti-Semitica, or superficial sociology is welcome.

This Land, These People, edited by Harold U. Ribalow
by Saul Bellow
In No Man's Land This Land, These People. by Harold U. Ribalow. Beechhurst Press. 302 pp. $3.75.   Mr. Ribalow is convinced that the two dozen stories in his collection make up “a definitive composite portrait of American Jewish life.” Certainly the variety of subjects is large enough to make his claim seem just.

Jesus in the Jewish Tradition, by Morris Goldstein; and The Man Jesus Was, by Max Schoen
by Ralph Marcus
Judaism and Jesus Jesus in the Jewish Tradition. By Morris Goldstein. Macmillan. 319 pp. $4.00. The Man Jesus Was. By Max Schoen. Knopf. 271 pp. $3.00.   In Jesus in the Jewish Tradition Rabbi Goldstein claims to have given an accurate, complete, and up-to-date account of Jewish views concerning the career and teaching of Jesus from the 1st century to early modern times.

Reader Letters February 1951
by Our Readers
TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: In these troubled days, when unity among all groups in America is so desperately neces- sary, it is disturbing to see in a responsible publication such an article as that by L.

March, 1951Back to Top
Mr. Vinaver Replies
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Coopersmith is trying to be witty when he implies that I read his book only perfunctorily. Some reviewers have the bad habit of wading through all the material, whether they like it or not; I confess to belonging to that old-fashioned school.

Battle of the Folk Songs
by Our Readers
To the Editor: A friend of mine, frequently called upon to review books for the press, once remarked facetiously that he never reads a book before reviewing it lest he become prejudiced thereby.

The Middle Ground Where Nehru Stands:
Neither Enough Force Nor Enough Faith

by Herrymon Maurer
In The present conflict within the democratic world over the question of how best to meet Communist aggression in Asia, no single element has been so disturbing and puzzling as the position of India's Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, a man who has won the respect of all democratic peoples by his calm courage in the face of injustice, and who yet has opposed UN action to apply sanctions against Communist China or even merely to label China as an aggressor.

The Task of Being an American Jew:
The Modern Rediscovery of Jewish Life and Faith

by Leo Baeck
In the February COMMENTARY, we published an article, “American Judaism: A Personal View,” by David Daiches, professor of comparative literature at Cornell University and well-known literary critic, which looked with a disapproving eye on its subject, comparing Mr.

A Slave Laborer in Soviet Siberia:
A Personal Account

by Emilia Liss
The story here published is among the few first-hand accounts of life as a deportee in a Soviet slave-labor camp that have as yet reached the West.

Israel and the Private Investor:
A New Land of Business Opportunity?

by Hal Lehrman
Hal Lehrman, author and lecturer, here continues his discussion of the economic problems of Israel, begun in his article “A Billion Dollars for Israel” in the December 1950 COMMENTARY.

The Return of Goebbels' Film-Makers:
The Dilemma Posed by Werner Krauss and Veit Harlan

by Norbert Muhlen
The German film Jud Süss (“Jew Süss”) is known throughout the world as one of the most vicious products of Nazi propaganda against the Jews.

Looking for Mr. Green
A Story

by Saul Bellow
Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might. . . . Hard work? No, it wasn't really so hard.

British Jewry's Family Newspaper:
A Century of the “Jewish Chronicle”

by Mark Raven
The London Jewish Chronicle—the respected mother (or great-aunt) of Anglo-Jewish journalism (including the American)—has belatedly (because of the war) celebrated its centennial with the publication of an appropriate volume: The Jewish Chronicle, 1841-1941: A Century of Newspaper History (187 pp., 15 shillings).

What's Cooking in Tel Aviv: There's Always Lebeniah
by Sarah Schack
The close association between Jewishness and mama's cooking—or, at least, grandma's cooking—has led many American observers, especially the hungrier ones, to feel that the austerity of the Israeli cuisine, a result of serious food shortages, may constitute a threat to the very survival of the Jewish spirit: how can a Jew be expected to carry on without boiled beef flanken and chopped chicken liver? SARAH C.

What's Cooking in Tel Aviv: Tcholent to the Rescue
by M. Tsanin
The close association between Jewishness and mama's cooking—or, at least, grandma's cooking—has led many American observers, especially the hungrier ones, to feel that the austerity of the Israeli cuisine, a result of serious food shortages, may constitute a threat to the very survival of the Jewish spirit: how can a Jew be expected to carry on without boiled beef flanken and chopped chicken liver? SARAH C.

From the American Scene: Papa, Mama, and Grandfather Florance
by Annie Meyer
"YOU get a Democrat in the White House," Papa used to say gloomily, "and you'll see." The very vague- ness of what was foredoomed seemed to add to the dire quality of the catastrophe.

Cedars of Lebanon: From the Apocalyptic Ezra
by Charles Reznikoff
This is a rearrangement and versification of parts of the Fourth Book of Ezra—so designated in the appendix to the Vulgate—or 2 Esdras of the Protestant Apocrypha.

On the Horizon: Elmer Rice: The Triumph of “Mr. Zero”
by Henry Popkin
The publication of a selection of Elmer Rice's plays (Seven Plays, Viking Press,” $5.00, 524 pp.), concurrent with the brief run on Broadway of his Not for Children, here provides HENRY POPKIN with a vantage point from which to analyze the course of Mr.

The Study of Man: Prejudice in the Catastrophic Perspective
by Paul Kecskemeti
The five-volume series “Studies in Prejudice,” published by Harper during the past year, won immediate recognition as a monumental contribution to our scientific knowledge of the subject.

The Hebrew Impact on Western Civilization, edited by Dagobert D. Runes
by Allen Mandelbaum
Sic! The Hebrew Impact On Western Civilization. By Dagobert D. Runes. Philosophical Library. 922 pp. $10.00.   The Philosophical Library has published an imposing volume in The Hebrew Impact on Western Civilization.

Poor Cousin Evelyn, by James Yaffe
by Isa Kapp
Where the Rich are Human Poor Cousin Evelyn. by James Yaffe. Little, Brown. 269 pp. $3.00.   With few exceptions, American writers have introduced us to American wealth only in its public aspect: the clubs, limousines, and broken engagements that are the province of the rotogravure.

The Jews of Charleston, by Charles Reznikoff
by Earl Raab
The Thrice Chosen The Jews of Charleston. by Charles Reznikoff. With the collaboration of Uriah Z. Engelman. Jewish Publication Society of America. 343 pp.

Enthusiasm: A Chapter in the History of Religion, by R. A. Knox
by Will Herberg
The God Within Enthusiasm: A Chapter in the History of Religion. by R. A. Knox. Oxford University Press. 622 pp. $6.00.   For thirty years, off and on, Monsignor Ronald Knox, distinguished Catholic chaplain at Oxford, has been working on a book telling the story of “enthusiastic” movements in Western Christendom.

Face of a Hero, by Louis Falstein
by Nathan Halper
The Army Stereotype Again Face of a Hero. by Louis Falstein. Harcourt, Brace. 312 pp. $3.00.   One day, the first sergeant came out to watch us on the drill field.

Two Poems
by David Ignatow
The Junkman The odds and ends, the leftovers, slightly rotted, too big or too short, too thin or too wide, he gathers them up, dumped upon his land; no sign reading, “Dumping Forbidden.” He pulled it down, putting in place, “Dumping Invited,” with the malingering odor of disuse. In it up to his neck, standing still, he receives them; all of a kind in one spot, all of another elsewhere—bringing like together for strength.

Reader Letters March 1951
by Our Readers
Battle of the Folk Songs TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: A friend of mine, frequently called upon to review books for the press, once remarked face- tiously that he never reads a book before review- ing it lest he become prejudiced thereby.

April, 1951Back to Top
Food for the Spirit
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I want to compliment COMMENTARY on the contrapuntal skill with which, in its December and January issues, it scores the dangers besetting the way of the Jewish intellectual today.

“Commentary” in the Negev
by Our Readers
To the Editor: This letter is written to you by a group of young American Jews who decided to swap the view of the IRT rumbling through Brooklyn for the quiet scenery of endless stretches of Negev sand.

Mr. Daiches and American Judaism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Daiches' personal view of American Judaism [“American Judaism: A Personal View,” February] strongly reminds me of a friend of mine who arrives at identical conclusions in a somewhat simpler fashion.

Needed: A Pacific Pact:
Guarding Against the Pitfalls of “Localized War”

by G. Hudson
Recent pronouncements by General MacArthur and others have emphasized again the paradoxical character of the Korean war, a war in which all the world's great powers have become in some way involved and which nevertheless remains confined within the borders of Korea.

What Does the Seder Celebrate?
Modern Commentary on a Traditional Festival

by Theodor Gaster
The annual celebration of Passover is for perhaps a majority of Jews the most important festival of the year, bringing religious observance, as it does, so closely into the home and the family.

The Liberals Who Haven't Learned:
Why the Soviet Illusion Still Lingers

by Granville Hicks
The problem of counteracting Soviet influence in this country is confused by the fact that the chief sources of political and cultural muddleheadedness are less the Communists than the fellow-travelers, and even more than either, those who, without being actual fellow-travelers, yet seem to nurture a tender solicitude for the interests of the Soviet Union and its political and cultural friends.

Park Forest: Birth of a Jewish Community:
A Documentary

by Herbert Gans
Herbert J. Gans presents here a documentary account of the gestation, birth, and infancy of a new Jewish community in the United States of today.

Pure Poetry, Impure Politics, and Ezra Pound:
The Bollingen Prize Controversy Revisited

by Peter Viereck
The awarding of the Bollingen prize for American poetry to Ezra Pound in 1949 aroused a controversy that is still very much alive.

Israel Grapples with Its Housing Crisis:
The New State's Number One Problem

by Charles Abrams
For the hundreds of thousands of immigrants who have poured into Israel since the new state came into being, the Promised Land has too often turned out to be only another crowded “temporary” camp like the crowded “temporary” camps of Europe.

Memorial Hour
by Babette Deutsch
For all its busy joy, the hill,     Where now noon sits in stillness,         grows A living monument to leisure. Here something less than animal Yet more than human seems to take Its pleasure.

The Bill
A Story

by Bernard Malamud
Though the street was somewhere near a river, it was landlocked and narrow, a crooked canyon of aged brick tenement buildings.

Keep Cool, Man:
The Negro Rejection of Jazz

by Anatole Broyard
Anatole Broyard, anatomist of the Negro personality in a white world, here lays open the deeper meaning of the injunction to “Be cool, man” now current in Harlem music-making.

From the American Scene: Collection Lawyer
by Ella Linsley
Few people can hope to go through life without getting too deeply into debt; when our time conies, we too may be fortunate enough to confront a collection lawyer like Mr.

Cedars of Lebanon: Some Jewish Traditional Tales
by Ralph Gordon
In these retellings of traditional Jewish tales, Ralph Gordon has stayed close to the originals in substance, though the verse and language are, of course, very much his own.  _____________   A Judgment of Solomon's The Mouse Deer's little tail stood pert: “I can't deny, your Majesty, The Otter's little ones were hurt, Indeed, were damaged mortally. I simply say it's not my fault. She left them with me at six o'clock: 'All here, I guess,' she said, taking stock, I'm going fishing now.' One fine vault, And she was off.

On the Horizon: Passover in Venice
by Sidney Alexander
Venice was, of course, the tourist's Venice—the open ballroom of Piazza San Marco, the black swans of gondolas (twelve times the first day!), the spun tracery of palaces.

The Radio God
by Hubert Creekmore
In a hot noon on the room shores     of this house, the radio god empties all oceans in a spread plain     where the mind has forfeit its hills: not the sun flash on the wave curl,     nor the tumbling froth, nor the push from the sea floor of the tide swell,     nor saulting spray and its shine, nor earth buckling at fathoms' depth     in a quake, nor wondering fish: but a scant trough of general hue     gives the vast a name and no meaning. For the flood couches a false horizon,     and there are no heights, no deeps, in the far stretches of placid gray     where the tops of the mesas wash and the wind smells of a secret carnage     miasmal over the earth, where the strange buzzards with cloaked eyes     lacerate the public flesh. In a tight ritual of rhetoric     the god-voice lulls with manna whose cuddling fear lullabies from fear     the subjects at his bosom. Cigarettes, lotion, the loaf or wreath     are equal milk from his breast. With a gaged purpose he shapes our lips     to his catechism of meekness. Like all gods he has shown how     his office lies more in the tinkle of a tin soul or a tin horn     than in mighty rebels from heaven. When the room bursts with a bomb laugh,     as the lapping erodes the last hill, the radio god sires the idiot god—     both the womb and the child, his will: the spongy corpse, on melting shoals,     is our sacrifice at his shrine; and our own eye the astonished eye     in the skull and the god and the brine. _____________  

The Study of Man: “Understanding National Character”—and War
by Morroe Berger
Psychological differences among nations, long disregarded in favor of the more impersonal factors of economics and military power, have in recent years become the object of intensive study by social scientists; to mention only one example of this new interest, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, believing that psychological differences play a large role in causing the tensions that in turn cause wars, has been actively encouraging research on “national character” and related subjects.

The Origins of Totalitarianism, by Hannah Arendt
by David Riesman
The Path to Total Terror The Origins of Totalitarianism. by Hannah Arendt. Harcourt, Brace. 477 pp. $6.75.   A science-fiction tale of some years back tells of a young man who gets the idea that the world he lives in is arranged especially for him.

The Age of Longing, by Arthur Koestler
by Alfred Kazin
Ideology Vs. the Novel The Age of Longing. by Arthur Koestler. Macmillan. 362 pp. $3.50.   The Age of Longing is a highly sophisticated talkfest on “these messy times,” its scene Paris in “the middle nineteen-fifties,” on the eve of war with the “Commonwealth of Freedom Loving People.” Its contents consist in part of exasperated farce and mostly of stately “brilliant” epigrams on the impotence of all present classes, ideas, and intellectuals before the Communist threat to the West.

Witch Hunt: The Revival of Heresy, by Carey McWilliams
by Irving Kristol
Flying off the Broomstick Witch Hunt: The Revival of Heresy. by Carey McWilliams. Little, Brown. 361 pp. $3.50.   When Lincoln Steffens, after his trip to Russia, announced “I have seen the Future and it works,” he coined an epitaph that may appropriately be inscribed on the tombstone of 20th-century liberalism.

Journey to the Dawn, by Charles Angoff
by Howard Sackler
Nostalgia is not Enough Journey to the Dawn. by Charles Angoff. The Beechhurst Press. 421 pp. $3.75.   Journey to the Dawn is a painful case of memory sent forth to wander through a novel with only warmth, sympathy, and nostalgic prejudice to direct it.

Der Oytser fun der Yidisher Shprach, by Nahum Stutchkoff
by S. Niger
A Yiddish Thesaurus Der Oytser fun der Yidisher Shprach (Thesaurus of the Yiddish Language). by Nahum Stutchkoff. Edited by Max Weinreich. New York, Yiddish Scientific Institute—Yivo.

Reader Letters April 1951
by Our Readers
Mr. Daiches and American Judaism TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Mr. Daiches' personal view of American Judaism ["American Judaism: A Personal View," February] strongly reminds me of a friend of mine who arrives at identical conclu- sions in a somewhat simpler fashion.

May, 1951Back to Top
From Mr. Muhlen
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I suppose that most readers of my account of “The Return of Goebbels' Film-Makers” will agree with Dr.

The Case of Veit Harlan
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It was a pleasure to read in the March issue of COMMENTARY Norbert Muhlen's article on the return of Veit Harlan and Werner Krauss to the German entertainment world.

Mea Culpa
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have read with very great interest the review “America as Frankenstein,” in your January issue, by your eminent contributor Golo Mann.

Mr. Hicks Replies
by Our Readers
To the Editor: From the very beginning, my article, “The Liberals Who Haven't Learned,” took the 85 th anniversary issue of the Nation as its point of departure.

The State of the “Nation”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I kept wondering, as I read Granville Hicks's essay in your last issue on “The Liberals Who Haven't Learned,” whether the piece had originally been written the way it appeared.

Growing Pains of Anglo-America:
Beneath Current Conflicts, a Progressing Unity

by John Cleveland
The present conflict on Far Eastern policy between the United States and Britain has been the occasion for much heated language in both countries.

Lessons of the Anna M. Rosenberg Hearings:
Where Congressional Investigations Go Wrong

by Herrymon Maurer
The Congressional hearings on Anna M. Rosenberg's fitness to serve as Assistant Secretary of Defense emphasized some of the more complex difficulties involved in efforts to destroy Communist influence in this country, and cast a bright light on the peculiar roles played in these matters by Communists, ex-Communists, and professional anti-Communists, as well as on the whole process of Congressional investigations themselves, whose value increasingly large sections of the citizenry have come to question.

A Letter to David Daiches:
Change and Tradition in American Judaism

by Milton Konvitz
David Daiches's article in the February COMMENTARY, “American Judaism: A Personal View,” which expressed an agnosticism toward the Jewish religion along with a scornful rejection of the “pussyfooting” of liberal Judaism in America, has aroused perhaps as much reaction as any article ever published in this journal.

For Passover
by Ralph Gordon
Grandmother has a hole dug in the earth; She brings her great brass basin, her mortar and pestle, Her kettle, knives and forks; her oaken girth Bends at the hole; she lets the hard things nestle Clackingly at the bottom, pours in water, Then drops hot iron in; it sinks with a whistle, Sending the steam up, and a bubbled flutter Storms at the surface.

How Encourage Investment in Israel?
Present Impediments and Proposed Remedies

by Hal Lehrman
Hal Lehrman here continues his analysis of the problem of private investment in Israel. In a previous article, “Israel and the Private Investor,” published in the March COMMENTARY, he discussed those factors impeding the flow of private capital to Israel which in general might be said to be beyond the immediate control of the state: problems arising from the world political situation, for example, or from inner economic hazards.

Flecker: The Poet and His East:
Shall I Never Be Home . . .?”

by Herbert Howarth
The work of James Elroy Flecker, who died in 1915 at the age of thirty-one, represents a remarkable fusion of the British culture in the early years of this century with Orientalism, which in turn was stimulated and influenced subtly by the poet's Jewish strain.

The Big Table
A Story

by Howard Singer
The Tenenbaums' apartment paralleled ours; the windows faced one another across the U-shaped airshaft, our windows were three feet higher and about ten feet away from theirs.

To Yankel Adler
by George Barker
The painter Yankel Adler, to whom the poem is addressed, was the subject of an article in the September 1949 issue of COMMENTARY.   _____________   There was that Jew making love to a chair. What did it do? O avatar of Love It turned back first of all into a tree Then to the seed, then to the hand that planted. He ran his brush down the back and laid bare The hundred thousand hearts of the objective. He handled a wooden leg and physiology Gave up a tabernacle.

Have the Arabs given up the “Second Round”?
Signs of a New Maturity in the Arab League

by Ian Mikardo
Current incidents on the tense borders between Israel and Syria and Israel and Trans-jordan have focused attention again on the huge and menacing question which, in the third year of the Jewish state, still remains unanswered: will the Arab states unleash a new war against Israel? Ian Mikardo, reporting the recent meetings of the Arab League, sees, as a balance to the rise in border tensions, signs of a growth in political maturity of the Arabs, which, in his opinion, may deter them from further wasteful adventures against Israel.

Hungary's and Rumania's Nazis-in-Red:
Hitler's Graduates Staff Stalin's New Order

by Bela Fabian
Béla Fabian here presents us with a brief “Who's Who” of former fascists who have been rewarded for their past behavior with positions of authority in the Communist regimes of Hungary and Rumania; the list could be substantially expanded—apparently an impeccable fascist background is a special guarantee of fitness to rule in the “new proletarian democracies.” _____________   Two correspondents of an American news agency called on Deputy Prime Minister Rákosi of Hungary in the summer of 1945.

I Was This Black Boy
by Jacob Sloan
The present poem is one in a series of five entitled “I Was, I Am.” The other four have appeared in previous issues of COMMENTARY.   _____________      Once I was walking about in the black of night and in darkness, and saw a blind man walking with a torch in his hand.    I said to him: My son, why the torch?    He said to me: So long as this torch is in my hand, people see me and save me from the pits and the thorns and the thistles.—Midrash     I was this black boy bawling for my wool arm, caught like a white fox in the sprung trap of subway doors, calling, Pull!

From the American Scene: The Bagel
by Irving Pfefferblit
Half doughnut and half roll, of formidably crusty exterior, and yet yielding an infinite if elusive deliciousness, despised and yet forever chosen, does not the bagel partake of the central paradoxes of Jewish existence and perhaps of the essential quality of the Jews themselves, called, on highest authority, a stiff-necked people? Perhaps not.

Cedars of Lebanon: Rules for the House of Study
by Our Readers
The study group which young Moses Hayyim Luzzatto founded in Padua, the regulations of which are here presented in a translation prepared for Schocken Books (the original Hebrew text was published by Simon Ginzburg in The Life and Works of Moses Hayyim Luzzatto, Philadelphia, 1931), was actually a community of mystics.

On the Horizon: Israel's Musical Ambassadors
by Chemjo Vinaver
The recent coast-to-coast tour of the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra was one of the important events of the past musical season.

The Study of Man: The Mind of Man: Soviet View
by Robert Davis
What can be the function and character of the sciences of psychology and psychiatry in a society where peace of mind is an obligation of citizenship, and where psychological conflicts and their expression are administratively resolved by fiat, occupational and legal penalties, and, if necessary, shooting? Through the documentation offered by a recent authoritative work, Soviet Psychiatry by Joseph Wortis (Baltimore, The Williams and Wilkins Company, 314 pp., $5.00), Robert Gorham Davis here offers a glimpse into one of the arcana of Soviet science.

Theodore Dreiser, by F. O. Matthiessen
by Saul Bellow
Dreiser and the Triumph of Art Theodore Dreiser. by F. O. Matthiessen. William Sloane. 267 pp. $3.50.   Dreiser is not very popular now, unfortunately, and Professor Matthiessen's book will not restore his popularity though it defends him with some real feeling against the usual charges of crude writing, faulty thought, and ridiculous prejudices.

The American Jew: Character and Destiny, by Ludwig Lewisohn
by Milton Himmelfarb
Emancipation As Villain The American Jew: Character and Destiny. by Ludwig Lewisohn. Farrar, Straus and Young. 175 pp. $2.50.   At least since Paradise Lost, it has been a commonplace of literary criticism that the villain of the piece, against the will of the author and to the discomfiture of honest folk, finds it all too easy to monopolize the stage.

World Within World, by Stephen Spender
by C. Grattan
A Quest for Certainty World Within World. The Autobiography of Stephen Spender. Harcourt, Brace. 312 pp. $3.50.   The operative word in Stephen Spender's autobiography is “guilt.” It appears in various contexts in the book and, separately and collectively, the references make clear that his sense of guilt has powerfully conditioned his life and opinions.

The Nice American, by Gerald Sykes
by Harold Rosenberg
The Intellectuals and the American Idea The Nice American. by Gerald Sykes. Creative Age. 310 pp. $3.00.   Sykes's novel has hit on something that seems to be budding among American intellectuals: the impulse to join in the leadership of United States society as it is—or, at least some would say, as it is becoming.

The Pillar of Fire, by Karl Stern
by Moshe Decter
A Conversion The Pillar of Fire. by Karl Stern. Harcourt, Brace. 316 pp. $3.50.   This book is the story of the conversion of a Jew to Catholicism.

Hellenism in Jewish Palestine, by Saul Lieberman
by Moses Hadas
Jews and Greeks Hellenism in Jewish Palestine. by Saul Lieberman. Jewish Theological Seminary of America, xiv+231 pp. $7.00.   A record of the proceedings of a body of 20th-century rabbis, no matter how determined they might be to maintain distinctiveness in outlook and language within the general American culture, must prove imperfectly intelligible to 40th-century students not at home in the languages, ideas, and cultural usages by which the 20th-century rabbis are surrounded.

Reader Letters May 1951
by Our Readers
The State of the "Nation" TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I kept wondering, as I read Granville Hicks's essay in your last issue on "The Liberals Who Haven't Learned," whether the piece had originally been written the way it appeared. I got the impression that Mr.

June, 1951Back to Top
The Tune of “Hatikvah”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to inform you that the “tune of uncertain origin” to which the words of “Hatikvah” were written, mentioned in your interesting article about Imber (“The Bohemian Who Wrote Hatikvah,” January), is the tune of a very old Rumanian popular song: Maize, with thy leaves high Gone you are, and gone forever.

A Note on the Four Sons
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his interesting article “What Does the Seder Celebrate?” in the April issue of COMMENTARY, Theodor Gaster points out how “even the illustrations of the older Haggadah editions conspire to create a picture of the entire stretch of Jewish history.

Park Forest
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The article on Park Forest by Herbert J. Gans in the April COMMENTARY exemplified a refreshing departure from the turgid and misleading phraseology customary in much Jewish preaching and Jewish writing.

The Frieder Novel Prize
by Our Readers
To the Editor: May I extend an invitation to contributors and readers of COMMENTARY to participate in the $5,000 Frieder Literary Award for the best novel or biography on a Jewish theme? The contest, which is open to all, requires only that the novel be written in English and be at least 75,000 words in length.

The Israel Symphony in Chicago
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Chemjo Vinaver's article on the tour of the Israel Symphony Orchestra in the May issue expressed the sentiments of many thousands of Jewish music lovers throughout the country.

Communized Nazis
by Our Readers
To The Editor: I have read with great interest the article by Béla Fabian in the May issue of COMMENTARY about the ex-fascists now serving in Communist governments in Hungary and Rumania.

Private Investment in Israel
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Hal Lehrman's articles in your issues of March and May on private investments in Israel are a welcome and valuable contribution to the clarification of a subject about which many people talk, few people write, and which nobody until Mr.

The Facts About “Capitalist Inequality”:
Are the Rich Getting Richer and the Poor, Poorer?

by William Grampp
American economic life, which is in a perpetual state of exhaustive self-scrutiny, is paradoxically enough also a terra incognita, known to most of the world, including many Americans, by way of prejudices and groundless theories rather than through the facts that are available.

by Sol Stein
Mine enemy comes with the frequency     of death. The eye in unexpected quarters catches Silent hushes, akimbo-armed, standing stock And watching, winding grinding ratchets. The grate of time is like the grate of death. The sound of time predicts the sound         of keening Coming.

What Does the Bar Mitzvah Signify?
A Traditional Ceremony in Its American Version

by Theodor Gaster
This month will witness the Feast of Weeks (Shavuot), and with it the customary flood of Bar Mitzvahs—or, as some would say, confirmations—in many Conservative and Reform synagogues.

And People
by David Ignatow
They nest in the building cornices swept by rain and the city's store of dust. They have picked straw to bed on from wood cases machinery is packed in, and for the nest itself splinters off the cases ripped open. They peck at manure piles of truck horses in the neighborhood, and at peanut shells dropped lunchtime.

Indonesia Sips the Wine of Independence:
A Traveler's Report

by Peter Schmid
Independence is not enough: when an Asian country at last throws off its colonial masters, then its problems, both for itself and the rest of the world, are just beginning—that would seem to be the conclusion to be drawn from this personal account of a recent trip to Indonesia, which throws considerable light on the attitude to the West and the whites, not only of the former Dutch colony, but of revolutionary Asia generally.  His present article has been translated from the German by Felix Giovanelli. _____________   Djakarta, on the island of Java, is one of the most melancholy capitals of the world.

How U. S. Anti-Semitism Really Began:
Its Grass-Roots Source in the 90's

by Oscar Handlin
The common belief is that anti-Semitism is, invariably, an expression of conservatism or “reaction.” But evidence to the contrary is impressive; and in the United States particularly, as Oscar Handlin points out, the emergence of ideological anti-Semitism, contrary to general opinion, seems to be connected with the growth of certain forms of “grass-roots” radicalism. _____________   Between 1913 and 1920, in that portentous period that brought so many other changes to the United States and to the world, anti-Semitism became, for the first time, a significant force in this country.

Behind Winston Churchill's Grand Style:
Britain's Prophet of Doom and Defiance

by Herbert Howarth
If philosophers cannot become kings, as Plato hoped they would, then probably the next best thing is for journalists to become prime ministers—like Winston Churchill.

Ahad Ha'am: Nationalist with a Difference:
A Zionism to Fulfill Judaism

by Hans Kohn
Ahad Ha'am means in Hebrew “one of the people.” Its use as a pen name by Asher Ginzberg (1856-1927) was at once appropriate and ironical.

1930: The Year That Was New Year's Eve:
The Great Binge and Its Leftist Aftermath.

by Malcolm Cowley
In retrospect, the year 1930 seems a watershed, separating the brimming extravagance of the 20's from the grim realism of the 30's.

The Straw Hat
A Story

by Eliot Wagner
Deborah said to her brother, who remained alone with her at the long dinner table after her son-in-law and daughter had gone to their own room, “Some performance, eh?” Ben raised his brows noncommittally.

From the American Scene: Washington Heights'
by Ernest Stock
The integration into American society of the German Jews who came here as refugees from Nazism took place with a speed and thoroughness unparalleled in the history of immigration.

Cedars of Lebanon: Six Renaissance Poems
by Our Readers
Secular Hebrew poetry in Italy, after Immanuel of Rome (1270-1328), never equaled Immanuel's exuberance or his excellence. But the following poems, drawn from the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries, testify to a continuous and vital tradition in Italian Hebrew literature. When Ashkenazic culture had long since passed into the pale of purely religious concerns, Southern European Jewry did not forget the love song, the song of insult, the epithalamion.

On the Horizon: What Happened to Abramovich?
by Mark Khinoy
There is no insight into a nation's way of thought like a copy of its chief work of reference. Equipped only with a ruler—to measure the lengths of articles—we may discover what is considered important and what barely worthy of mention, what great thinker is now considered a fool, and what fool a great thinker.

The Study of Man: Israel's Opinion Polls and What They Find
by Ruth Ludwig
Among other more publicized imports from the United States, Israel has also taken over some of the new techniques of “public opinion” research which have expanded so enormously in this country in recent years, particularly in their relation to problems of government and administration.

Barbary Shore, by Norman Mailer
by William Barrett
Lapse of a Novelist Barbary Shore. By Norman Mailer. Rinehart. 312 pp. $3.00.   The war gave Norman Mailer a very good novel in The Naked and the Dead.

What the Jews Believe, by Philip S. Bernstein
by Alfred Jospe
An Introduction to Judaism What The Jews Believe. by Philip S. Bernstein. Farrar, Straus, And Young. 100 pp. $1.25.   Only a man of courage could offer a streamlined version of living Judaism in one hundred pages, and only a wise man ought to try.

Hostages of Civilisation, by Eva G. Reichmann
by Norbert Muhlen
The Role of Nazi Anti-Semitism Hostages of Civilisation: The Social Sources of National Socialist Anti-Semitism. by Eva G. Reichmann. The Beacon Press. 281 pp.

A Philosophy of Labor, by Frank Tannenbaum
by Will Herberg
The Trade Union as Community A Philosophy of Labor. by Frank Tannenbaum. Knopf. 199 PP. $2.75.   We are fast becoming a “laboristic society,” Sumner Slichter tells us; he may exaggerate, but it is certainly true that trade unionism is one of the most important features of contemporary American life and is likely to become more so in the foreseeable future.

A Child's Guide to a Parent's Mind, by Sally Liberman
by Nathan Glazer
When My Baby Frowns at Me A Child's Guide To A Parent's Mind. by Sally Liberman. Illustrations by Kiriki. With a postscript by Lawrence and Mary K.

Reader Letters June 1951
by Our Readers
Private Investment in Israel TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Mr. Hal Lehrman's articles in your issues of March and May on private investments in Israel are a welcome and valuable contribution to the clarification of a subject about which many people talk, few people write, and which no- body until Mr.

July, 1951Back to Top
Mr. Hicks Replies
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The prolonged and ominous tension in the relations between the United States and the Soviet Union has produced at least two kinds of hysteria.

Dr. Atkinson Demurs
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have followed the course of Commentary ever since its first issue and have been very much impressed with the wide field covered, and the courage with which you have set forth your views. I strongly believe in a free press.

Pound, Poetry, and Politics
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his article in your April issue, “Pure Poetry, Impure Politics, and Ezra Pound,” Peter Viereck has combined a number of rhetorical ingredients to produce what seems to me a very queer hybrid of sense and nonsense.

Science and Pseudo-Science
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I found Robert Davis's study of the Soviet conception of man (“The Mind of Man—Soviet View,” May 1951) penetrating and imaginative.

The Permanent Bar Mitzvah
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Dr. Gaster's proposal (“What Does the Bar Mitzvah Signify?” June 1951) that our present preparation for the Bar Mitzvah ceremony become the basis of a graduated Jewish educational system.

Lament for the Bagel
by Our Readers
To the Editor: When Irving Pfefferblit (“The Bagel,” May 1951) says: “The country presents the aspect of a desert whose bagel-making oases are few and pitifully far between,” he is quite unaware of the more awful situation that exists. What has happened is that the authentic bagel is all but forgotten in the hinterlands and in its place and under its name is sold a soft, semi-glazed quasi-circle without a well-defined hole and which—even worse—has never seen on touched boiling water.

Note on Rabbi Breuer
by Our Readers
To the Editor: There is a small factual error in “Washington Heights: The Fourth Reich” (June 1951)· You say Rabbi Breuer “headed the great Orthodox congregation in Frankfort.” He did not; his father did for a time, and after his father's death, Rabbi J.

The Tune of “Hatikvah”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Will you give me the opportunity of saying the last word on the “tune of uncertain origin,” “to which the words of ‘Hatikvah’ were written”? It is time that the ever multiplying theories and guesses were discarded and the facts recorded. Imber wrote the poem “Hatikvah” without any melody in mind; the melody was adapted to it later. In the year 1857, Emanuel Aguilar and my grandfather, D.

Democratic Strategy to Halt the Soviet Threat: “Limited War” as the Path to Peace
by Robert Langbaum
The program of “containment,” carefully worked out by American policy-makers since the end of World War II to check Communist expansion without precipitating general war, is under fierce attack from those who believe it is either too cautious or too belligerent.

Democratic Strategy to Halt the Soviet Threat: Has Anti-Communism Wrecked Our Liberties?
by Robert Bendiner
Is it really becoming impossible to express unpopular political views in this country? Are we living through something equivalent to the “Palmer raids” following World War I—or something worse? Has “McCarthyism” blanketed our campuses and the American landscape generally with a fog of fear and dull conformity? ROBERT BENDINER, formerly managing editor of the Nation, and now a free-lance writer, here reviews the civil liberties scene and considers how well our fundamental rights are bearing up under the strains and pressures of the “cold war.” _____________   Rare is the traveler who returns from Europe or Asia these days without a full complement of gloomy tales about the anti-American sentiment he has encountered—in all countries and among all groups, sometimes subtle and edgy, sometimes shrill and contemptuous.

What Existentialism Offers Modern Man:
A Philosophy of Fundamental Human Realities

by William Barrett
Since its emergence as a “movement” during the postwar years, Existentialism has been denounced as gibberish or all too glibly embraced; William Barrett's simple and incisive explanation of the fundamental significance of this relatively new tendency in philosophy will prove welcome.

The Transplantation of the Yemenites: The Old Life They Led
by S. Goitein
One of the miracles of the new State of Israel was “Operation Magic Carpet,” by which forty thousand Yemenite Jews were transported almost overnight by airplane from a primitive physical environment and a static medieval culture into a new world of bustling activity and progress.

The Transplantation of the Yemenites: In the New Land
by Constantine Poulos
One of the miracles of the new State of Israel was “Operation Magic Carpet,” by which forty thousand Yemenite Jews were transported almost overnight by airplane from a primitive physical environment and a static medieval culture into a new world of bustling activity and progress.

Anti-Semitism in the Underworld:
An Experience in the Santé Prison

by Robert Misrahi
Robert Misrahi, who was a young member of the Stern Group in Paris, was arrested in May 1947 for the illegal possession of arms, and spent several months in Paris's Santé Prison.

What Next in Explosive Iran?
Extending the Anglo-American Alliance to the Near East

by G. Hudson
It is barely possible to keep up with the kaleidoscopic sweep of events in Persia; but it is possible to understand the underlying factors in Iranian economics and politics which have in recent months transformed what was apparently a placid country of the Middle East into one of the most volatile.

The Biblical Myth and the Writer of Today:
The Ever Recurring Pattern

by Jacob Sloan
What enrichment can the Jewish writer draw from his tradition? Jacob Sloan, a writer who has felt this problem to be a central one in his own work, suggests here the difficulties—and the possible rewards—of an effort to reestablish oneself in a living relation to Jewish myth.  _____________   Franz Kafka has left a fragment of a story, which I here paraphrase: Amalia and Hans, the butcher's two children, were playing marble near an old warehouse when a man peered out through one of the dirty windowpanes and invited them to come in, with the promise of wonderful sights.

After All I Did for Israel
A Story

by Meyer Levin
We husbands have our game every Wednesday night while the girls are holding their Hadassah committee meeting. In fact it was my idea for the winners to contribute their haul to Hadassah as that gives the girls an extra source of cash for their organization and also it reduces the gambling fever a little, so some of the smaller fish can stay in the swim.

From the American Scene: The Jewish Object
by Ruth Glazer
This year the displays of Passover settings in the department stores seemed unusually large, with lavish numbers of Seder plates, candleholders, wine cups, and other objects.

Chorus of the True Unnoticed Poets:
(After attending the Harvard Poetry Conference of August 1950.)

by Peter Viereck
1. It is a curse. Our fingers fade away, And no one thanks us that the rhythms stay. For this we earn your mean and daily No. Some perchers safely grace the wrists of kings. We sing the tumult of storm-wearier breasts. For this we earn humiliating crusts. Expose, expose: “Red ink is all he sings. Come read our blood.” This is unbearable: That even a single passer-by should love Not us, not every least last syllable. _____________ 2. We gallivant on sidewalks made of air, We chirp true insults, but they reach no ear; And though Troy's Helen now is passing by And swaying to our tunes unknowingly, It is as when ghost touches living thigh: Our love unnoticed though we wrote the play. The fingers fade.

Cedars of Lebanon: Parable of the Voice
by Hermann Broch
The sudden death of Hermann Broch in New Haven on Memorial Day cut short the life of a writer who, despite his years, still had an infinite amount left to say.

On the Horizon:“The Last Illusion” and “Teresa”
by Nathan Glick
Nathan Glick here discusses two recent films which throw some degree of light on the relations between Americans and Europeans.  _____________   In two recent films—the American Teresa and the German The Last Illusion—America's legendary innocence and optimism are again contrasted with Europe's intimacy with evil and immersion in tragedy.

by Irving Layton
As the afternoon wore on, The wind rose like an American tariff; I, more credulous than my parents, Sat on my gardenstool, hoping for signs; Something perhaps to fall out of the sky— An eagle, like a piece of gunmetal, Cracking the wall of air, flashing The forbidden message from broken wings— Perhaps a never-before-seen snake; or at the least A typewriter in the tall grass, its keys Plucked by a legion of dry crickets. But all I saw were great swathes of shadow Moving across the fields like escaped jailbirds. All afternoon I watched the Mediterranean sky Dotted with soft silver-ringed clouds Like Greek city states, Like white garlands for an Athenian holiday. But look!

The Study of Man: Political Thinking: Ancients vs. Moderns
by Gertrude Himmelfarb
From the heavy volume of writings on political theory published in recent months, Gertrude Himmelfarb selects for discussion a number of books which represent two extreme—and influential—approaches to the problems of politics: the approach of the political philosopher and that of the political scientist.

The Jews and Modern Capitalism, by Werner Sombart
by H. Trevor-Roper
A Fertile Error The Jews and Modern Capitalism. by Werner Sombart. Translated by M. Epstein. With an introduction by Bert F. Hoselitz. The Free Press, Glencoe, III.

The Troubled Air, by Irwin Shaw
by Nathan Glazer
A Masque of Innocence The Troubled Air. by Irwin Shaw. Random House. 412, pp. $3.75.   One by one, our young novelists are moving from considerations of war and its aftermath to considerations of politics.

Testament for Social Science, by Barbara Wootton
by Paul Kecskemeti
The Newest Testament Testament for Social Science. by Barbara Wootton. Norton. 197 pp. $3.00.   The argument with which this book starts is familiar enough: The scientific method has been immensely successful in the investigation of natural processes and technological problems, and it is certain to be just as successful when applied to human and social problems.

The Birth of the Bible, by Immanuel Lewy
by Theodor Gaster
Who Wrote the Bible? The Birth of the Bible: A New Approach. by Immanuel Lewy. Bloch. 234 pp. $2.50.   When the prophet Nathan addressed to David the famous words, “Thou art the man” (II Sam.

The Court Jew, by Selma Stern
by Alfred Werner
The Era of Jew Süss The Court Jew. by Selma Stern. Translated from the German by Ralph Weiman. Jewish Publication Society. 312 pp.

Two Poems
by Cecil Hemley
Porphyry's Journey It is not enough that the spring returns, That lilac and daffodil again Rise from the nothingness of death, Last year's purple is not upon the bush, The yellow that delights me only counterfeits A yellow that is lost.

Reader Letters July 1951
by Our Readers
The Tune of "Hatikvah" TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Will you give me the opportunity of saying the last word on the "tune of uncertain origin," "to which the words of 'Hatikvah' were writ- ten"? It is time that the ever multiplying the- ories and guesses were discarded and the facts recorded. Imber wrote the poem "Hatikvah" without any melody in mind; the melody was adapted to it later. In the year 857, Emanuel Aguilar and my grandfather, D.

August, 1951Back to Top
On Washington Heights
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As one of Ernest Stock's recent “immigrants,” I would like to say that in printing his astute analysis, “Washington Heights ‘Fourth Reich’” (June 1951), COMMENTARY again lived up to its practice of publishing the most interesting articles in the Jewish field.

Mr. Gans Replies
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I suppose every sociological study of a Jewish community—or any community—brings forth a letter like Mr. Perlmutter's. This is no doubt the result of the fact that a community looks different to someone acting within it than it does to an outsider.

Birth of a Jewish Community
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . As one who was intimately involved in the events described, I take sharp exception to Herbert Gans's article, “Park Forest: Birth of a Jewish Community,” in the April COMMENTARY.

The Three Horsemen of the Arab Wasteland:
Hashish, Bakshish, Maalesh

by Ray Alan
All observers agree that in the Arab states an old order is dying—but is there any sign of a new order waiting to be born? What is the present state of mind of the dominant forces in the Arab countries? How does this affect the chances for a peaceful settlement with the new State of Israel? What is its significance for Western attempts to buttress the Near East against the Soviet threat? Ray Alan here writes a candid first-hand report that analyzes the conditions which, in his opinion, will make these states a danger zone in international affairs for many years to come.  _____________   There are three stars on the Syrian flag: one stands for Hashish, one for Bakshish, the third for Maalesh—or so any American or British official in the Near East will assure you.

Hiss, Chambers, and the Age of Innocence:
Who Was Guilty—And of What?

by Leslie Fiedler
Was there really “a generation on trial” in the case of Alger Hiss? And if there was, what was its crime? LESLIE A.

Any Tears for Tisha B'av?
Reflections on a Day of Mourning—and Hope

by Mark Raven
This August 12th will be celebrated as Tisha B'av—the ninth day of the Jewish month of Av—the second most important fast day in the Jewish year, and one which commemorates the destruction of the Temple by Titus in the year 70 C.E.

Will “Managed Capitalism” Pull Us Through?
Balance Sheet of Two Decades of Keynes

by J. Galbraith
The spectre of the Great Depression still holds the American mind, despite the last decade of relative prosperity. To what extent is this fear justified? Has capitalism, with the assistance of the theories of John Maynard Keynes, learned to manage its business cycle? Or have we only succeeded in staving off depression and unemployment to impale ourselves on the upward thrust of inflation? What are the new problems that have risen to plague us in what some have called the “post-Keynesian era”? J.

For All Who March
by Allen Mandelbaum
“Neither shalt thou go up by steps unto mine altar that thy nakedness be not uncovered thereon.” we, the meek,      approaching the altar with         faltering steps, take heed of the bareness and evil of our skin, move duly, Lord, in semblance of equilibrium.      We need but the smoke      of bullocks in the temple-yard      the tocsin of the Levites' reeds      costus, galbanum, or nard,      to feed Thy Word. But now the altar is decay and acrid now the attar in the evening of the carnal day.      “As new wineskin that hath no vent,”      at ferment-verge of bitterness      the heart, o God of Battles, bursts      the veil of skin lies rent. The searing scent of the charred is the scent of our own flesh-souls; not sacrificial lambs, but we have been     burnt whole. _____________  

Now They Bring the Matches!
A Story

by Hamlen Hunt
The hundred or more guests invited to Sylvia Saroff's wedding, in Brookline, Massachusetts, felt no strangeness, thought Mrs. Forbes. They entered the Plantation House like a relative's parlor: eyeing all arrangements critically, and noticing what was new since last time. “I like the new drapes,” a friend of Mrs.

Rome's Mid-Century Jubilee:
A World Religion Rallies Its Forces

by Eleanor Clark
Eleanor Clark, who was in Rome for most of the Holy Year on a Guggenheim fellowship, here reports her impressions of the Church's 1950 Jubilee.

The Dilemma That Racism Poses for Britain: Labor's Colonial Heritage
by Rita Hinden
Both internally and in its bearing on the present international struggle, the race problem looms large for the British Commonwealth of Nations.

The Dilemma That Racism Poses for Britain: Cocktail Party in East Africa
by Barnet Litvinoff
Both internally and in its bearing on the present international struggle, the race problem looms large for the British Commonwealth of Nations.

Epitaph for Ernst Wiechert:
The Tragedy of the Good German

by Alfred Werner
The German poet Ernst Wiechert, one of the few German intellectuals who remained in his homeland throughout the Nazi regime and yet could claim to have offered neither comfort nor support to the Nazis, died on August 24 of last year in Switzerland, where he had gone to live in 1946.

From the American Scene: My Buddy, Fishbinder
by James Yaffe
Army or Navy, in every company there is one such undisciplined spirit as Fishbinder; and it is testimony to the basic soundness of our defense system that the U.S.A.

Cedars of Lebanon: The Sixth Day
by Our Readers
From the traditional sources, Joseph Gaer has made a new collection of legends which grew up around the events narrated in the Hebrew Bible; the following selections are from his forthcoming book, The Lore of the Old Testament, to be published this month by Litde, Brown.

On the Horizon: The Nobel Prize Comes to Mississippi
by Sidney Alexander
As you approach Oxford, Mississippi, the first thing that greets you, floating on the horizon, is the silver bubble of the water tower, on which, as you draw closer, you may read painted in bold black letters: OXFORD-HOME OF OLE MISS. Oxford also happens to be the home of William Faulkner, winner of the Nobel Prize in literature.

The Study of Man: What Opinion Polls Can and Can't Do
by Nathan Glazer
Since 1948, public opinion polls have not been much in the public eye. The Great Miscalculation of 1948 drove them from their favored places in the daily newspapers, and the experts in opinion and attitude research, commercial and academic, retired to the haven of the professional journals and specialized publications, where they could meditate at leisure on what had happened and why. Despite its recent fall from grace, there is no doubt that public opinion polling in its contemporary form is a far sturdier and solider plant than the straw poll, which was completely finished off by another great error, the Literary Digest's prediction in 1936 of a Landon “sweep.” The straw poll, based on the wholesale and indiscriminate distribution of ballots, had no way of finding out what exactly had gone wrong when its prophecies fell flat.

Law and Social Action, by Alexander H. Pekelis
by Morroe Berger
Voluntary Groups and the Democratic Process Law and Social Action by Alexander H. Pekelis. Edited by Milton R. Konvitz. Cornell University Press. 261 pages.

Essays on Literature, Philosophy and Music, by Andrei Zhdanov
by Jeanne Wacker
The Poverty of Soviet Philosophy Essays on Literature, Philosophy and Music. by Andrei Zhdanov. International Publishers. 96 pp. $.60.   The Daily Worker recently reported that toy manufacturers in the Soviet Union had been reprimanded for making green rabbits and unrecognizable ducks, thereby departing from the principles of “socialist realism” and, it seems, confusing the minds of Soviet children.

Man Is Not Alone: A Philosophy of Religion, by Abraham Joshua Heschel
by Marvin Fox
A Modern Mystic Man is not Alone: A Philosophy of Religion. by Abraham Joshua Heschel. Farrar, Straus, and Young. 305 pp. $3.75.   In the fundamentally secular environment of contemporary American Judaism, in which almost every conceivable kind of activity is given precedence over Torah and worship, Professor Heschel has written a profoundly moving religious book.

The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, Volumes I and II, edited by Elting E. Morison
by Richard Hofstadter
The Rough Rider The Letters Of Theodore Roosevelt.Edited by Elting E. Morison. Volumes I And II, The Years Of Preparation. Harvard University Press.

Somewhere South of Suez, by Douglas Reed
by Henry Popkin
Political Science Fantasy Somewhere South of Suez. by Douglas Reed. Devin-Adair. 405 pp. $3.75.   Although Douglas Reed's writings are represented as journalism, they will bear scrutiny only as fiction of a very weird and original sort.

Reader Letters August 1951
by Our Readers
Birth of a Jewish Community TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: ... As one who was intimately involved in the events described, I take sharp exception to Herbert Gans's article, "Park Forest: Birth of a Jewish Community," in the April COM- MENTARY....

September, 1951Back to Top
The Jerusalem Bagel
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I offer a brief footnote to Irving Pfefferblit's article on the bagel in the May COMMENTARY. Having just finished a third Jerusalem bagel, I believe it is possible to state: If you haven't eaten this bagel, you haven't eaten bagels.

Mr. Grampp Replies
by Our Readers
To the Editor: If I understand them, Messrs. Clurman and Seligman have three objections to the enterprise economy and they score my failure to give them proper consideration: Business is extensively monopolized, and monopoly means concentration of economic power. It is absolute rather than relative income that is relevant to the matter of equality, and the absolute income of the poor is inadequate. The structure of the economy is faulty: it thrives on scarcity (Mr.

“The Facts About ‘Capitalist Inequality’”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: William D. Grampp's article in the June COMMENTARY (“The Facts About ‘Capitalist Inequality’”), which attempts to prove false the view that under capitalism the rich get richer and the poor poorer, raises more questions than it answers. Take his table on distribution of income.

Why Five Million Frenchmen Vote Communist:
Economic Stagnation and Political Stalemate

by Herbert Luthy
Herbert Lüthy's previous articles in this journal, “France's Homeless Left” (August 1950) and “Has Europe the Will to Fight?” (November 1950), first brought the writings of this Swiss political analyst to the English-speaking world.

How Arm Our Children Against Anti-Semitism?
A Psychologist's Advice to Jewish Parents

by Bruno Bettelheim
Few men speak with more authority than Bruno Bettelheim on the anatomy and conquest of fear. He was born and educated in Vienna, and fate gave him the opportunity to do his fieldwork on the effects of terror on the human mind and spirit in a German concentration camp, after Hitler's annexation of Austria.

Bats, Men, and Morals:
Desert Reflections on the Unnatural Quality of Mercy

by Joseph Krutch
As part of the fruits of a year spent in the Arizona desert, Joseph Wood Krutch offers these moral reflections on mankind and society, gained by the ancient and honorable method, not altogether modish in our present age, of conning the Book of Nature.

Beyond Containment to Liberation:
A Political Émigré Challenges Our “Machiavellian Liberalism”
by Bogdan Raditsa
Bogdan Raditsa is one of the leading political exiles from Eastern Europe in this country. Mr. Raditsa was chief of the foreign press department of the ministry of information in the Yugoslav coalition government formed by Tito and democratic exiles in 1945.

Theodor Herzl: Outsider as National Leader:
Is the Price Cultural Assimilation?

by Lester Seligman
Political Zionism is the peculiar movement of a peculiar people. And Theodor Herzl, dramatist and theater critic, was its appropriately peculiar founder and first great leader.

In a Time Between Wars
by Milton Kaplan
Now in the spring of the year When the maples ripple green In wind-swept water images, walk a landscape grown Desolate, and read the trees Black on the winter pages. On the baseball field the players dance A seasonal charade: From glance to glance to glance They toss a hand grenade. The dervish girls on every street Jump counterpoint to rhyme, While underneath their shattered feet The rope keeps ticking time. The cowboys charge on roller skates, The lassos whirling high; The customary victim waits His daily turn to die, And over him with birthday gun Uplifted, stands my son. _____________  

The Generations of Man
A Story

by Julius Horwitz
The building stood, crumbling at its sides, rooted by iron spikes and oak beams, the red paint chipped, peeling, covering red bricks laid before the Civil War.

San Nicandro's New Jews in Israel:
Progress Report

by Phinn Lapide
Some fifteen years ago, the seventy-odd inhabitants of the tiny Italian village of San Nicandro, none of whom had ever seen or communicated with a Jew, became converted to Judaism.

James Jones' Dead-End Young Werther:
The Bum as American Culture Hero

by Leslie Fiedler
There are certain books in a tradition which, after a while, everyone stops reading, but which no one can stop writing; the less aware a novelist is of the book's existence, the more he is likely to submit to its pattern; this is one of the best reasons for insisting that novelists be educated.

Rabbi Yussel Luksh of Chelm
by Jacob Glatstein
I Who can bear The wail of a young orphan? Or the tears of a needy widow? Who can endure The loneliness—like a stone's— Of a woman who is barren? Or the shame of an ugly wife Whom a husband has deserted? Worst of all is the dumb misery Of a beaten horse. The whip crackles On the dear pelt. The heavy head bends lower .

From the American Scene: The Bergmans' Queenie
by Donald Paneth
This portrait of Queenie, who lives in Harlem and works on Central Park West, is the third of Donald Paneth's sketches of New York life to appear in our pages; the earlier ones, “I Cash Clothes!” and “Bronx Housewife,” were published in our issues of June 1950 and February 1951. _____________   Saturday night is going out night.

Cedars of Lebanon: Songs of the Death Camps
by Joseph Leftwich
Among the most poignant relics of the European catastrophe are the literary remains of the men and women who lived and died in the Nazi concentration and extermination camps: the poems and songs in which they express their sense of their situation.

On the Horizon: The Professors Cling to Their Faith
by M. Rosenthal
It seems a long time now since the first “Conference on Science, Philosophy, and Religion in Their Relation to the Democratic Way of Life,” in which Mortimer Adler lashed out at the “positivistic” professors as being more dangerous than Hitler, and Sidney Hook hit Mr.

The Study of Man: What Germans Think-and Why
by Roberta Sigel
The “German mind” has been one of the major problems of postwar reconstruction; obviously, our hope for a change towards democratic government in that country depends mainly on a change of mind from traditional German authoritarian attitudes to democratic ones.

The Jews in the Soviet Union, by Solomon M. Schwarz
by Bertram Wolfe
The Soviet Liquidation Of Jewish Life The Jews in the Soviet Union. by Solomon M. Schwarz. Syracuse University Press. 380 pp. $5.00.   The most persistent of all the legends which have served to obscure the true outlines of the Soviet system is the notion that Lenin and Stalin have given a new, attractive, and completely satisfactory solution to the nationalities question.

Four Books on Asia
by G. Hudson
Communism in Asia Collision of East and West. by Herrymon Maurer. Introduction by Hu Shih. Regnery. 352 pp. $4.50. The State of Asia: A Contemporary Survey. by Lawrence K.

American Jewry and the Civil War, by Bertram Wallace Korn
by Oscar Handlin
Anti-Semitism in Civil War Days American Jewry and the Civil War. by Bertram Wallace Korn. With an introduction by Allan Nevins. Jewish Publication Society of America.

Democracy and the Churches, by James Hastings Nichols
by Will Herberg
Protestants, Catholics, and Democracy Democracy and the Churches. by James Hastings Nichols. Westminster. 298 pp. $4.50.   James Hastings Nichols’ Democracy and the Churches is really two books in one—a serious, often profound theologico-social analysis of the implications of the Protestant and Catholic traditions for democracy, and an intemperate anti-Catholic diatribe that at more than one point recalls Paul Blanshard's recent writings.

The Lost Library, by Walter Mehring
by Heinz Politzer
An Exile Among the Books The Lost Library: The Autobiography of a Culture. by Walter Mehring. Translated by Richard and Clara Winston. Bobbs-Merrill.

Pebble in the Sky, by Isaac Asimov
by Joseph Gallant
Earth People vs. the Galaxy Pebble in the Sky. by Isaac Asimov. Doubleday. 223 pp. $2.50.   Science fiction is one aspect of the romanticism of a technological society.

Reader Letters September 1951
by Our Readers
"The Facts About 'Capitalist Inequality' " TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: William D. Grampp's article in the June COMMENTARY ("The Facts About 'Capitalist Inequality"'), which attempts to prove false the view that under capitalism the rich get richer and the poor poorer, raises more ques- tions than it answers. Take his table on distribution of income.

October, 1951Back to Top
Mr. Davis Replies
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The statements in my article to which Dr. Wortis takes exception were based on his text or his sources, and in many cases were an almost verbatim reproduction of the original .

The Soviet View of Man
by Our Readers
To the Editor: You praise me more than I deserve by calling my Soviet Psychiatry authoritative. This attempt of mine to piece together a picture of Soviet psychiatry from a study of its literature must surely contain some errors, but Professor Davis (“The Mind of Man: Soviet View,” in COMMENTARY, May 1951) quite rashly assumes that it “says nothing that would not be acceptable in Russia.” In spite of this, Mr.

The Washington Heights “Y”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Because I have been a resident and a worker in this community for over twenty years, I am concerned with Ernest Stock's failure, in his article on the German Jewish community of Washington Heights [June 1951], to mention the part played by the Washington Heights YM and YWHA in the integration of newcomers. The “Y,” which is sponsored by the Federation of Jewish Philanthropies, is the only Jewish communal agency outside of the synagogues.

Some Answers
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It is not necessary to have been a Bolshevik, or to have attended Bolshevik party conferences, in order to know how Bolsheviks write, orate, and how arrogantly and ignorantly they consign their opponents to what Trotsky called “the dustbin of history.” Mr.

The Rejection of Marxism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: A prevalent tendency among intellectuals these days is the rejection of Marxism. The reasons for this rejection, which are many and complex, and the validity of it I do not propose to discuss here—though it would be disingenuous of me to deny that I have little sympathy or respect for most of its manifestations. I do, however, ask to say a word about the quality of some of the anti-Marxism that has been filling the pages of COMMENTARY: its indiscriminate and unscholarly zealousness, its air of rude certainty, its readiness to indulge in the most sweeping generalizations without reaching for those modulations which the present historical moment requires from any serious political opinion.

The Jewish College Student: 1951 Model:
Is the Old Idealism and Zeal for Learning Gone?

by Morris Freedman
In recent years, it has seemed to many that the classical type of Jewish student, the passionately devoted searcher after wisdom and learning, has been dying out; and it is often charged that the contemporary Jewish student takes a cool view toward the eternal values his forefathers sought.

Germany's Generals Stage a Comeback:
The Terms for Their Cooperation with the West

by Peter Mendelssohn
In A flood of recent books, Germany's professional soldiers are seeking once again to foster the legend of an honorable and far-seeing army “betrayed” by the politicians, while at the same time carrying water on both epaulets as to such crucial questions as their own loyalty to Hitler.

The Fruits of Modern Jewish Education:
Where Techniques Reign and Heritage Suffers Neglect

by Midge Decter
In Jewish education, as perhaps in all education, it is easy to find out what the educational planners think, and almost impossible to find out what the students think.

Hungary's Jewry Faces Liquidation:
Again the Concentration Camps

by Bela Fabian
Alarming reports have been coming out of Hungary in recent months about large-scale deportations of “undesirables”—about 50 per cent of whom turn out to be Jewish—to the slave labor camps of the Soviet Union.

What Happened to American Socialism?
Appraising the Half-Century's Record

by Will Herberg
One of the striking differences between the American and European political scenes is the absence in this country of any significant socialist party or party of labor.

Israel's Land: Habitation of God:
The Zionism of Rabbi Nahman

by Martin Buber
In the present understandable concentration on the politics of Israel, we tend to overlook the unique religious and moral values that have crystallized around Eretz Israel in recent centuries as in ancient days.

The Mothers
A Story

by Sylvia Rothchild
In the morning Kaminsky's candy store in East Flatbush was a sleepy place. Samuel Kaminsky silently handed his customers their newspapers through a small opening in his glass window without even a good-morning or a thank-you for the change. The women who came down with hoover aprons over their nightgowns and curlers in their hair stepped cautiously on the freshly washed linoleum and left the price of a package of cigarettes on the counter quickly.

William Faulkner and the Negroes:
A Vision of Lost Fraternity

by Irving Howe
No American writer has been more preoccupied with the “Negro problem” than William Faulkner. Yet one searches his books in vain for any clear “view” or program leading toward improvement of the intolerable tensions between white and black in the South; at least, there has been endless controversy among critics as to what Faulkner thinks, feels, or regards as desirable in that area—a matter of even wider concern now that he speaks under the accolade of his recent Nobel Prize.

Death of a Dog
by Babette Deutsch
The loping in the darkness, here, now there, As the wild scents whispered, the roadside beckoned, while Things without heads roared past, their smell not vile But meaningless—and the loping on, to where A richer odor sang out like a snare. Across the road it sang again, too strong To leave, although a small monster was hooting Behind, spoiling the scent, and suddenly shooting Ahead, in a heavy stench, a wrench, a wrong Noise of everything where it could not belong. He got free, though, and with a limping leap Found the high grass and panted there, his eyes Twin frightened fires.

From the American Scene: Uncle Ben of Upper Broadway
by Harold Dessler
The Uncle Bens of the world, at home on Central Park West and in the garment center, are more than men; they are a way of life, and among the things they know with certainty is what is required of lesser folk, be they from the New Jersey side of the family or elsewhere.

Cedars of Lebanon: Between Civilization and Eternity
by Abraham Heschel
Abraham Joshua Heschel, associate professor of Jewish Ethics and Mysticism at the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York, is the author of Maimonides, Die Prophetie, Studies in Ibn Gabirol's Metaphysics, The Quest for Certainty in Saadia's Philosophy, The Earth Is the Lord's, and Man Is Not Alone.

On the Horizon: A Son of the South, and Some Daughters
by Harry Golden
The Lost Cause still lives on in Southern hearts, but occasionally a rather nasty modern note is liable to show up in the observances that keep its memory alive; Harry L.

The Study of Man: Hail, Meeters! Greeters, Farewell!
by Reuel Denney
As De Tocqueville pointed out long ago, America is a land of organizations, and therefore of meetings. But, readers of Reuel Denney's tale will discover, we may be on the verge of a new epoch—one in which all our conferences and conventions, with their impediments and frustrations to democratic discussion and decision, will flower and bear fruit under the benign rule of science.

Man and God, by Victor Gollancz
by Judah Goldin
Religion as Mood Man and God: Passages Chosen and Arranged to Express a Mood about the Human and Divine. by Victor Gollancz. Houghton Mifflin.

My Mission in Israel, by James G. McDonald
by George Lichtheim
Confounding the Experts My Mission in Israel. by James G. Mcdonald. Simon and Schuster. 296 pp. $3.50.   At the height of the struggle around Palestine, in 1947-49, it was a constant marvel to the more clear-headed observers how the British of ficials, with all the cards in their hands and all the relevant information at their disposal, consistently misread the situation, while relative newcomers and amateurs such as Mr.

The Guests of Summer, by Hilda Abel; and The Pedlocks, by Stephen Longstreet
by Isa Kapp
Unvictimized—for a Change The Guests of Summer. by Hilda Abel. Bobbs-Merrill. 271 pp. $3.00. The Pedlocks. by Stephen Longstreet. Simon and Schuster. 433 pp. $3.50.   In the last decade, apart from sentimental writing, we have come to expect stories about Jews to be stories of victims, or, by inverse logic, of opportunists.

The Mills of the Kavanaughs, by Robert Lowell
by Allen Mandelbaum
A Catholic Vision of America The Mills of the Kavanaughs. by Robert Lowell. Harcourt, Brace. 55 pp. $2.50.   The tribe of visionary-poets, especially in English, where imagination must often work against a prudential language, is small.

Freedom, Power, and Democratic Planning, by Karl Mannheim
by Kurt Wolff
Karl Mannheim's Thought Freedom, Power, and Democratic Planning. by Karl Mannheim. Oxford. 384 pp. $5.00.   Karl Mannheim, the Hungarian-born sociologist who became famous in Germany and who died in England in 1947, held in fascination a wide intellectual circle ever since the appearance of his Ideology and Utopia (in German, 1929; in English, 1936).

Midwestern Progressive Politics, by Russell B. Nye
by Edward Saveth
From Coxey to Wallace Midwestern Progressive Politics. by Russell B. Nye. Michigan State College Press. 422 pp. $5.00.   Just a few months ago Jacob Coxey died at the ripe age of ninety-seven.

Reader Letters October 1951
by Our Readers
The Rejection of Marxism TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: A prevalent tendency among intellectuals these days is the rejection of Marxism. The rea- sons for this rejection, which are many and complex, and the validity of it I do not propose to discuss here-though it would be disingenu- ous of me to deny that I have little sympathy or respect for most of its manifestations. I do, however, ask to say a word about the quality of some of the anti-Marxism that has been filling the pages of COMMENTARY: its in- discriminate and unscholarly zealousness, its air of rude certainty, its readiness to indulge in the most sweeping generalizations without reaching for those modulations which the present histori- cal moment requires from any serious political opinion.

November, 1951Back to Top
Mr. Daiches Replies to his Critics
by Our Readers
To the Editor: My article entitled “American Judaism: A Personal View” which appeared in your February issue has stirred up more controversy and brought down more abuse (and I mean abuse) on my head than anything I have ever written.

The Time Bomb That Exploded in Cicero:
Segregated Housing's Inevitable Dividend

by Charles Abrams
More than four years ago (in “Homes for Aryans Only,” May 1947), Charles Abrams first reported in these pages on the dangerous pattern of segregation in urban housing which was setting up rigid—not to say unconstitutional—compartments in the historic American melting pot, and preventing the contacts in school and neighborhood that had done so much to create a common national identity.

Ben Gurion Wins and Loses an Election:
Once More the Stop-Gap Coalition

by Hal Lehrman
One of the longest parliamentary crises in history has recently ended in the world's youngest parliamentary state. Hal Lehrman here describes the issues that were debated in the election campaign, the intricate maneuvers involved in the two-months' effort to establish an uneasy coalition cabinet, and offers some reflections on the strength and weaknesses of the new government in the face of Israel's critical economic and social problems.  _____________   It is well known that not all Frenchmen have waxed mustaches, not all Englishmen wear monocles, and not all Italians are tenors.

British Intellectuals in the Welfare State:
How the New Climate Affects Science and Culture

by Stephen Spender
Stephen Spender reports here on the intellectual and cultural climate of England against a background of economic crisis and political uncertainty.

Is Jewish Humor Dead?
The Rise and Fall of the Jewish Joke

by Irving Kristol
There are few subjects about which people are more solemn—and disputatious—than Jewish humor. Perhaps, as Irving Kristol here suggests, that is because Jewish humor at its best can be a serious matter.

by Samuel Yellen
After the painting by Edward Hopper   The place is the corner of Empty and Bleak, The time is night's most desolate hour, The scene is Al's Coffee Cup or the Hamburger            Tower, The persons in this drama do not speak. We who peer through that curve of plate glass Count three nighthawks seated there—patrons            of life: The counterman will be with you in a jiff, The thick white mugs were never meant            for demitasse. The single man whose hunched back we see Once put a gun to his head in Russian Bank, Whirled the chamber, pulled the trigger, drew            a blank, And now lives out his x years' guarantee. And facing us, the two central characters Have finished their coffee, and have lit A contemplative cigarette; His hand lies close, but not touching hers. Not long ago together in a darkened room, Mouth burned mouth, flesh beat            and ground On ravaged flesh, and yet they found No local habitation and no name. Oh, are we not lucky to be none of these! We can look on with complacent eye: Our satisfactions satisfy, Our pleasures, our pleasures please. _____________  

Franco: Proud Ruler of a Hungry People:
A Report from Spain

by Peter Schmid
Of all current political issues, that of the Western democracies' relations with Spain is one of the most thorny and disputed.

American Zionists Move Toward Clarity:
To Be or Not to Be “Ingathered”

by Judd Teller
As Judd L. Teller points out in this article, after the establishment of the State of Israel, the world Zionist movement, and its American branch particularly, was in the position of a mother who had given away her last child in marriage.

The Mind of the Mass Murderer:
The Nazi Executioners—and Those Who Stood By

by L. Poliakov
What kind of men are they that organize and supervise concentration camps in which they murder whole groups, classes, and races of their fellow human beings? What is the mentality of the broader strata of the population who apathetically witness this ghastly extermination without even a protesting murmur? L.

An Apology
A Story

by Bernard Malamud
Early one morning, during a wearying hot spell in the city, a police car that happened to be cruising along Canal Street drew over to the curb and one of the two policemen in the car leaned out of the window and fingered a come-here to an old man wearing a black derby hat, who carried a large carton on his back, held by clothesline rope to his shoulder, and dragged a smaller carton with his other hand. “Hey, Mac.” But the peddler, either not hearing, or paying no attention, went on.

1,001 Nights in the Yiddish Theater:
From Goldfaden to Thomashefsky

by Sarah Schack
The Yiddish theater—fountainhead of truth and poetry, swamp of cultural decay, or den of iniquity, depending on your point of view—emerged from the bubbling caldron of the Enlightenment in the last quarter of the 19th century, and, for better or worse, has been with us ever since.

From the American Scene: The Beginnings of the Family Fortune
by Charles Reznikoff
In recording the early struggles and triumphs of his father in the days when he worked as foreman of a shop making “ladies' wrappers,” Charles Reznikoff tells a story that thousands of American Jewish families will recognize as their own.

Cedars of Lebanon: The Angels Bury Moses
by Our Readers
Ethiopia's “Black Jews,” the Falashas, have been an object of speculation and curiosity since the late 18th century, when Europeans first became aware of their existence.

by Jackson MacLow
Reading the Hebrew bible (Frightening book of my people) I learned of the See of Knowledge And the shameful brew of the vintage. The sea that flooded with being And the tree that drowned           with seeing Mismated, and their children Were blinded by too much vision. The monstrous sea of knowing Engulfed them, and their drowning Darkness bloomed to madness: But few escaped their wildness. Warned of the flood of destruction To drown their mad action The patriarch built a fortress To defend the few from the tortures That rained, in time, from the angered Sea, whose word had fathered These floods of blinded substance In whom conscience, too great, had killed           conscience. And their fort held out till the treaty Was signed in the spectral archway: No more, for the sin of knowledge Too great, would the waters ravage. And settled with beasts and vineyard The patriarch drank and slumbered: The fruit he had saved from the water Hooded his veins; and a watcher Beheld his shame, uncovered: Then cursed was the son he had fathered, Who had seen and told his surrender At last to the flood—drowned in anger! Thus said the Hebrew bible (Bewildering book of my people)! O Tree of Sin and Knowing Devour us not in Thy growing! _____________  

On the Horizon: “The Dybbuk” as Opera
by Chemjo Vinaver
The première of David Tamkin's operatic version of The Dybbuk, presented by the New York City Opera Company this past October 4, comes a quarter of a century after the Habimah troupe from Moscow first made its entry into the European theatrical world with its production of the Ansky play.

The Study of Man: The Human Infant According to Gesell
by Isa Kapp
Thousands of American mothers are in the odd position of having raised their first child under rigid schedules, and their second under conditions of absolute freedom.

White Collar, by C. Wright Mills
by Everett Hughes
The New Middle Classes White Collar. by C. Wright Mills. Oxford University Press. 378 pp. $5.00.   Professor Mills had fun writing this book about the ever-increasing proportion of us who wear suit jackets and neckties at our work and who are paid salaries rather than hourly base rates plus production bonuses.

A Believing Jew: The Selected Writings of Milton Steinberg
by Will Herberg
The Religious Thinking of Milton Steinberg A Believing Jew: The Selected Writings of Milton Steinberg. Harcourt, Brace. 318 pp. $3.50.   Milton Steinberg, who died on March 20, 1950, at the age of forty-six, was a man of notable gifts.

The New Yorker Twenty-fifth Anniversary Album, 1925-1950
by Milton Klonsky
Through Eustace Tilley's Looking-Glass The New Yorker Twenty-fifth Anniversary Album, 1925-1950. Harper. $5.00.   There is a cartoon by Carl Rose in this Album which, by self-reflection, reflects the situation of the New Yorker as well.

The Impact of America on European Culture
by William Phillips
America the Beautiful and Damned The Impact of America on European Culture. by Martin Cooper, John Lehmann, Perry Miller, J. E. Morpurgo, Sean O'Faolain, Bertrand Russell. Beacon Press.

Sherwood Anderson, by Irving Howe
by Granville Hicks
The Voice of Love Sherwood Anderson. by Irving Howe. William Sloane. 271 pp. $3.50.   “This book,” Mr. Howe tells us, “is partly an outgrowth of an involved and intimate relationship I have had with Sherwood Anderson's writings, a relationship I believe not unique to myself.

Reader Letters November 1951
by Our Readers
Mr. Daiches Replies to His Critics TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: My article entitled "American Judaism: A Personal View" which appeared in your Febru- ary issue has stirred up more controversy and brought down more abuse (and I mean abuse) on my head than anything I have ever written. I thought that I had safeguarded myself from the accusation of trying to lay down the law for others by calling the piece "a personal view," but evidently I was wrong.

December, 1951Back to Top
Minding Our P's and Q's
by Our Readers
To the Editor: David Daiches in his reply to Milton Konvitz included the following argument as a logical principle: “If you believe such-and-such, then it seems to be logical that you should do suchand-such.

Postwar Germans
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Most of the studies cited in Dr. Roberta S. Sigel's article “What Germans Think—and Why” (September 1951) depended for their findings on opinion polls of Opinion Survey Branch of the American Military Government or tests given to German prisoners of war in the United States, or tests and questionnaires given to screen German applicants for important posts (analyzed in Bertram Schaffner's Father Land).

Herzl's Zionism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Lester Seligman in his article “Theodor Herzl: Outsider as National Leader” in COMMENTARY, September 1951, does not do justice to Herzl and his conception of Zionism.

“The Poet and His Times”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I read with a great deal of interest the piece by Alfred Werner on Ernst Wiechert in the August issue.

Those Mothers
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Allow me to congratulate Sylvia Rothchild on her story “The Mothers” in the October issue of COMMENTARY. The piece may justly be called a sociological study rather than a story.

On Jewish Education
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Though I am really not qualified to comment on Midge Decter's article (“The Fruits of Modern Jewish Education,” October 1951) as an “educator,” I have taught for a few terms in Sabbath schools and for longer in a Hebrew “prep” school—and I do care about the child's “Jewish heritage.” It is vitally important, I think, that the individual of Jewish birth should not be allowed to grow up in rootlessness and in ignorance of our people's great ethical tradition and history.

In the Dark of Africa
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As an enthusiastic reader of COMMENTARY, please, please let me urge you to look more deeply into the African situation touched upon in the August issue by Rita Hinden and Barnet Litvinoff.

The Hebrew-Christian Evangelist
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am surprised that there was no response at all among COMMENTARY's readers to Harry L. Golden's excellent article “Hebrew-Christian Evangelist: Southern Style” (December 1950).

Praise from the Pacific
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I wish to thank you so much for the excellent magazine that you publish. Your perspective is something exceedingly hard to find in publications of today, and one which vanished from the general press years ago.

Mr. Fiedler on the Hiss Trials
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I suppose Leslie Fiedler took his academic life in his hands by stating in cold print that Alger Hiss is guilty of treason.

Britain's Prospects Under Churchill:
And What Future for Labor and the Welfare State?

by George Lichtheim
Now that the Conservatives are in and Labor out, the world watches the British scene with curiosity and concern, awaiting the answers to such questions as: What effect will the dynamic Winston Churchill have on the foreign policy of the Atlantic powers? Will he try to destroy the Welfare State and “de-socialize” England? And what is the future of the Labor party—will Aneurin Bevan succeed Clement Attlee as its spokesman? Will it become “anti-American”? _____________   London Electoral post-mortems, in this Age of Gallup, tend to be an affair of evaluating not personalities but percentages.

Seven Professors Look at the Jewish Student:
A Symposium

by Our Readers
It is not surprising that “The Jewish College Student: 1951 Model” by Morris Freedman, in the October COMMENTARY, has provoked wide discussion.

How Deal with Franco?
Understanding the Realities of Spain

by Franz Borkenau
In an article in our last issue (“Franco: Proud Ruler of a Hungry People”), Peter Schmid reported on the critical situation in which Spain today finds itself—a land saddled with a corrupt despotism and literally on the verge of starvation.

Return to Dachau:
“Not All the Perfumes of Arabia. . . .”

by Alfred Werner
Alfred Werner was born in Vienna in 1911, and was well launched on a literary career before the Anschluss with Germany landed him in the Dachau concentration camp.

The American Woman as Snow-Queen:
Our Self-Contemptuous Acceptance of Europe's Myth

by Elizabeth Hardwick
A few years ago, when Mary McCarthy, entertaining a French visitor to America, heard her country criticized in the condescending way traditional with Europeans, she reacted to such effect that the result was a brilliant essay, “America the Beautiful,” printed in COMMENTARY, September 1947, and since reprinted in England and elsewhere.

Israel Faces Its Arab Minority Problem:
The Native Within the Gates
by Judd Teller
An oppressed (and depressed) minority in the midst of a Jewish state would be a historical irony and moral blunder too great to be tolerated; and Jewish minds and consciences both in Israel and abroad have been troubled by insistent rumor that just such a development has been in process.

The Big Slide:
A Story

by Albert Halper
The first big snow of winter was falling as my pal Joey Pisano and I came walking from Ashland Avenue and turned into Lake Street.

Can There Be Judaism without Revelation?
Israel's Relation to the Divine Is Central

by Emil Fackenheim
That there has been over the past decade a revival of religiosity, would seem to be beyond, dispute. That it has really been a revival of religion, is less certain.

New York: 1951
Seven Poems

by Charles Reznikoff
I “The lamps are burning in the synagogue,     in the houses of study, in dark alleys. . . .” This should be the place. This is the way the guide book describes it.

From the American Scene: My Life As A “Jewish Child Genius”
by Margaret Anavi
As almost everybody knows, (almost) all Jewish children are geniuses and (almost) all geniuses are Jewish. Margaret Blocher Anavi tells here of the efforts of one bright little girl from the wrong side of the intellectual tracks to assimilate herself to a genial company.

by Saul Touster
“And do not call it fixity. . . .”—Burnt Norton Someone has been playing with the spheres And the sky is left open like a cracked skull And from the sun magnificent tears Fall on the earth, final and full. Parts of the world are dark, parts bright:         The potsherds bury the light With jagged edges and the earth-smooth knife Flashes the absent hands of our still life. The new world breaks as when old-world began, And out of the sheer perspective of our years An arm grows wildly on a dying man.       Someone has been playing with the spheres. Somewhere they are playing with the spheres And every good and perfect gift is lost, Or rather hidden, and what appears Is only an aptitude: the cost Of finding is to praise what might exist:        Every finding is a tryst Where she steps out of her concealment, new With love, and shakes her loose black locks above you, And you must join so that you're severed in a way That saves you—and though she grieve with pure tears, She will be radiant, reflecting the whole day.        Somewhere they are playing with the spheres. _____________  

Cedars of Lebanon: The Apocalypse of Gorgorios
by Our Readers
The writings of the Falashas, the “Black Jews” of Ethiopia, strongly reflected the influence of the Ethiopic-Christian environment in which they lived.

On the Horizon: And Now--Yinglish on Broadway
by Sarah Schack
William and Sarah Schack, who last month recounted in our pages the early history of the Yiddish theater (“1,001 Nights in the Yiddish Theater”), here examine one of that theater's somewhat dubious descendants, offspring of the torrid summertime romance between Broadway and Second Avenue which is resumed annually in the Catskill Mountains.

The Study of Man: When Social Scientists View Labor
by Will Herberg
Arecent report by the Survey Research Center of the University of Michigan indicates that the American people rank labor unions second in influence on national affairs, immediately after the federal government and ahead even of “big business.” Social scientists—if we are to judge by the relatively small proportion of energy and research funds they apply to studying its various aspects—do not rate labor that high.

The Second Scroll, by A. M. Klein
by Allen Mandelbaum
Everyman on Babylon's Shore The Second Scroll. by A. M. Klein. Knopf. 198 pp. $2.75.   The present work by A. M. Klein is novel, travel book, personal memoir, history-biography of the Jew as wanderer, confession of faith, and work of love.

A Walker in the City, by Alfred Kazin
by David Daiches
Brownsville Idyll A Walker in the City. by Alfred Kazin. Harcourt, Brace. 176 pp. $3.00.   Alfred Kazin writes about the Brownsville of his childhood and youth, about the “urìme Yidn,” the poor immigrant Jews and their families who led there their warm, shabby, picturesque, humble, and devoted lives; about the sights, sounds, smells, and general atmosphere of Brownsville homes and streets; about the impact on a sensitive Jewish child growing up there of the claims of the big city beyond and of America as a whole beyond that.

The Watch, by Carlo Levi
by Harold Rosenberg
Politics as Dancing The Watch. by Carlo Levi. Farrar, Straus and Young. 442 pp. $3.75.   Every place has its own kind of time. This includes the pace of its people in their work, entertainment, action—the rate of speed at which things move and happen there.

The Revolt: Story of the Irgun, by Menachem Begin
by Herbert Howarth
Irgun's Confused Vision The Revolt: Story of the Irgun. by Menachem Begin. Schuman. 386 pp. $4.00.   Whatever view you hold, or may have held, of terrorism and its place in the Israeli national struggle, you will probably be disappointed with the book in which Menachem Begin has now told his account of it. From 1943, Begin was the leader of Irgun Zvai Leumi, the “National Military Organization,” that small but powerful faction of the underground which did not accept the discipline of the Jewish para-government, but preached and practiced violence as the quickest means of bringing a Jewish state into being.

The Belief in Progress, by John Baillie
by Golo Mann
Religion and Progress The Belief in Progress. by John Baillie. Scribner's. 235 pp. $2.75.   When J. B. Bury published his Idea of Progress just thirty years ago, he noted the “prevalent feeling that a social or political theory or programme is hardly tenable if it cannot claim that it harmonizes with this controlling idea—progress.” One wonders whether that was exactly true in the heyday of Spengler.

Henryk Erlich un Viktor Alter, compiled by Victor Shulman
by Lucy Dawidowicz
Two of Stalin's Victims Henryk Erlich Un Viktor Alter. Compiled By Victor Shulman with the assistance of an editorial committee. New York, Farlag Unser Tsait, 1951.

Reader Letters December 1951
by Our Readers
Mr. Fiedler on the Hiss Trials TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I suppose Leslie Fiedler took his academic life in his hands by stating in cold print that Alger Hiss is guilty of treason.

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