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January, 1952Back to Top
Arming Our Children Against Anti-Semitism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Bruno Bettelheim's article (“How Arm Our Children Against Anti-Semitism?” in the September COMMENTARY) is the best thing that I have read on the subject. The difficulty I find in implementing Dr.

Unitarianism and Mr. Daiches
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As a Unitarian I could not help being amused at Mr. David Daiches in his excellent letter to COMMENTARY (November 1951).

Beyond Containment To...?
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Since the publication of my article “Beyond Containment to Liberation” (September 1951), I have received a most striking lesson in the American practice of democracy. If in Yugoslavia between two wars I had published such an article dealing with an institution I was working with, the article would have been censored before publication, my family and I would have been ostracized, and I would have had to give up my position.

Why the Kremlin Extorts Confessions:
The Most Jealous God, the Cruelest Inquisition

by Melvin Lasky
Much has been written about that bizarre Soviet institution—the “showcase” trial, in which people confess to crimes they did not do, could not have done.

Jewish Work-Camp in Indianapolis:
The Younger Generation Rolls Up Its Sleeves

by Irwin Stark
Last summer, a group of Jewish students decided to pass up their annual vacations and they went out to the Negro slums of Indianapolis to help build houses for poor families.

Bread and Democracy in Greece:
A Case Study in Marshall Plan Politics

by Maurice Goldbloom
America's intervention in helping to repulse the Communist threat in Greece has been a matter of much concern among liberals sensitive to charges of “American imperialism.” Here, Maurice J.

Disraeli: The Chosen of History:
Uniting the Old Jerusalem and the New

by Philip Rieff
For Benjamin Disraeli, one critic has remarked, England was the “Israel of his imagination.” It might further be said that exactly because England was for Disraeli this imaginary Israel, he was able to create in English politics and letters a new tone, a new style of life, a new cast of mind—which, ironically enough, have since come to represent the “typically English.” Philip Rieff here explores the relation between Disraeli's myth of Israel (and of himself as one of the Chosen of History) and his quite substantial effects on English society. _____________   George Saintsbury thought not only that Disraeli “founded a remarkable school of fiction,” but that his politics were as romantic as his fiction.

A Warsaw Fighter in Israel:
A Visit with Antek

by Zelda Popkin
In Israel cabinets fall, bread is scarce and butter non-existent, and the buses most distinctly don't run on time. But one great and overriding fact remains—to the vast majority of the lost and defeated who survived Hitler, this land gave haven and a home.

The Illusion
by David Ignatow
She was saying mad things, like To hell with the world! Love is all you need! Go on and get it! What are you waiting for!

The Day the FBI Came to Our House:
America's Security Police in Action

by Harry Gersh
Came the 1950's, and thousands of quite law-abiding Americans found themselves undergoing an experience novel to the American scene: the FBI came to their homes and asked them to talk about someone they knew—not in the way of idle gossip, but to help fill out an FBI dossier.

Death of a Genius:
The Last Days of Thomas Wolfe

by Hans Meyerhoff
This description of the last days of the novelist Thomas Wolfe, presented here as a continuous narrative, is constructed from numerous conversations with the novelist's sister. _____________   This happened in Washington, D.C., on September 15, 1948, when I was looking for a room.

Next of Kin:
A Story

by Edgar Rosenberg
The day after we left Antwerp on the “Germania,” one of the crew—I had never seen him nor did I ever discover his name—a young sailor, a mere boy, barely twenty years old, died quite suddenly.

From the American Scene: Jewish Editor: Frontier Style
by Ben Lappin
According to legend, the small-town American editor must be the master of all trades, crafts, arts, and professions, handling everything from the recovery of lost cows to the mending of broken marriages.

The Sabbath Bride
by Saul Touster
The world comes and goes with the Sabbath Bride And hid in the folds of her pure white cloak We are quiet children at her side.       O who has not risen at her stroke To greet her with neither wonder nor despair But with a pure domestic calm? Open the book of brightness and prepare For her coming, attend her with a psalm.       There comes a lull in striving and in the house, Full with the joy of what we put aside, She moves, familiarly, a gentle spouse.       The world comes and goes with the Sabbath Bride. The world comes and goes with the Sabbath Bride, Celebrant in the train of her fullness, As we, enhanced by her bright tide,       Ascend to the last day we bless. Declining, in veiled night, she holds until She implicates the world we know. We reach, she is disengaged, the stars are still— First the long slow climb, then the letting go.       O dream, dream the six eternities and tend To the empty house, tend to those who have died. This, now, is the incommensurable end.       The world comes and goes with the Sabbath Bride. _____________  

Cedars of Lebanon: All Things Are Possible
by Lev Shestov
The name of Shestov is almost completely unknown in America. Three of his books, it is true, have been translated into English: Penultimate Words and Other Essays (1916); All Things Are Possible (with a foreword by D.

On the Horizon: Exodus: Adaptation by Sholem Asch
by Leslie Fiedler
The modern popularizer of religious legend, however religious himself, often succeeds in his task only by filtering out of the legend all that gives it religious significance.

The Study of Man: New Light on the Races of Man
by Don Hager
Caught between nationalist and fascist affirmers of the significance of “race” on the one hand, and vocal liberal deniers of any meaningfulness to the concept on the other, the ordinary man scarcely knows what to believe.

A Treasury of Jewish Humor, edited by Nathan Ausubel
by David Daiches
Is this Jewish Humor? A Treasury of Jewish Humor. by Nathan Ausubel. Doubleday. 735 pp. $5.00.   In compiling this massive anthology—and himself translating many of its items from the Yiddish—Mr.

Cairo to Damascus, by John Roy Carlson, and Eternal Stranger, by Lawrence Resner
by George Goldberg
Jews and the Arab World Cairo to Damascus. by John Roy Carlson. Knopf. 474 pp. $4.50. Eternal Stranger: The Plight of the Modern Jew from Baghdad to Casablanca. by Lawrence Resner. Doubleday.

The Catcher in the Rye, by J. D. Salinger
by William Poster
Tomorrow's Child The Catcher in the Rye. by J. D. Salinger. Little, Brown. 276 pp. $3.00.   The hallmark of a certain kind of art, it used to be said, is the shock of recognition.

Georges Sorel, Prophet Without Honor, by Richard Humphrey
by Paul Kecskemeti
Philosopher of Violence Georges Sorel, Prophet Without Honor. (Harvard Historical Studies, Volume lix.) by Richard Humphrey. Harvard. 311 pp. $4.00.   A few thinkers in the 19th century had foreseen the coming reversion of politics to a pattern of violence and irrationality; in a complacent and optimistic age, their disillusioned clear-sightedness was exceptional and admirable.

Bride of the Sabbath, by Samuel Ornitz
by Isa Kapp
The Shock of Enlightenment Bride of the Sabbath. by Samuel Ornitz. Rinehart. 410 pp. $3.75.   For certain Jewish intellectuals, the crucial aspect of their relation to the East Side ghetto of their childhood was the shock of emancipation from it.

The Memoirs of Ernst von Weizsacker, by John Andrews
by H. Trevor-Roper
The Silent Opposition The Memoirs of Ernst von Weizsäcker. by John Andrews. Regnery. 322 pp. $5.00.   In 1949 Baron Ernst von Weizsäcker was condemned at Nuremberg to seven years' imprisonment on a charge of war crimes.

Reader Letters January 1952
by Our Readers
Beyond Containment To ... ? To THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Since the publication of my article "Beyond Containment to Liberation" (September 1951 ), I have received a most striking lesson in the American practice of democracy.

February, 1952Back to Top
by Our Readers
To the Editor: William and Sarah Schack, the joint writers of the highly interesting article on “1,001 Nights in the Yiddish Theater,” published in the November 1951 issue of your esteemed journal, say that Solomon Ettinger's Serkele was first printed in Johannesburg, South Africa, in 1861.

Judaism at Work
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Let me congratulate you on the article “Jewish Work-Camp in Indianapolis” by Irwin Stark which appeared in the January issue of COMMENTARY. While it is true that the things Irwin Stark has said have been said many more times, it is rare, today, in these days where liberalism is on the defensive because of the “cold war” situation, to find a group who are willing to act on things they believe.

When the FBI Comes
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It is not easy to see what purpose Mr. Gersh had in writing “The Day the FBI Came to Our House” (January 1952) beyond his patent pleasure in portraying his family life for a Saturday Evening Post cover. He is very far from taking the position that one ought not to squeal on one's neighbors to the secret police.

The Study of Man
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Each issue of COMMENTARY contains at least two or three articles of considerable interest to students of the social sciences.

“Cairo to Damascus”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Comparing the review of John Roy Carlson's book Cairo to Damascus, presented in the January 1952 COMMENTARY by George Z.

Disraeli and Jewish Emancipation
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Philip Rieff's article (“Disraeli: The Chosen of History” in the January issue) passes over one interesting aspect of the conflict between Disraeli's Jewish pride and his Christian-Tory principles.

What to do about “Dangerous” Textbooks:
The Pitfalls of Pressure Tactics

by Edward Saveth
When parents pore over their children's textbooks, there is cause for wonder. When parents and others begin to read with a censor's eye—watch out!

The Germans Stumble Along the Road Back: In the Backwash of the Great Crime

by Norbert Muhlen
Despite a large-scale riot outside the Knesset building in Jerusalem, the Israeli government has recently decided to open negotiations with West Germany for an indemnity for Nazi crimes against the Jews.

The Germans Stumble Along the Road Back: Behind Reawakened German Nationalism
by Herbert Luthy
There are few phenomena more baffling to the American observer than the political struggle now taking place in Western Germany between the tendencies led by Kurt Schumacher and Konrad Adenauer.

When Americans Emigrate to Israel:
A Report on Some Latter-Day Pioneers

by Hal Lehrman
Last summer, at the World Zionist Congress in Jerusalem, there was a terrific row, with the Israelis demanding accusingly of the American delegates: Where are your American Zionists? Why don't they come to Israel? Since that time, these questions have been repeated ever more insistently by Israeli spokesmen-and the quarrel has been continued over here.

by Howard Sackler
Even as this latest weakening snow Sifts the morning darkness, Adding another livid lid to walks and           gables, The many-footed phantoms are already           about. Winter has mothered them And we have sired with stubborn appetite; They move without now, setting Their tantalizing footprints along the           snow, In our usual paths. How we have sinned in this anxious year: Wedding with the ‘barren’ season Who brought us dread increase, Lashing our gnomish joys to smaller caves, Tending our kindness with the humpbacked          questions, Gagging our charity with a little ice. The true horned gate is not below But everywhere with us, at each man's            doorway; Soon some will pass through to the waiting            snow, (That even now is gentle at the window) And exclaim:       What tracks are these?       And those that vanish at the threshold?       And there, so faintly pressed?       And here, and here?       Save us, who shall save us from                  these ghosts;       How long shall the river stay smooth                  and cold       That always burst long before this       And swept the sweating edges with its                  waking? And others will roam Their strangely stepped dooryards, Like impounded wolves Gnawing at the frozen despair of their           neighbors:              At what time? When?       And who has seen? And the wise men, Our counsellors Of the frozen viscera, Will keep indoors; Their sleet-dyed faces will turn from the           glass, And each will bloody his own cheeks To conjure shame for all the vows That we have made with Winter, Then pray in stealth that Heaven may            become Interested, at least, in this, Our chilly pact.

Just How Bad Is Congress?
A Balance Sheet as of 1952

by Robert Bendiner
Congress is in session again, proponents and opponents of sundry legislation are maneuvering for position, pre-election eloquence floods the nation's ears—and not a few citizens turn uneasily away to tend their private gardens.

The Passing of the Batlan:
A Grasshopper Among the Ants of Learning

by Theodor Gaster
However unofficial, the batlan (literally, “idler”) was once as much an institution of Jewish life as the synagogue or the marriage contract.

Lincoln Steffens: He Covered the Future:
The Prototype of a Fellow-Traveler

by Granville Hicks
Many Americans who in the 1930's turned toward a faith in the Russian Revolution and Communism found a special support and comfort in the familiar, home-grown figure of Lincoln Steffens.

A Story

by Prudencio Pereda
I thought, when I was young, that you worked according to your nationality. We were Spanish, and my father, grandfather, and uncles were all in the cigar business.

From the American Scene: Heritage
by Shlomo Katz
The debris of history and life is stored in those three trunks in the unused guest room, and must be reexamined annually in a ritual that remains the firmest point of contact between generations.

Cedars of Lebanon: Toward a New Jewish Learning
by Franz Rosenzweig
When, in 1919, Franz Rosenzweig—then thirty-three years old—returned from war service and finished his magnum opus, Der Stern der Erlösung (“The Star of Redemption”), he decided to resist the temptation to write more books, and devoted himself instead to the reconstruction of Jewish higher education in his native Germany.

On the Horizon: When Do You Call It Treason?
by Nathan Glick
In two current movies, The Desert Fox and Decision Before Dawn, the leading figures are all military men, involved in very different ways with something called “treason.” These movies, here analyzed by Nathan Glick, reflect the peculiar problems raised for the military mind by politics and war in our age, as well as the contrasting approaches of Germans, Britons, and Americans to the dilemmas involved in working for the enemy against one's own government.

The Study of Man: Why Jews Stay Sober
by Nathan Glazer
A proverbial “character trait” of the Jews for at least the last few hundred years has been their moderation in the use of alcohol.

Melville Goodwin, USA, by John P. Marquand
by Saul Bellow
The State of Success Melville Goodwin, USA. by John P. Marquand. Little, Brown. 596 pp. $3.75.   A novel by John P. Marquand is a curious social formation.

A Partisan History of Judaism, by Elmer Berger
by Milton Himmelfarb
Anti-Zionist Ideology: Religious Style A Partisan History of Judaism. by Elmer Berger. Devin-Adair. 140 pp. $3.00.   Fanaticism, in Santayana's definition, consists in redoubling your effort when you have forgotten your aim.

The Conformist, by Alberto Moravia
by Paolo Milano
The Passionate Bureaucrat The Conformist. by Alberto Moravia. Translated by Angus Davidson. Farrar, Straus and Young. 376 pp. $3.50.   In 1937, an Italian anti-Fascist leader, Carlo Rosselli, who had carried on his struggle at home in Italy, in Paris, and finally in Spain during the Civil War, was murdered in France by French Fascists.

Fulfillment, by Rufus Learsi
by Robert Weltsch
A Zionist History Fulfillment: The Epic Story of Zionism. by Rufus Learsi. World Publishing Company. 426 pp. $5.00.   Mr. Learsi's book is well written, carefully composed, and it sums up a wide range of relevant facts, moving with intelligence and skill over a subject of immense complexity; its language is mostly moderate and restrained, and the general reader can get from it a good picture of the historical and spiritual forces which created the mystique of Zionism and the modern Zionist movement. But, like most histories of Zionism, this book is mainly a piece of propaganda, and this harms its value as a historical work.

The Conduct of Life, by Lewis Mumford
by C. Grattan
Mumford's “Third Course” The Conduct of Life. by Lewis Mumford. Harcourt, Brace. 342 pp. $5.00.   For twenty years Lewis Mumford has been engaged upon a tetralogy dealing with the human condition, of which the successive volumes have been Technics and Civilization (1934), The Culture of Cities (1938), The Condition of Man (1944), and now The Conduct of Life.

Reader Letters February 1952
by Our Readers
Disraeli and Jewish Emancipation To THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Philip Rieff's article ("Disraeli: The Chosen of History" in the January issue) passes over one interesting aspect of the conflict between Disraeli's Jewish pride and his Christian-Tory principles.

March, 1952Back to Top
The Abstemious Jew
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Nathan Glazer's article “Why Jews Stay Sober” (February 1952) was both enlightening on the work done so far in this area and disturbing in some of its own interpretations. I cite the following points: The question of whether R.

America in Israel
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Hal Lehrman (“When Americans Emigrate to Israel,” February 1952) really does an excellent job in describing the ideological, emotional, and practical difficulties facing the American pioneer in Israel.

Mr. Daiches Replies
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Ausubel defines Jewish humor as “humor created by Jews about Jews anywhere in the world.” That still would not justify the inclusion of such things as the poem by Dorothy Parker which I cited: that was not about Jews.

On Jewish Humor
by Our Readers
To the Editor: “Only the angels in Heaven agree on everything,” my zaydeh told me when I was a little boy.

Who Is Guilty of the Katyn Massacre?
The Truth at the Bottom of the Pit

by G. Hudson
Editorial Note: As a magazine devoted to Jewish affairs and contemporary issues, and particularly to the analysis of events bearing upon the liberties and decencies that we as individuals and as groups enjoy in civilized lands, COMMENTARY has from the first regarded totalitarianism, fascist, Nazi, or Communist, as a matter for vigilant and intelligent scrutiny.

The Driving Force Behind Soviet Imperialism:
Is it a New Menace or the Old Bear Reawakened?

by Peter Meyer
Peter Meyer is an authority on Russian and East European politics and history, and has written on this area for various periodicals.

George Orwell and the Politics of Truth:
Portrait of the Intellectual as a Man of Virtue

by Lionel Trilling
Few writers in the English-speaking world have written more penetratingly than Lionel Trilling on the problems of culture, art, and morality in our time.

“Civil Liberties,” 1952—A Study in Confusion:
Do We Defend Our Rights by Protecting Communists?

by Irving Kristol
Among the devilishly complex problems that Communism has forced on America is the one of protecting American institutions from Communist infiltration without at the same time defeating our own traditions of civil liberty.

The Man Who Invented the Commandos:
Wingate of Palestine

by Edwin Samuel
I read with deep interest Tosca Fyvel's memoir of Orde Wingate in COMMENTARY [February 1951], in which he mentions Wingate's role in devising what later became famous as “commando tactics.” As it happens, I am able to supplement Fyvel's account with some hitherto unpublished information about the circumstances surrounding Wingate's daring military innovations. Orde Wingate was my neighbor in Jerusalem in 1937 and 1938, when he and his strikingly beautiful wife Lorna came to live in the Christian Arab quarter of Talbiah.

The Religious Stirring on the Campus:
A Student Generation “Accessible to Good

by Will Herberg
During the past quarter-century or so, religion on the American college campus has been commonly described as consisting of trite sermons by frustrated chaplains to a bored and indifferent student body.

Israel's Press Mirrors the New State:
What the Papers Say and Who Reads Them

by Ernest Stock
The traveler who likes to orient himself in new surroundings by glancing through a sheaf of local newspapers is likely to find it tough going in Israel, even if he is up on contemporary Hebrew journalese; for the organs of a dozen political parties, and of a dozen immigrant groups of different backgrounds, all seem to have quite varying notions of what is newsworthy and why.

The Golden Years:
A Story

by Sylvia Rothchild
If anyone had told Simon Halpern a year ago that he would soon spend every day sitting on a park bench instead of in front of a sewing machine, he would surely have laughed.

The Figure
by David Ignatow
He was harmless but this torn-at-the-knee-and-elbow character, bearded, rough hat pulled down over the eyes, his soiled clothes bag slung upon his back—he was itinerary; standing still for one idle moment along the curb, his head turned gazing at what nobody could see exactly; still he stood gazing—men passed him by unheeding, chattering their wares to one another; this character, silent, the street busily flowing, seemed an apostle. _____________  

From the American Scene: The Code According to Mama-Tante-Mom
by Harry Gersh
For an age that has lost its bearings, Harry Gersh offers here a brief digest of the precepts he learned from Mama, Tante, and Mom, three expounders of the moral law, with special reference to the Eighth Commandment: “Thou shalt not steal.” Mr.

Cedars of Lebanon: The Hallowing of the Name
by Hugo Bergmann
In Hebrew the term for martyrdom is kiddush ha-Shem, which means literally “sanctification of the Name,” as mystical experience is referred to as “the unification of the Name.” On the surface, this seems like a mere periphrasis, a flight of pious rhetoric.

On the Horizon: The Movie Camera and the American
by Robert Warshow
I am not one of those who responded strongly to Death of a Salesman when it was presented on the stage.

The Study of Man: Will Births Outstrip Mankind's Resources?
by Morton Clurman
A hundred and fifty years ago, a British cleric drew some startling conclusions from the fact that, while the earth's surface is limited, man's capacity for reproduction is not.

Israel: The Beginning and Tomorrow, by Hal Lehrman
by Richard Crossman
An American View of Israel Israel: The Beginning and Tomorrow. by Hal Lehrman. Sloane Associates. 388 pp. $3.75.   There is little doubt that this is the best book on Israel to date.

Judaism and Modern Man, by Will Herberg
by Nahum Glatzer
The Decision of Faith Judaism and Modern Man. An Interpretation of Jewish Religion. by Will Herberg. Farrar, Straus and Young, and the Jewish Publication Society of America.

In the Absence of Angels, by Hortense Calisher
by Isa Kapp
The Sag of the Heart In the Absence of Angels. by Hortense Calisher. Little, Brown. 243 pp. $3.00.   If so many modern short stories, despite their spry manner and bright diction, settle into inevitable pallor, it is because their writers begin from such a misty and colorless notion of themselves.

Breviaire de la Haine: Le IIIe Reich et les Juifs, by Leon Poliakov
by Hannah Arendt
The History of the Great Crime Brévaire de la Haine: Le Iiie Reich et les Juifs (“Breviary of Hate: The Third Reich and the Jews”). by Léon Poliakov. Calmann-Lévy, Paris.

David and Bathsheba, by Ari Ibn-Zahav
by Robert Langbaum
David in Love David and Bathsheba. by Ari Ibnzahav. Translated from the Hebrew by I. M. Lask. Crown. 375 pp. $3.50.   This novel, first published in Palestine about twenty years ago and now in its nineteenth Hebrew edition, advances the proposition that David did not see Bathsheba for the first time when, at the height of his career, he looked down from his palace roof into Uriah's garden.

Reader Letters March 1952
by Our Readers
On Jewish Humor To THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: "Only the angels in Heaven agree on every- thing," my zaydeh told me when I was a little boy.

April, 1952Back to Top
Two Corrections
by Our Readers
Two Corrections To the Editor: In my article “In the Backwash of the Great Crime” (February 1952), the editorial condensation of one passage resulted in the statement that “the stereotype of the Jew as a parasitic ‘enemy of society’ has always been a special obsession of the Germans.” In fact, I think there is no such thing as an obsession of “the Germans,” who comprise sixty million individuals, with no more of a collective personality than any other people.

Judaism and the Jewish People
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I should like to comment on Mr. Himmelfarb's review of my A Partisan History of Judaism in the February 1952 issue of COMMENTARY. 1.

Racist Dress Rehearsal for November:
The South's “Conservative Revolution” Tastes Victory

by Samuel Lubell
Ever since the election of 1936, the theme of a possible Southern breakaway from the national Democratic party has been a favorite one for political speculation.

What “The Song Of Songs” Means:
“The Time of Singing is Come. . . .”

by Theodor Gaster
This month, as on every Passover, the beautiful—and more than a little problematical—verses of the Song of Songs will be chanted in the synagogue.

The Responsibility for the China Decisions:
The Shifting Line of American Group Mentality

by Herrymon Maurer
We present in this issue two articles on U.S. foreign policy, the first by Herrymon Maurer, focusing on the China problem, the second an analysis of the approach prescribed by George Kennan for the task of dealing with Soviet aggression.

Can Old-Time Diplomacy Check Soviet Power?
Mr. Kennan and the Politics of Containment

by Sidney Hertzberg
Like Mr. Maurer, whose article precedes his in these pages, Mr. Hertzberg belongs to that, at the moment, not altogether fashionable school of political thinkers that believes there is an important relation between ideals and morals, on the one hand, and governmental policy and practice on the other.

The Golden Age of Tomashefsky:
At the Tables Down at Schreiber's

by S. Blumenson
In the golden age of the Yiddish theater, when Tomashefsky strode the boards and Gordin ruled the literary roost, the drama was almost as burning a subject as politics.

Where Journalism Must Draw the Line:
A European Reacts to Collier's “The War We Do Not Want”

by Andre Prudhommeaux
When that sensational issue of Collier's came out on October 27, 1951, in which articles by prominent writers described the course of World War III as if it had already taken place, there was a roar of outrage.

When Secularism Came to Russian Jewry:
Even in the Old Country the Process Had Gone Far

by Herbert Parzen
It is a rare man who can see the true character of his ancestors clearly, and it is perhaps even rarer for a people to have a true notion of its own past.

The Gay Dog
A Story

by Hans Rosenhaupt
Had my Uncle Ernst lived, he would be seventy-five this spring. He was forty-five when I first saw him, but the top of his head was already bald.

From the American Scene: Travels of Benjamin the Fund-Raiser
by Judd Teller
Benjamin of Tudela, that great Jewish voyager of the turbulent 12th century, visited almost 300 places, from Provence to India.

Cedars of Lebanon: The Song of Songs
by Our Readers
This English version of the Song of Songs is from the Jewish Publication Society's edition of The Holy Scriptures (1917).

On the Horizon: The Meteoric Velikovsky
by Gerard Wilk
Just when everyone has pretty much recovered from the excitement of Worlds in Collision—that saga of the ancient encounter between the comet Venus and the planet Earth, as a result of which the earth stood still for a day—Immanuel Velikovsky will shortly be in the news again with his second book, Ages in Chaos.

The Knife in the Ground
by Ralph Gordon
Behind the house, the informal bare ground wet With shadow lies, the morning through, and there At the house well, an old-handled knife, deep set Into the earth, stands.

The Study of Man: The New Historians of Israel
by H. Schmidt
The Israel historian is only one of a number of specialists whose work, written in a language that is rarely studied in the West, is inaccessible to his non-Jewish—and many of his Jewish—colleagues.

Hitler's Interpreter: The Secret History of German Diplomacy, by Paul Schmidt
by Francis Golffing
The Pure Functionary Hitler's Interpreter: The Secret History of German Diplomacy. By Paul Schmidt. Macmillan. 286 pp. $4.00.   If in this book Dr. Schmidt—German Foreign Office translator and interpreter from 1923 until 1945—fails to define himself as the perfect paradigm of the time-server, it is for one reason only: there are elements of the flunky in his make-up and attitudes which run counter to our rather tough, masculine notion of opportunism.

Bella, Bella Kissed a Fella, by Arthur Kober
by Isaac Rosenfeld
From This He Makes a Living? Bella, Bella Kissed a Fella. By Arthur Kober. Random House. 206 pp. $2.75.   The stereotypes of Jews which I dislike the most are the ones that Jews themselves develop; and of these, I have a special distaste for Arthur Kober's.

Capitalism and Socialism on Trial, by Fritz Sternberg
by George Lichtheim
Economics and War Capitalism and Socialism on Trial. By Fritz Sternberg. John Day. 576 pp. $6.50.   Are the major wars of this century due to rivalry between expanding imperialist powers? And if so, is imperialist expansion inherent in the capitalist system as Marx described it? Neither thesis finds much support in Marx's own writings, but both have been developed by Marxist authors with some help from liberals, such as J.

The Magic People, by Arland Ussher
by Mark Raven
The Irishman and the Jew The Magic People. By Arland Ussher. Devin-Adair. 177 pp. $2.75.   There are thousands of ways of writing a book about the Jews, and most of them have already been tried.

Chosen Country, by John Dos Passos
by Nathan Glick
A Rediscovery of America Chosen Country. By John Dos Passos. Houghton Mifflin. 485 pp. $4.00.   Modesty is a vanishing quality in serious American fiction, and part of the pleasure one takes in John Dos Passos' new book comes from the novelty of its sober, almost old-fashioned craft.

Reader Letters April 1952
by Our Readers
Judaism and the Jewish People To THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I should like to comment on Mr. Himmel- farb's review of my A Partisan History of Ju- daism in the February 1952 issue of COMMEN- TARY. I.

May, 1952Back to Top
Mr. Kristol Comments
by Our Readers
To the Editor The purpose of this comment is to clarify certain aspects of my own views that seem open to misinterpretation, and to explore, a bit further, points in my original article which I had there to pass over quickly. I did not mean to give the impression of being light-heartedly casual about the University of California loyalty oath.

“Civil Liberties”: 1952
by Our Readers
To the Editor You have performed a first-rate public service by publishing Mr. Irving Kristol's trenchant and illuminating article on '”Civil Liberties,' 1952—A Study in Confusion” (March 1952).

Why Asians Hate the West:
The Third Phase in the Orient

by G. Hudson
Asia is in a convulsion, everyone knows; almost everyone even thinks he knows what the cause is, and terms like “nationalism,” “anti-imperialism,” “colonial revolution,” etc., are bandied freely about, as are sure-fire solutions: “Asian TVA's,” “economic reconstruction,” “land partition,” etc.

The Diary of Anne Frank:
The Secret Heart Within the Secret Annex

by Anne Frank
Editorial Note: From some early omitted entries of the journal we here publish, we learn that in 1933, at the start of the Nazi persecutions, the Jewish businessman Otto Frank picked up his family and removed from Germany to Holland.

Power in America
by Harvey Shapiro
The struck animal, blurred By subsequent hours, lies Upon the road, hunched fur     and spirit. At night, drawn by the hum of power, Then doubled into pain, sight smashed, It caught the radicals of Descending speed, their brilliance. Or the boy in Dreiser's novel, That blind head, felled By the big city hotel, Its monolithic shine and scramble. Even Crane, who tried to make A shining steel structure of a bridge Lead him out, caught by the brilliance That kills, in America. As at the movie's close, Man alone, against the wall, Watches the lights move in, The fugitive, hatless there. And we, thrilled into our fear, See the enormously wheeled clatter, Glistening, never in error, Rise to break his back. _____________  

A Day in the Life of a Senator:
The Congressional Office: 1952

by Stephen Bailey
What our legislators actually do, and how they do it, most of us have only the haziest notion. Believing that a complete description of a typical day in the life of a legislator might create a clearer concept of the processes of government, Stephen Kemp Bailey and Howard D.

The First Fruits and the Giving of the Law:
The Meaning of Shavuoth

by Theodor Gaster
Continuing his series of articles on the Jewish holidays, THEODOR H. GASTER here describes the daring transformation of Shavuoth or the “Feast of Weeks” (which falls this year on May 30) from a primitive bucolic festival to a joyous yet solemn celebration of the giving of the Law.

Britain's Jewish Intellectuals Look Ahead:
Israel Grants a New Lease on Life

by Barnet Litvinoff
American Jews will find much that is familiar in this description of the inner stresses of England's changing postwar Jewish community.

The Near East's Communist-Fascist Front:
An Ominous Alliance Against Israel and the West

by Mark Alexander
The startling turn of events in the Middle East, of which this article informs us, is a matter spelled out in flaming headlines in Cairo, Damascus, Bagdad, Jerusalem, and elsewhere; but the portentous story and the complex forces behind it are known only in inadequate outline to the West.  _____________   Not altogether unexpectedly, recent events in Persia, Egypt, Syria, and elsewhere have advertised the Middle East as one of the major troubled areas of the world.

My Mrs. Schnitzer
A Story

by Sylvia Rothchild
I was standing next to the kitchen stove, peering into the array of pots, basking in the warmth and abundance of home.

Early Evening, Deep South
by LeGarde Doughty
Slyer than birds with throats more rare to touch than rubies are, the small bronze tone slips through a haze of bacon smoke and troubles silence over fields of grass. The bell is nowhere, yet it always is; just there, out of sight; the far slope of the        hill; perhaps a long mile by some indolent road. You never know where it is, but always       Know it rocks in a scarry whitewashed tower you could thump a pebble to if somehow you could ever come to it. Women with sweet black faces and kind, motherly bosoms rounded deep in flowered cotton move through sand-paths you shall never       print. They speak words blurry as tufts       of wool; and tall men hear and mumble licoriced       tobacco in their cheeks. The earth turns a little, a little, and a cloud drifts, deeper pink, and a double pine door closes, and.

The Hebrew University in Exile:
A Visit to Mount Scopus

by Norman Bentwich
Cut off from Jewish Jerusalem by a strip of Arab-held territory, the Hebrew University and Hadassah Hospital buildings on Mt.

From the American Scene: Orthodox Sweets for Heterodox New York
by Morris Freedman
Out of a smooth blend of Viennese charm, American merchandising, and Jewish Orthodoxy, have grown the Barton's candy shops, which in twelve years have spread over the face of New York asking a single loaded (with calories and what else not) question: if it isn't a box of Barton's, is it right for a Jewish home? (This concept is Barton's, and does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the editors of COMMENTARY or its sponsor, or the stockholders of Loft's or Barricini's.) Morris Freedman reports this new development on the American scene. _____________   “In America, candy was too serious,” Stephen Klein told me.

Cedars of Lebanon: Two Newly Discovered Psalms
by Our Readers
In the summer of 1947, a Bedouin in search of his lost goat stumbled into a cave near the Dead Sea and came up with what may prove to be one of the great archeological discoveries of the century, in the shape of eleven Hebrew scrolls of the pre-Christian era.

On the Horizon: Leo McCarey's Authoritarian Film
by Nathan Glick
In Leo McCarey's new film, My Son John, Nathan Glick finds an example of that undiscriminating anti-Communism which uses the idea of “Communism” as a stick to beat any and all unpopular ideas or ways of living, and which has prompted many thoughtful people to react away from the necessary task of identifying the Communist threat in serious terms.  _____________   Postwar anti-Communist films like The Iron Curtain, The Red Danube, and I Was a Communist for the FBI proved to be opportunistic celluloid pamphlets, candied snowballs in the cold war, trivial restitution for such wartime falsifications of Soviet reality as Mission to Moscow and North Star.

The Study of Man: What Americans Get Out of College
by Nathan Glazer
The uniqueness of America is nowhere more apparent than in the fact that the college-educated group, which in most countries of the Western world is the elite, is here a mass.

A Social and Religious History of the Jews, by Salo Wittmayer Baron
by William Irwin
God and Jewish History A Social And Religious History Of The Jews. Vols. 1 and 2: Ancient Times. By Salo Wittmayer Baron. Second revised edition.

The Groves of Academe, by Mary McCarthy
by Leslie Fiedler
The Higher Unfairness The Groves Of Academe. by Mary Mccarthy. Harcourt, Brace. 302 pp. $3.50.   I am sure that a good deal of the pleasure I find in reading Mary McCarthy arises out of my sense of how offensive she is (and cannot help being) to a certain kind of reader whom it is important that somebody offend.

Oswald Spengler: A Critical Estimate, by H. Stuart Hughes
by H. Trevor-Roper
An Ideologue of Unreason Oswald Spengler: A Critical Estimate. By H. Stuart Hughes. Scribner's. 176 pp. $2.00.   Oswald Spengler's famous book The Decline of the West was first published in the summer of 1918.

Unambo, by Max Brod
by Herbert Howarth
The Double Liberation Unambo. A Novel of the War in Israel. By Max Brod. Translated by Ludwig Lewisohn. Farrar, Straus and Young. 309 pp.

Five Novels
by Heinz Politzer
Five Novels The Season's Difference. By Frederick Buechner. Knopf. 303 pp. $3.50. The Beetle Leg. By John Hawkes. New Directions. 159 pp. $2.50. The Spirit And The Bride. By H.

Reader Letters May 1952
by Our Readers
"Civil Liberties": 1952 To THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: You have performed a first-rate public service by publishing Mr. Irving Kristol's trenchant and illuminating article on "'Civil Liberties,' 1952 -A Study in Confusion" (March I952).

June, 1952Back to Top
From a Non-Skip Reader
by Our Readers
To the Editor: That was a very touching piece about the Hebrew University, at least touching for one who knows the site, by my friend Norman Bentwich in the May Commentary. Congratulations on the recent issues of Commentary which I found waiting for me on my return from Israel.

Spengler and the Nazis
by Our Readers
To the Editor: H. R. Trevor-Roper's review of Professor Hughes's Oswald Spengler in the May issue is marred by errors of fact and, it seems to me, questionable interpretations.

Seeing What We Look For
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I wonder whether you noticed the amusing disparity of views in your March issue in which, in a review on page 294, Mr.

Footnote On A Cause Célèbre
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The article in your March issue by Irving Kristol, “‘Civil Liberties,’ 1952—A Study in Confusion,” makes reference to a Mrs.

A Subscriber in the Negev
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Perhaps it might be of interest to you how your magazine is received by a group of some one hundred and eighty American halutzim in this remote corner of Israel's southern desert.

The FBI and Mr. Gersh
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The article “The Day the FBI Came to Our House,” which appeared in the January 1952 issue of COMMENTARY, has been brought to my attention.

The Prospects for Peace with the Soviets: Can We Negotiate a Settlement Now?
by Raymond Aron
How should the West react to present and forthcoming Soviet offers for a settlement of outstanding issues? According to some acute political analysts, recent months have witnessed a significant change in Soviet foreign policy, with the Kremlin seeking for the present a “peaceful coexistence” with the West.

The Kremlin's Terms to the West:
Politburo Foreign Policy from the Inside

by Boris Meissner
We know that, ultimately, Stalin rules supreme in the USSR, but we also know that to some degree he is influenced by the opinions of the members of the Politburo.

The Diary of Anne Frank-II:
First Love—and Finis

by Anne Frank
Editorial Note: Here we conclude the diary of Anne Frank, which we began in our last month's issue. The early entries of the diary tell how Anne's father, Otto Frank, had prudently fled Germany for Holland with his wife and two little girls as early as 1933, and, having resumed his successful business, was comfortably enough settled in his Amsterdam home when the lengthening arm of the Gestapo reached there.

Orthodox Judaism Moves with the Times:
The Creativity of Tradition

by Emanuel Rackman
There is a belief in some circles that Orthodox Judaism is a petrified survivor of the past, entirely oblivious to the winds of modern doctrine and the needs of present-day Jewish experience.

Lebanon: Israel's Friendliest Neighbor:
A Middle East Microcosm-with a Difference

by Ray Alan
The little state of Lebanon, Israel's neighbor to the north, is unique among Near Eastern countries in that its population is nearly half-Christian and its culture profoundly French.

Movies Aren't Movies Any More:
The Art of Gimp Takes Over

by Manny Farber
Movie audiences, subjected for the past year or so to a steady diet of massive close-ups, dark symbolism, overheated “atmosphere,” have begun to sense that something new has been added to their favorite entertainment.

In Israel's Green Pastures:
Four Tales by a Reflective Shepherd

by A. Davidson
We Had Some Fine Times Then Maury Nissim was a small, trim, dark-blond fellow whom I knew slightly in France before I went to Israel; knew slightly in Israel the first time I was in Israel, and next heard of again shortly before I left Israel for the second time.

British Socialism's Crisis of Faith:
The Bankruptcy That Comes of Success

by Irwin Ross
In Britain's recent municipal and county elections, the Labor party scored impressive gains. To some extent, no doubt, this merely reflects a natural dissatisfaction with the continuing austerity of life under a Conservative government, despite its campaign promise of “more red meat.” But, in the opinion of many observers, it also presages a return of Labor to power in the next national election.

From the American Scene: Seven Men in Search of a Rabbi
by S. Hecht
Seven men from a small Jewish community in New Jersey go across the Hudson to New York on a mission, and learn—as have hundreds before them—that “returning to Judaism” in our times is no simple matter.

Cedars of Lebanon: Learning Among the Hebrews
by Simone Isaac
The Jews have, on past occasions, liked to refer to themselves as the People of the Book, that is, of the Bible.

Love Story
by Dannie Abse
The convict, Samson, hears the sound of his jailors, throwing dice and cursing, and in his blindness, she who was his lover, now featureless, somewhere in the sunlight walking, her yellow hair a long flame about her head; and she who was his first bride, a phantom haunting the golden fields of Timnath. The convict, Samson, staring at his memories gone like spilt faces into a sunless room, and all her voices melted, untold, unreachable. The plough rusting without labor and tomorrows going out like yellow torches in the wind, like yellow butterflies sinking into the dark river. And he who once was judge, now grieves defeated. —Blood lay on his cheek that night and all her yellow hair spread over; she asleep and quiet in her breathing, and he awake strangely sad, wondering what it had been, where it had been strange— Samson in the prison listening, blind tears rolling from where his eyes were once—betrayed, ah betrayed, and she who was his queen now sipping blue wine, childlike, in the brothels of Philistia.                           No one now remembers, no one. No one now may light his lampless ways toward her. Untold, untold, the sobbing companies of Delilah, her yellow head beneath the chariots; untold, untold, the mute shadow under the shadow of the walls of Gaza, how first she severed her veins but did not die; untold, untold, his blindness on her breath, and the desert wind with its worn accusing voices. He who was blind is now dead, these many years, and she who betrayed him has faded in the dark, both forever lonely now for humans—and the shifting sand has buried deeper the graves of all—untold, untold, only the cold ruins remain, silence and a jawbone, the wind and a footstep under the stern dumb stars, and marvelous ghosts people a yellow page of Judges. _____________  

On the Horizon: A Code of Honor for a Mutinous Era
by Spencer Brown
Spencer Brown examines Herman Wouk's Pulitzer Prize novel, The Caine Mutiny, as a study in power and responsibility—a theme which had virtually disappeared from serious American fiction, but, the times being what they are, may perhaps be expected to regain some of its old importance in the coming years.  _____________ Beaten down by the intellectuals, steady lament of “alienation,” the innocent reader of little magazines may sometimes conclude that, intellectually speaking, Ellis Island is more populous than the continent, and nobody ever manages to become a part of the going life of the mainland except a few traitors who end up in the Lucebuilding and a few mavericks like T.

The Study of Man: The “Old Country” Way of Life
by Moshe Decter
Turning away momentarily from its Melanesians and its Polynesians and its Micronesians, modern anthropology has discovered, not without a healthy sense of wonder, that there used to exist in Eastern Europe a Jewish culture; an account of this discovery has been written down in a new book of extraordinary interest: Life Is With People, by Mark Zborowski and Elizabeth Herzog (International Universities Press, 430 PP., $500), which tries to describe for us the basic culture of a typical small Eastern European Jewish community.

Invisible Man, by Ralph Ellison
by Saul Bellow
Man Underground Invisible Man. by Ralph Ellison. Random House. 439 pp. $3.50. A few years ago, in an otherwise dreary and better forgotten number of Horizon devoted to a louse-up of life in the United States, I read with great excitement an episode from Invisible Man.

The Sabbath: Its Meaning for Modern Man, by Abraham Joshua Heschel
by Will Herberg
Space, Time, And The Sabbath The Sabbath: Its Meaning For Modern Man. by Abraham Joshua Heschel. Farrar, Straus and Young. 118 pp. $2.75.   This slight volume raises some of the most fundamental problems of Jewish faith.

Ticket to Israel, by Judy Shepard and Alvin Rosenfeld
by Hal Lehrman
How to See Israel Ticket to Israel. by Judy Shepard and Alvin Rosenfeld. Rinehart. 305 pp. $3.75.   Some tourists go to Israel determined to love everything in sight, like the charming American lady who gazed enraptured at Jerusalem's antique walls and exclaimed: “Isn't it wonderful what those Zionists have accomplished in just thirty years'?” Most, like any tourists anywhere, run a grim race with ship and plane schedules, grimly checking off places visited and monuments inspected.

Nones, by W. H. Auden
by Harold Norse
So Long As I' Alive Nones by W. H. Auden. Random House. 81 pp. $2.50.   Read The New Yorker, trust in God     And take short views. —“Under Which Lyre” Make me chaste, Lord, but not yet. —“The Love Feast” For Auden, the Unseen (long views) is frankly unpleasant; the love feast is sensual.

The Juggler, by Michael Blankfort
by George Becker
Reluctant in Zion The Juggler. by Michael Blankfort. Little, Brown. 243 pp. $3.00.   There is an element of the “double-take,” or better, of the déjà vu, in contemporary writing about Israel which is one of its arresting features and which sets up an immediate, if not always relevant, tension in the mind of the reader.

Underground: The Story of a People, by Joseph Tenenbaum
by Lucy Dawidowicz
Life And Death of Poland's Jews Underground: The Story Of A People. by Joseph Tenenbaum. Philosophical Library. 532 pp. $4.50.   This book includes a cursory thousand-years history of the Jews in Poland until the German occupation, the story of the life and death of Polish Jewry under the Germans, and, finally, the author's personal reminiscences of his native pre-war Poland and of a trip there in 1946.

Reader Letters June 1952
by Our Readers
The FBI and Mr. Gersh To THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: The article "The Day the FBI Came to Our House," which appeared in the January I952 issue of COMMENTARY, has been brought to my attention.

July, 1952Back to Top
Mr. Kristol Replies
by Our Readers
To The Editor: Somehow or other Mr. Schlesinger has confused me with John T. Flynn. Or perhaps it is simply that, after many years of research in the history of the New Deal, he is primed for a debate with Mr.

Liberty and the Liberal
by Our Readers
To The Editor: Mr. Joseph L. Rauh Jr., in his letter in the May COMMENTARY, fully exposed the feebleness of Mr.

The Immigration Fight Has Only Begun:
Lessons of the McCarran-Walter Setback

by Oscar Handlin
Despite the President's veto, the McCarran-Walter immigration bill is a defeat for those who hoped for revision of the racist immigration laws which for some three decades have nakedly contradicted our democratic principles.

Liberal Judaism as a Living Faith:
It Saved the Religious Possibility for Our Generation

by Robert Langbaum
In an article in the February 1951 issue of COMMENTARY, David Daiches outlined his reasons for feeling that American Judaism, looked at as a whole, had departed so far from the distinctively Jewish tradition as to be left with virtually no reason for existence—at any rate, with no appeal for Mr.

Behind The “Anti-Americanism” of Mr. Bevan:
How Far Will It Take Him—and British Labor?

by George Lichtheim
Aneurin Bevan, who in the event of a Labor victory might yet be the next Prime Minister of Britain, is a bewildering figure.

The Old Days in Dublin:
Some Girlhood Recollections of the 90's

by Jessie Bloom
Jessie S. Bloom, who here reminisces of a Jewish girlhood in Ireland, was born in Dublin in 1887. In 1912 she married Robert Bloom, “also an Irish Litvak,” who had settled in Fairbanks, Alaska, during the Gold Rush.

Our Freedom-and the Rights of Communists:
A Reply to Irving Kristol

by Alan Westin
Irving Kristol's article in the March issue of COMMENTARY, “‘Civil Liberties,’ 1952—A Study in Confusion,” examining critically the arguments of many sincere civil libertarians who assert that an “extreme” anti-Communism is endangering our freedoms, aroused national discussion.

“Anti-Semitism” and the Rosenberg Case:
The Latest Communist Propaganda Trap

by Lucy Dawidowicz
On March 29, 1951, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were convicted of atomic espionage, and it was thought that our society had dealt justly with a case of high treason.

Death of a Grandmother
by Harvey Shapiro
Let me borrow her corpse a little. Over that clown in finest linen, Over that white-dressed dummy, pretty girl, (Dressed for a party, the daughters cried) Let me speak a line. The dead lie in a ditch of fear, In an earth wound, in an old mouth That has sucked them there. My grandmother drank tea, and wailed As if the Wailing Wall kissed her head Beside the kitchen window; While the flaking, green-boxed radio Retailed in Yiddish song And heartache all day long. Or laughter found her, The sly, sexual humor of the grave. Yet after her years of dragging leg, Of yellowed sight, She still found pain enough To polish off the final hours with a shriek. To what sweet kingdom do the old        Jews go? Now mourned by her radio and bed, She wishes me health and children, Who am her inheritor. I sing her a song of praise. She meddled with my childhood Like a witch, and I can meet her Curse for curse in that slum heaven where        we go When this American dream is spent— To give her a crust of bread, a little love.   _____________  

The Vanishing Jew of Our Popular Culture:
The Little Man Who Is No Longer There

by Henry Popkin
Henry Popkin here describes and analyzes one of the most striking phenomena in our popular culture of recent years: the disappearance of Jewish characters, Jewish comedy, and Jewish problems, in short the virtual elimination of a whole area of American life, from treatment in the popular arts.  _____________   In Auden and Isherwood's play The Dog Beneath the Skin, a modern knight-errant bound upon a sacred quest encounters a sinister financier named Grabstein.

The Loan
A Story

by Bernard Malamud
The sweet, the heady smell of Lieb's white bread drew customers in droves long before the loaves were baked. Alert behind the counter, Bessie, Lieb's second wife, discerned a stranger among them, a frail, gnarled man with a hard hat who hung, disjoined, at the edge of the crowd.

From the American Scene: I Got Two, Who Got Three?
by Nathan Halper
Next time you buy your $1.50 ticket to Radio City Music Hall, think of the dear dead days of our youth (some of us) when two seats for the latest Theda Bara romance cost five cents, and if you were lucky you could get away with paying the two-cent half of the deal.

Cedars of Lebanon: From “The Mantle of Elijah”
by Elijah Basyatchi
It was estimated that in 1942 about one hundred Karaite families were living in the United States—a remnant of a once flourishing Jewish “heresy.” The movement itself will soon disappear entirely, if it has not done so already.

On the Horizon: Selling Paris on Western Culture
by Herbert Luethy
A few weeks ago, under the auspices of the Congress for Cultural Freedom, the city of Paris was treated to a large and, from all reports, extremely impressive festival of Western culture.

They Were, We Are
by Jacob Sloan
He Was their text; they were         His commentary. And we today who conceive His hill Eroded by the workings of that sea He once bade DIVIDE—by our will Not to have been His—we Who live in dread of our own history, Not His, hang on His margins, still. Although we do not hope to hear His sound again, we cannot believe That we must serve in His present fear, Like them.

The Study of Man: Explaining the Revolution of Our Time
by Richard Crossman
The Hoover Institute on War, Revolution, and Peace is sponsoring a major series of studies into the nature of the ruling groups in the Soviet Union, Nazi Germany, and the democratic countries.

The Future of American Politics, by Samuel Lubell
by Nathan Glazer
Immigrant Croups in Politics The Future Of American Politics. by Samuel Lubell. Harper. 285 pp. $3.50.   Samuel Lubell's The Future of American Politics is, in this reviewer's opinion, the best book yet written on American politics of the last twenty years; and if a better one should appear, it is hard to see how it could be anything but a further development of the basic pattern laid down by Lubell. Most of what Lubell has to say is by way of explaining the series of Democratic victories that began in 1932.

The Need for Roots, by Simone Weil
by Lionel Abel
A Good Mind and the Good The Need For Roots. by Simone Weil. Translated from the French by Arthur Wills. Putnam. 302 pp.

Blood, Oil and Sand, by Ray Brock
by Morroe Berger
Middle East Confidential Blood, Oil And Sand. by Ray Brock. World. 246 pp. $3.50.   Blood, Oil And Sand offers the globe-trotting journalist's standard mixture of frenetic prose, pointless anecdote, name-dropping, innuendo, aimless detail, dopestering, miscellaneous information, warnings to the folks back home who are serenely unaware of “powder kegs” all over the world.

Spark of Life, by Erich Maria Remarque
by Heinz Politzer
Concentration Camp Novel Spark Of Life. by Erich Maria ReMarque. Translated from the German by James Stern. Appleton-Century-Crofts. 365 pp. $3.75.   Since All Quiet on the Western Front Erich Maria Remarque has been a virtuoso in playing with deadly serious issues.

Tongue of the Prophets, by Robert St. John
by Ralph Weiman
Birth of Modern Hebrew Tongue Of The Prophets by Robert St. John. Doubleday. 377 pp. $4.00.   This book is the first extended study of Eliezer Ben Yehuda and the revival of Hebrew; and it is written, not as one might have expected by a professional Hebrew scholar, but by a novelist and journalist who during a stay in Israel developed an interest in the man who had dedicated his life to the restoration of a dead language.

Reader Letters July 1952
by Our Readers
Liberty and the Liberal To THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Mr. Joseph L. Rauh Jr., in his letter in the May COMMENTARY, fully exposed the feebleness of Mr.

August, 1952Back to Top
On Movies
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . Out of a scattering of separate acute insights, two over-all impressions remained with me from Manny Farber's “Movies Aren't Movies Any More,” in the June COMMENTARY.

“Commentary” in Israel
by Our Readers
To the Editor: While staying in the Rest-Home in Kibbutz Shefayim last week, I happened to find in the reading room the February 1952 issue of COMMENTARY. This is the first time that I have seen this periodical in Israel and I want to tell you how favorably I have been impressed by its contents.

The New Immigration Law
by Our Readers

A Soviet Decree
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In order to rescue an innocent bystander from being hurt, I take the liberty of calling the attention of the reviewer of my book Underground (in the June number of COMMENTARY) to the fact that the “alleged Soviet decree, issued by Kalinin at the end of 1941, ordering the evacuation of Jews from the path of Germans,” did not appear in a “pro-Soviet Yiddish book” but in a most authoritative study on the subject written by Moshe Kaganovich, who is in charge of the Central Historical Commission of the Union of Jewish Partisans in Italy.

The Katyn Massacre
by Our Readers
To the Editor: G. F. Hudson's thoughtful analysis of evidence in “Who is Guilty of the Katyn Massacre?” (COMMENTARY, March 1952) points to the conclusion that the 11,000 Polish officers were murdered by the Russians.

Storm Clouds Over the Bolivian Refuge:
South America's New Pattern of Anti-Semitism

by Sherry Mangan
The recent rise of anti-Semitism in Latin American countries has disturbed Jews all over the world, but its causes and accompanying factors still remain largely veiled by a general lack of knowledge of the social and political conflicts which underlie the new threat.

Is Progressive Education a Failure?
Some of the Current Criticisms Examined

by J. Gray
Taking at face value the war cries of the embattled hosts in the current struggle over the public schools, one might almost think oneself in the presence of a duel to the death between fascism and Communism.

The Dancer
by David Ignatow
It wasn't to shake her body that she danced nor to make eyes either, but to spell in one motion cat, dog, pig and waterfall; by a flip of the hip or wrist or twist of the torso: goat, lamb, wind and lover. She rolled upon the floor and bit her nails, leaped up and grabbed the air; swung her head low between her knees and walked that way, her arms dropping between her outstretched legs: an old man, an elephant and a stalking tiger; and just plain being tired of it all. Flat upon her back, she was the world before Columbus' time, with here and there a shape thrown outwards, her stomach breathing, her breasts sloping down from the world's edge. With morning at the window and a drink, she stretches forward to touch toes: the world coming together, for one more show. _____________

The Chances of a Mao-Stalin Rift:
Will China's Communists Take the Tito Road?

by Franz Borkenau
Perhaps nothing so divides the free nations today as their varying estimates of Chinese Communism. One section of public opinion believes the Chinese Communists are as totally dependent on Moscow as those of any Cominform affiliate; another sees the possibility of China's becoming a second Yugoslavia.

German Students seek “Peace with the Jews”:
Behind the Fight Against Nazi Movie-Makers

by Hilde Walter
Even before Hitler, the conspicuous political activity of university students in Germany was nationalist and reactionary. Some signs that this situation has changed since 1945 is shown by the stubbornness with which a sizable party of the German student body today resists the return to public life of souvenirs of the Nazi past like Veit Harlan, Goebbels' one-time filmmaker.

America, Land of the Sad Millionaire:
Abraham Cohan's Legend Succeeds Horatio Alger's

by Isaac Rosenfeld
Since its first publication in 1917, Abraham Cahan's The Rise of David Levinsky has had the status of a minor classic, part of the American naturalist tradition and of the Jewish “contribution” to America—in short, a book well spoken of and very rarely read.

Israel's Communists and Fellow-Travelers:
Their Role in Strengthening “Neutralism”

by Mark Alexander
The ignorant slander that Israel is somehow “Communistic” has gained no currency in the face of the patent fact that its dominant political viewpoint and economic patterns are the products of a movement that has bitterly opposed Communism from its birth.

Name-Changing-and What It Gets You:
Twenty-Five Who Did It

by J. Kugelmass
We all know someone who has grown tired of his “outlandish” and “Jewish” surname and tried to make life easier by shortening or “Americanizing” it.

Refuge Under the El:
A Story

by Harold Norse
Always about the place hovers a tall ghostly shadow of the past, in winter and summer wearing a black Homburg, a brown pin-striped suit, and a blue serge overcoat.

There Will Be a Reckoning
by John King-Farlow
God made brown, brown downs Down by the sea, A land of milk and honey, Fit for Israel. They stood Long, long, before we did, Or fought, or spat On His creation. Then rabbits must have run, In safety From man, Though no doubt some wild wolf Must have slavered their blood. “What makes grass green?” The learned professor Asked the startled child, Who looked to the hills for salvation And found it: “What makes it brown?” Great funnels strew their filth Over sky And some who stoke their fires Believe That God made sky. Mechanics— “Any more fares, please, I thang ’oo.” A bell rang And the monster started     on its course. A man stood almost in its way. It made him leap with fright And curse the monster. The monster's pilot cursed him too. There will be a reckoning.

From the American Scene: The Disappearing Small-Town Jew
by Lee Levinger
From the Jewish communities of America's small towns there have come some of the outstanding leaders in both American and Jewish life.

Cedars of Lebanon: Reb Moses Montefiore and the Crimean War
by S. An-sky
S. An-Sky was the pseudonym of the Russian and Yiddish writer Solomon Zanvil Rappoport, best known as author of the play The Dyhhuk.

On the Horizon: The Dialect Comedian Should Vanish
by Sam Levenson
“On the Horizon” this month we find a fairly straight-faced discussion by Sam Levenson of the evils of dialect humor, and a report by Peter Gradenwitz on cultural activities in present-day Israel.  _____________   Henry Popkin, in his article “The Vanishing Jew of Our Popular Culture,” in the July COMMENTARY, laments the fact that hypersensitive people in considerable numbers have protested so vehemently against Jewish dialect humor that as a result it has had to go into hiding.

On the Horizon: Culture in Tel Aviv and Environs
by Peter Gradenwitz
“On the Horizon” this month we find a fairly straight-faced discussion by Sam Levenson of the evils of dialect humor, and a report by Peter Gradenwitz on cultural activities in present-day Israel.  _____________   Tel Aviv At the height of the New York season there are about twenty-five plays and musicals on Broadway; in an average week, there will be at least twenty concerts; about fifteen first-run films are being shown; there is opera and ballet.

The Study of Man: What Do We Know About the Soviet Economy?
by Nicolas Spulber
For many years now, economists studying publications dealing with economic statistics have become accustomed to seeing, under the heading “Soviet Union,” rows of dots, signifying the absence of all information.

The Foot of Pride, by Malcolm Hay
by George Shuster
Christians Against Jews The Foot of Pride. by Malcolm Hay. Beacon Press. 352 pp. $3.75.   Malcolm Hay has devoted most of a busy life to analyzing and deflating legends which have given rise to religious prejudice.

Marx Against the Peasant, by David Mitrany
by Eduard Heimann
Communism and the Land Marx Against the Peasant. A Study in Social Dogmatism. by David Mitrany. University of North Carolina Press. 301 pp.

William Faulkner: A Critical Study, by Irving Howe
by Richard Chase
Howe to Read Faulkner William Faulkner: A Critical Study. by Irving Howe. Random House. 203 pp. $3.00.   Mr. Howe has written a pleasing and helpful introduction to William Faulkner.

Choose Life: The Biblical Call to Revolt, by Eric Gutkind
by Emil Fackenheim
The Judaism of a Radical Optimist Choose Life: The Biblical Call to Revolt. by Eric Gutkind. Schuman. 312 pp. $4.00.   This is a paradoxical book.

A Length of Rope, by Monroe Engel; and The Closest Kin There Is, by Clara Winston
by Pearl Kazin
Two First Novels A Length of Rope. by Monroe Engel. Random House. 246 pp. $3.00. The Closest Kin There is. by Clara Winston. Harcourt, Brace. 244 pp.

Es Geschah in Deutschland, by Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk
by Francis Golffing
A Cipher Who Went Along Es Geschah In Deutschland (“It Happened In Germany”). by Lutz Graf Schwerin Von Krosigk. Tübingen, Rainer Wunderlich. 384 pp.   Ulrich Von Hassel, a German diplomat who was executed by Hitler for his complicity in the assassination attempt of July 20, 1944, wrote in his posthumously published diaries: “Respectable people were shocked to read names like .

Reader Letters August 1952
by Our Readers
The Katyn Massacre To THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: G. F. Hudson's thoughtful analysis of evi- dence in "Who is Guilty of the Katyn Massa- cre?" (COMMENTARY, March 1952) points to the conclusion that the 11,000 Polish officers were murdered by the Russians.

September, 1952Back to Top
On Civil Liberties
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Permit me to thank Irving Kristol for clarifying the meaning of “civil liberties.” On page 85 of the July issue of COMMENTARY, in his answer to Alan F.

The German Students
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The most disturbing aspect of the Veit Harlan controversy (Hilde Walter, “German Students Seek Peace With the Jews,” August 1952) is not the revelation of police brutality and National Socialist sentiment, but rather the clear indication that Germany's idealistic young intellectuals have little conception of the meaning of democracy.

American Orthodoxy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Robert Langbaum's (“Liberal Judaism as a Living Faith,” COMMENTARY, July 1952) choice of Liberal Judaism as a living faith would be more convincing if he presented it .

The Vanishing Jewish Comedian
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In general I agree with the thesis of Sam Levenson in your August issue (“The Dialect Comedian Should Vanish”) that the so-called dialect Jew-comedian is pass6 and we need not mourn his demise.

Shall We Slow Down on FEPC?: Party Maneuvers and Civil Rights Realities
by Oscar Handlin
Around a few great issues in American history—the powers of the federal government, slavery, the taming of the corporations, the great depression—parties have been formed and wrecked.

Shall We Slow Down on FEPC?: Progress Without Federal Compulsion
by Herbert Northrup
Herbert R. Northrup was a consultant to the wartime Fair Employment Practices Committee, and in his book Organized Labor and the Negro (1944) he was one of the first to call for a permanent, compulsory FEPC.

The Jewish Purge in the Satellite Countries:
Behind the Communist Turn to Anti-Semitism

by Peter Meyer
It takes an effort of the imagination to realize that only a few short years ago a major issue of debate in Jewish life was whether it was wiser for the Jews of East Europe to maintain and strengthen their communal and economic institutions or to emigrate to new countries.

The Free American Citizen, 1952:
Our Democracy, Two Years After Korea

by Elliot Cohen
The misunderstanding of the United States by Europeans is an old story: indeed it has been the small change of trans-Atlantic conversation for three generations.

My Child: Jew or Christian?
A Mother Struggles with a Dilemma

by Eleanor Felder
It seems to be American experience that marriages between persons of different religious and “ethnic” backgrounds confront their toughest dilemma in the problem of what kind of religious training, if any, is to be given the children.

The People vs. Ben Gurion's Government:
The Present Crisis in Israel
by Jon Kimche
On the basis of a recent trip to Israel, Jon Kimche attempts here to grasp some roots of the long-range crisis in which the country is engulfed, and which now, most observers report, is particularly urgent.  _____________   The first time I met Ben Gurion he was studying Greek and reading Thucydides; that was ten years ago.

Some Memories of John Dewey:

by Sidney Hook
“These words were written far from New York under the spell of the news about John Dewey's death,” writes SIDNEY HOOK, recognized as one of the foremost interpreters and continuators of Dewey's philosophy, and an intimate friend.

After All, I Was Only Seventeen!
A Story

by Guenther Anders
I met L. at T.'s home. L. is an architect, Jewish, lost his family at Auschwitz; after spending ten years, first in camps, then in hegiras to various countries, he came back to Vienna in 1948.

From the American Scene: Mr. Big Moves to Greener Pastures
by S. Hecht
This is a second contribution from S. T. HECHT'S studies of the not entirely tranquil Jewish shtetl located within Reedville, a town found somewhere between the Hackensack and the Hudson Rivers, and reflecting all the tensions of the half of American Israel that lies beyond the latter stream.

Cedars of Lebanon: The Book of Jonah
by Our Readers
The book of Jonah is read in its entirety during the afternoon service on the day of Yom Kippur, as the Haftorah, the prophetic reading, appended to the reading of the Law.

On the Horizon: An Unknown Treasure of World Literature
by Irving Howe
The publication of Wandering Star (Crown, 314 pp., $3.00), fourth volume of Sholom Aleichem's works to appear in English translation, affords IRVING HOWE an opportunity to assess Sholom Aleichem's extraordinary art, and to ask why he has not been accorded the place in world literature that many think he deserves.  _____________   We live in a time when the literature most valued by serious people is likely to be intense, recalcitrant, and extreme; when the novel is periodically combed for images of catastrophe; and the possibilities of life seem available only through ultimate, prophecies, and last judgments.

The Study of Man: Sociology Learns the Language of Mathematics
by Abraham Kaplan
It is an open question just how much longer the literate layman will be able to understand what social scientists are trying to say; some of the most important recent books in the field present an almost impenetrable barrier of mathematical symbols.

The Rise of Totalitarian Democracy, by J. L. Talmon
by Irving Kristol
Two Varieties of Democracy The Rise of Totalitarian Democracy. by J. L. Talmon. Beacon Press. 366 pp. $4.00.   The problem of liberalism today is essentially the problem of a surviving rhetoric and a crumbling philosophy.

Koheleth-The Man and His World, by Robert Gordis
by Arthur Hertzberg
A Contemporary Koheleth Koheleth—The Man and his World. by Robert Gordis. Jewish Theological Seminary. 396 pp. $5.00.   The pious editor of the book of Koheleth (Ecclesiastes), fearful of what its skepticism might do to the faith of the young, concluded the volume with a deprecatory note of warning; “Of the making of many books there is no end and much study wears one's strength away.” Despite this caution many authors have been attracted through the ages to the heterodox verses of the worldly moralist.

Religion in the Development of American Culture 1765-1840, by William Warren Sweet
by Edward Saveth
Old-Time Religion Religion in the Development of American Culture 1765-1840. by William Warren Sweet. Scribner's. 338 pp. $3-50.   Religion is a neglected area of American historiography.

Asphalt and Desire, by Frederick Morton
by Isa Kapp
Success Story Asphalt and Desire. by Frederic Morton. Harcourt, Brace. 282 pp. $3.00.   Asphalt and desire was written by a European-born and still not quite “Americanized” young writer, and is told from the point of view of a capable twenty-year-old graduate of Hunter College who might to some extent represent the younger declassed intellectual of the 40's.

The Eagle and the Roots, by Louis Adamic
by R. Tannenbaum
Tito, The White Violet The Eagle and The Roots. by Louis Adamic. Doubleday. 531 pp. $5.00.   Seven months in Yugoslavia, in 1949, convinced the late Louis Adamic that his homeland was witnessing a great messianic rebirth of human and social values, called Titoism.

Reader Letters September 1952
by Our Readers
The Vanishing Jewish Comedian TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: In general I agree with the thesis of Sam Levenson in your August issue ("The Dialect Comedian Should Vanish") that the so-called dialect Jew-comedian is passe and we need not mourn his demise.

October, 1952Back to Top
“Commentary” in the Negev
by Our Readers
To the Editor I want to open this letter with a very sincere appreciation for your publishing my letter in your June issue.

A Dissent on “My Son John”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Not even my gratitude for the many splendid things COMMENTARY has done can still my feeling of strong dissent from Nathan Glick's review of “My Son John” as “Leo McCarey's Authoritarian Film” (May). Mr.

“Naase V'nishmo”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Hecht's “Mr. Big Moves to Greener Pastures” (September) was thoroughly enjoyable. His story of Yiddish life in a small town reminds me of Sholom Aleichem's loving portrayals of the frailties of his fellow Jews. But, “No matter what you do, somebody's always finding fault.” In the story, Mr.

The Small-Town Jew
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Levinger's article in the August issue of COMMENTARY on the disappearance of the small-town Jews in America could apply with almost equal emphasis to the plight of the small-town Jew in Britain.

Orthodoxy And Yiddish Culture
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Rabbi de Sola Pool (in his September letter of reply to my article on liberal Judaism, July 1952) did well to remind us of the non-Ashkenazic Judaism which does not fit into the social and cultural pattern I was describing.

“My Child: Jew or Christian?”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have read with great interest Eleanor K. Felder's article “My Child: Jew or Christian?” in your September issue.

Washington Comes to Israel's Economic Rescue:
Both Emergency Aid and Long-Range Construction

by Hal Lehrman
Observers agree that Israel's continuing sharp crisis has two roots, economic inadequacy and the unsolved Arab-Israeli conflict. Into both, the American government has found itself thrust by events; and it seems clear that it cannot avoid playing a decisive role.

What the Feast of Booths Celebrates:
The Meaning of Succoth for Moderns

by Theodor Gaster
Theodor H. Gaster here continues his series in COMMENTARY on the ancient and contemporary meanings of the great Jewish festivals of the holiday year.

How End the Panic in Radio-TV?
The Demagogic Half-Truth vs. the “Liberal” Half Lie

by Louis Berg
Every schoolboy has by now heard of the “reign of terror” which supposedly makes it impossible for anyone who was ever under suspicion of associating with any Communist front organization to obtain work in American radio and television.

The Lessons of World War II's Mistakes:
Negotiations and Armed Power Flexibly Combined

by Hans Morgenthau
The record of history, Hans J. Morgenthau suggests, is not to be read as a handbook of simple and unmistakable instructions for present and future policy; those who have come out of World War II with no more than a few absolute catchwords—“no appeasement” (meaning no negotiations) or “no provocation” (meaning no display of strength or threat of military action)—may be courting disaster.

Evangelist Demagogue, 1952 Model:
Both Sides of the Coin

by Nathan Perlmutter
In this portrait of Kenneth Goff, one-time minor functionary of the Communist party and now a small-time “evangelist” of reaction and anti-Semitism, Nathan Perlmutter offers a glimpse of the shabby and dangerous world of those drifting malcontents who move from one demagogic gospel to another in their search for a doctrine to fit their fantasies—and make them a career.  _____________     In the Milwaukee Auditorium, at the nadir of the depression, in 1936, twenty-two-year-old Kenneth Goff, a rebellious WPA worker from the rural side of the tracks in Delevan, Wisconsin, listened to Earl Browder herald a new world.

Our Middle-Aged “Young Writers”:
The Avant-Garde at a Dead End

by Seymour Krim
The crisis of avant-garde writing has by now become an open fact, and SEYMOUR KRIM, himself a young member of the avant-garde, is one of those who have done much to publicize and, even more important, analyze this fact, which may mark a turning point in the development of American literature.

Visit to the Old Country:
The Lodz That Was

by Gerold Frank
This description of a visit to Lodz in 1937 has the effect of a message from the grave. That the kind of Jewish life it describes expired in Auschwitz casts in retrospect but a deeper shadow over a situation dark and grim enough in itself.  _____________     On a sultry day in July of 1937 my wife and I arrived in Lodz, charged with the duty of finding my grandmother's sister Surah.

The Soldier and His Girl
A Story

by Sylvia Rothchild
The ringing woke Estelle at ten o'clock on Sunday morning. She stumbled half asleep to the door but found no one there.

Bread with Salt
by Charles Reznikoff
I Thou shalt eat bread with salt and thou shalt drink water by measure, and on the ground shalt thou sleep and thou shalt live a life of trouble .

From the American Scene: The Importance of Being Milton
by Milton Klonsky
When the infant Milton Klonsky was given his name, his parents considered they were calling him after his grandmother Malke.

Cedars of Lebanon: The Man and His Soul
by Our Readers
Once upon a time people—not philosophers of course—used to imagine there was a thing called the soul that enabled one to find meaning in life, and value and direction in the world.

On the Horizon: Beepage: The Language of Popularization
by Spencer Brown
A cold St. Agnes eve it was—so cold that the owl with all its feathers shivered, so cold that the old Beadsman's fingers were numb as he told his rosary and said his prayers.

The Study of Man: The Stork Surprises the Demographers
by Dennis Wrong
America had led the world in the growth of its population so long that it was saddening to discover, in the 1920's and 1930's, that our population was advancing at the more measured rate typical of the countries of Western Europe.

The Next America: Prophecy and Faith, by Lyman Bryson
by David Riesman
Land of Opportunities The Next America: Prophecy and Faith. by Lyman Bryson. Harper. 248 pp. $3.50.   This is an extraordinary book. It takes up the themes of current discourse about America—the growth of large-scale organization, the problem of “mass culture,” the supposed slump in leadership, the hue and cry over “values,” etc.—and examines them with a lovely freedom from panic and portentousness, a tough-minded patience, a skeptical yet charitable urbanity.

The Old Man and the Sea, by Ernest Hemingway; and East of Eden, by John Steinbeck
by Philip Rahv
Latest Hemingway And Steinbeck The Old Man and the Sea. by Ernest Hemingway. Scribner. 140 pp. $3.00. East of Eden. by John Steinbeck. Viking. 602 pp.

Persecution and the Art of Writing, by Leo Strauss
by Irving Kristol
The Philosophers' Hidden Truth Persecution and The Art of Writing. by Leo Strauss. The Free Press. Glencoe, Illinois. 204 pp. $4.00.   “But this much I can say about all those who have written and will write saying that they know the nature of the subject which is my most serious interest ...

Flight in the Winter, by Jurgen Thorwald; and Dance of Death, by Erich Kern
by L. Poliakov
Germany's “Mistakes” Flight in the Winter. by Jürgen Thorwald. Pantheon. 317 pp. $3.75. Dance of Death. by Erich Kern. Scribner. 256 pp. $3.00.   As in every other country, there has been in Germany a flood of books dealing with the past war.

Equality by Statute, by Morroe Berger
by Charles Abrams
The Limits of Law Equality by Statute—Legal Controls Over Group Discrimination. by Morroe Berger. With a foreword by Robert M. Maclver. Columbia University Press.

Reader Letters October 1952
by Our Readers
"My Child: Jew or Christian?" TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I have read with great interest Eleanor K. Felder's article "My Child: Jew or Christian?" in your September issue.

November, 1952Back to Top
John Dewey and Dr. Barnes
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I ask the privilege to comment on Sidney Hook's article on John Dewey (September issue). I was a student at the Barnes Foundation and a personal friend of the late Dr.

The Critics and the Opera
by Our Readers
To the Editor: A bit of misinformation crept into the story of the Hebrew National Opera as I told it in my article “Culture in Tel Aviv and Environs” (COMMENTARY, August 1952).

On the “Christian-Jewish” Child
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As a young mother, I read Eleanor K. Folder's question, “My Child: Jew or Christian?” in September's COMMENTARY with interest and surprise.

The Yiddish Classics
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to thank Mr. Irving Howe for his intelligent and appreciative remarks concerning the writings of Sholom Aleichem (“Who Will Make Sholom Aleichem Available?” COMMENTARY, September 1952).

The Radio-TV Blacklist
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I must say the Berg article on blacklisting in radio and TV (October) is one of the clearest and best pieces of writing on the subject I have seen. It goes a long way toward clarifying a very muddy subject and I have passed the article around to a number of people. Keep up the good work! Samuel Dalsimer New York City   To the Editor: Thank you for the article from COMMENTARY re: “Blacklist in TV-Radio.” I agree with the conclusions and the program, and I wish you'd send it to all board members of Equity and AFTRA. Elliott Nugent New York City   To the Editor: As a member of the American Civil Liberties Union I was much persuaded by Louis Berg's analysis of The Judges and the Jttdged (which I have not read and don't expect to). I think he would have done a greater service, however, had he stated what seems to be the issue on which most of the division occurs.

Intelligence Reports on the Two Enemies: Stalin Builds a Trojan Horse Against America
by Maurice Goldbloom
In Commentary's first issue seven years ago this month, soon after the close of World War II, we said editorially that we would consider it a prime obligation—under the charter granted us by the American Jewish Committee—to bring our readers information and sober analysis on that greatest threat to human freedom in man's history: the force, we called it, “more destructive than the [just invented] atom bomb itself”— totalitarian terrorism.

Intelligence Reports on the Two Enemies: Launching the New Fascist International
by L. Poliakov
In Commentary's first issue seven years ago this month, soon after the close of World War II, we said editorially that we would consider it a prime obligation—under the charter granted us by the American Jewish Committee—to bring our readers information and sober analysis on that greatest threat to human freedom in man's history: the force, we called it, “more destructive than the [just invented] atom bomb itself”— totalitarian terrorism.

A Mystic Philosopher on East Broadway:
The Life and Studies of S. H. Setzer

by Herbert Weiner
Though our universities, seminaries, and foundations often seem to forget it, the house of learning, both Jewish and “general,” builds itself on this rock: one man studying one book.

Cross-Tides of North African Revolt:
A First-Hand Report on Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia

by Herbert Luethy
In recent months the nationalist upheaval in French North Africa has moved from deep inside the New York Times to Page One—a shift reflecting not only the proportions of the North African crisis in itself, but also a growing realization of how deeply that crisis must concern thoughtful Americans and the people of the free world in general.

The Sectarian Conflict Over Church and State:
A Divisive Threat to our Democracy?

by Will Herberg
The past two years have seen a sharp rise in religious controversy and polemic, centering chiefly around aid to religious schools, released time, and the general issue of the separation of church and state.

The Gentle Weight Lifter
by David Ignatow
Every man to his kind of welcome in the world, some by lifting cement barrels, laboring. He looks so stupid doing it, we say. Why not a soft job, pushing a pencil or racketeering: the numbers game? As the pattern is rigged, he must get love and honor lifting barrels. It would be good to see a change, but after caskets he cannot fool with intangibles. He could with his muscular arm sweep them aside- and snarl up the tiny lines by which he can distinguish love. He is fixed in his form, save a hand reach from outside to pick him bodily up and place him, still making the movements that insure his love, amidst wonders not yet devised. _____________  

The Tomb of Jethro
A Story

by A. Davidson
“Well, anyway, that's what he claims,” Pinchas said. “But surely not of all the Druzes,” I protested. “After all, most of them live in Syria, and there are many in the Lebanon as well.” “I don't know, but if you ask him—in fact, even if you don't—he tells you that he's the Sheikh of All the Druzes.

The Americanness of American Literature:
A British Demurrer to Van Wyck Brooks

by F. Leavis
Commentary welcomes to its pages F. R. Leavis, one among the few great literary critics of our time, and worthy continuator, in England, of the line of Dryden, Johnson, Coleridge, and Arnold.

by Sol Stein
I am a non-believer in surgery's Quick medicine. The sewed-together wound, the stitch In time, the surface scar, is something which You will rarely find this invalid Believing in. My trust's in wounds which look like wounds, Which pain Because no real wound ever heals But lurks beneath the skin and feels Like an underground of coals prepared To flame again. I visited Berchtesgaden warily To test Myself, my pity, to see if anyone could know Nothing, sky, sun, be blinded by the snow While weekend Germans pilgrimed to The eagle's nest. To forgive is human.

The Hidalgos of Bevis Marks:
Glories of England's Sephardim

by Mark Raven
For more than three centuries the Sephardic Jewish community of England has added its accent of color, tradition, and a certain aristocratic dignity—sometimes a bit stuffy, some say—to the British scene.

From the American Scene: Recreational Enterprise on the Bowery
by Samuel Cohen
The vicissitudes of Jewish immigrant life in New York City around the turn of the century were far more startling than is commonly suspected.

Cedars of Lebanon: The Tree That Reaches into Both Worlds
by Our Readers
One tradition relates—the time was at the turn of the 14th century in Spain—that, after the death of the Cabalist Moses hen Shemtob of Leon, two wealthy men called on his widow and asked to see the old manuscript which her husband claimed to have copied, and which later became known as the Book of Zohar.

On the Horizon: Only So Big?--A Puzzler
by Nathan Asch
Despite such notable public examples as Hank Greenberg, Bernard Baruch, and Maxie Rosenbloom, and the clearly observable fact that Jewish storekeepers outfit their families from the same size ranges as the cash customers, the common image of the Jew persistently resists reference to such plain realities.

The News
by Harold Norse
Taking home the Sunday papers, late In the dawn under the stone Looming of abandoned business structures, Past the slumbering airport service, the all         Night cafeteria where stray Bits of dangerous trade, like gulls, hang out Waiting, with eyes that fish, You turn the lock, return, enter the known         Milieu of your feelings, bound By the furniture, by books, two fireplaces And that fur bunny someone dear at Easter        Brought.

The Study of Man: The Third Generation in America
by M. Hansen
It was the achievement of Marcus Lee Hansen to have discovered the means of studying significantly the role of immigration in American history.

The Great Jewish Books, edited by Samuel Caplan and Harold U. Ribalow
by Emil Fackenheim
“Great jewish books” and Torah The Great Jewish Books and Their Influence on History. by Samuel Caplan and Harold U. Riba-Low. Horizon Press.

New Fabian Essays, edited by R. H. S. Crossman
by George Lichtheim
British Socialism's Dilemma New Fabian Essays. by R. H. S. Crossman. Turnstile Press, London. 215 pp. $3.25.   British socialism has long been a stumbling block to European Marxists and American liberals alike.

Bread from Heaven, by Henrietta Buckmaster
by Granville Hicks
An “Anti-Fascist” Fable Bread From Heaven. by Henrietta Buckmaster. Random House. 309 pages. $3.00.   Very possibly Miss Buckmaster thinks she has written a realistic novel, but Bread from Heaven comes closer to being a fable.

The Man Outside: The Prose Works of Wolfgang Borchert
by Alfred Werner
The No-Men The Man Outside. The Prose Works Of Wolfgang Borchert. Introduction by Stephen Spender. New Directions. 259 pp. $3.50.   Wolfgang Borchert had little happiness.

Farming and Democracy, by A. Whitney Griswold
by R. Tannenbaum
Freedom and the Small Farmer Farming and Democracy. by A. Whitney Griswold. Yale University Press. 214 pp. $3.00.   The president of Yale, in this reissue of a book first published in 1948, considers from various angles the relation between small-scale agriculture and democratic government, drawing very skillfully on extensive researches in history, political theory, agricultural economics, and legislative policy, and presenting his findings in an agreeable style.

Reader Letters November 1952
by Our Readers
The Radio-TV Blacklist TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I must say the Berg article on blacklisting in radio and TV (October) is one of the clearest and best pieces of writing on the subject I have seen. It goes a long way toward clarifying a very muddy subject and I have passed the article around to a number of people. Keep up the good work!

December, 1952Back to Top
A Jewish Scholar
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I must tell you how much I enjoyed Rabbi Weiner's portrait of Mr. Setzer (“A Mystic Philosopher on East Broadway,” November).

Torah or Israel
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Emil Fackenheim in his review of The Great Jewish Books (November) stresses the primacy of Torah over Israel from the Orthodox viewpoint, and the primacy of Israel over Torah from the humanist viewpoint.

The Jews of Cork
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In her otherwise interesting account of the early days of the present Jewish community in Dublin (which appeared in your July issue), Mrs.

On Academic Responsibility
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Readers of COMMENTARY will be interested in the enclosed letter from George N. Shuster, president of Hunter College, to the members of his faculty.

When the Red Army Liberated Pinsk:
How Could We Know There Were Two Hamans?

by Julius Margolin
Most tragic history, someone has said, is a chronicle of might-have-beens—omens misread, choices missed, decisions taken too irresolutely or too late.

The True Glory of the Maccabean Revolt:
What Liberty was Fought For?

by Theodor Gaster
Chanukah, the least important of the great Jewish holidays to our forefathers (it is the only post-Biblical Jewish holiday), now shows promise, because of its proximity to Christmas, and because of unhappy events in recent Jewish history, of becoming one of the most important.

How Totalitarians Gain Absolute Power:
The Key: Casting out “Enemy Groups” from Society

by Paul Kecskemeti
If communism has turned out to be Nazism's twin, we now realize that this happened because, in addition to being Russian, and authoritarian, and imperial, it, too, had become totalitarian.

Freedom or Authority in Group Life?
Voluntary Agreements Work, Our Experience Teaches Us

by Oscar Handlin
For almost two years Jewish community life has been agitated by a debate over a proposed plan to alter the pattern of control and financing of community-relations activities, the large bulk of which has been the responsibility of two long-established communal agencies, the Anti-Defamation League of the B'nai B'rith, and the American Jewish Committee.

Realities behind British “Anti-Americanism”:
The Minority Leading the National Pastime

by T. Fyvel
Recent news reports of attacks on American soldiers on duty in Britain reveal the spread of that strange ailment, “anti-Americanism,” from such regions as France and Italy, where it is fanned by a powerful Communist press, to a country which has a minuscule Communist party and is more closely related to us than any other in the world.

The Arabs, Israel, and Near East Defense:
Our Government's still Unsettled Policy

by Hal Lehrman
The Near East, it is generally agreed, is today perhaps the most serious gap in the system of defenses the democratic world is trying to build up against Russia.

Terrors of Yoknapatawpha and Fairfield:
As Reflected in Their Regional Fiction

by Steven Marcus
Fictional America is divided regionally into two parts, Steven Marcus suggests here. Most American short stories, that is to say, have the cultural climate of the South or the northeastern suburbs of New York.

Children of Two Houses
A Story

by Elaine Gottlieb
When we were quite young, the separation of our mother and father did not strike more deeply at first than the sense of novelty in having two homes, two families.

Central Park
by Howard Nemerov
The broad field darkens, but, still moving round So that they seem to hover off the ground, Children are following a shadowy ball; Shrill, as of birds, their high voices sound. The pale December sky at darkfall seems A lake of ice, and frozen there the gleams Of the gaunt street lamps and the young cold cries, The ball falling in the slow distance of dreams. Football, long falling in the winter sky, The cold climate of a child's eye Had kept you at the height so long a time; His ear had kept the waiting player's cry, That after years, coming that way then, He might be pity's witness among men Who hear those cries across the darkening field, And see the shadow children home again. _____________  

From the American Scene: New Deal Wake: Boston, Massachusetts
by Hamlen Hunt
Soon after nine o'clock on the evening of November 4 the American people in their millions became suddenly aware that the scepter was passing from hands that had held it for twenty years, and even on the heirs-apparent there descended something of a feeling of awe and of thoughtful surmise.

Cedars of Lebanon: Man, the Master of All Created Worlds
by Hayim Isaac
Probably as a result of renewed interest in the work of Martin Buber, the impression has spread that Hasidism is the only modern expression of Jewish mysticism.

On the Horizon: Henry Adams' Skeptic Faith in Democracy
by Gertrude Himmelfarb
Scion of the presidential Founding Fathers, Henry Adams himself had grave doubts about the future of democracy as he observed its operations in the America of his time, and he expressed his forebodings in one of the most influential of American autobiographies, The Education of Henry Adams, published after his death in 1918.

The Study of Man: The Prospects of American Capitalism
by Daniel Bell
J. K. Galbraith's American Capitalism, published earlier this year, is the most important of a number of efforts to take a new look at that fabulous invalid, American capitalism— which, while it fulfilled all the worst predicted for it by its critics up to 1940, has since been doing much better than expected.

Eclipse of God, and At the Turning, by Martin Buber
by Will Herberg
How Can You Say “God”? Eclipse of God: Studies in The Relation Between Religion and Philosophy. by Martin Buber. Harper. 192 pp. $2.50. At the Turning: Three Addresses on Judaism. by Martin Buber. Farrar, Straus, and Young.

American History and American Historians, by H. Hale Bellot
by Daniel Boorstin
History Professors and Historians American History and American Historians: A Review of Recent Contributions to the Interpretation of the History of the United States. by H.

From Main Street to Stockholm: Letters of Sinclair Lewis 1919-1930
by Irving Howe
The Babbittry of Literature From Main Street to Stockholm, Letters of Sinclair Lewis. Harcourt, Brace. 307 pp. $5.   Anyone who knew Sinclair Lewis only through these letters would suppose he was a dreary hack with the soul of a sparrow.

Report on Southern Africa, by Basil Davidson
by G. Hudson
Oppression by Category Report on Southern Africa. by Basil Davidson. British Book Centre. 286 pp. $3.50.   South Africa is the paradise of the fellow-traveling Marxist—not, of course, to live in, but to visit.

J. P. Marquand, Esquire, by Philip Hamburger
by Seymour Krim
The “New Yorker” Leather-Bound J. P. Marquand, Esquire. by Philip Hamburger. Houghton Mifflin. 114 pp. $2.00.   Philip Hamburger's profile of J. P. Marquand first appeared in the New Yorker this past summer; in intention at least it was one of the most novel pieces of reporting to be published in that increasingly beleaguered magazine in recent years.

Reader Letters December 1952
by Our Readers
On Academic Responsibility TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Readers of COMMENTARY will be interested in the enclosed letter from George N. Shuster, president of-Hunter College, to the members of his faculty.

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