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January, 1954Back to Top
Appeal to Publishers
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Since your articles and letters cover many Jewish problems, perhaps you can help in a most urgent need—books for Jewish children. We have succeeded, here at the Park Synagogue Library in Cleveland, in increasing the circulation of juvenile Jewish books to the point where, last month, it was 750 books.

Anti-Communist & Anti-McCarthy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: On my return from several weeks in Europe and North Africa, I have been trying to catch up on my homework which, among other things, means on reading COMMENTARY.

Mr. Freedman Replies
by Our Readers
To the Editor: My respect for Mr. Cohen and his dedication to his ideals prevents me from engaging in a point by point argument with him, nor do I think such an argument would be profitable.

“Travels in Jewry”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I shall be obliged if you will permit me to comment on Mr. Morris Freedman's review of my book Travels in Jewry (November 1953).

by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have diligently examined Mr. Roy's book for evidence supporting Dr. Poling's criticisms, as quoted by Mr. Lasky, but have been unable to find any statement or implication that Gen.

“Apostles of Discord”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Jim Rorty, in his unqualified indorsement of Apostles of Discord, by Ralph Lord Roy (November 1953), apparently overlooked one aspect of the book which gives me concern.

Children of Mixed Marriages
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Most fittingly, the brief “series” of articles on mixed marriages (Litvinoff 's “Children of Two Inheritances,” March 1953; Goldhurst's “Growing up Between Two Worlds,” July 1953; Shanks's “Jewish-Gentile Intermarriage: Facts and Trends,” October 1953) is epitomized in the plaintive comment of H.L.G.

The Jewish Community Pattern
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Milton Himmelfarb's article “Our Jewish Community Pattern and Its Critics” (August 1953) presents a clear and sober description of the evolution of the contemporary Jewish community pattern in various countries.

Judaism and Christianity
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Jacob Taubes's remarkable essay, “The Issue between Judaism and Christianity” (December 1953), effectively quashes the attempt to provide a special place for Christianity within Jewish theology.

The Return to Wishful Thinking:
Has International Communism Really Changed?

by G. Hudson
The source of many errors in policy in dealing with the Soviet Union, G. F. Hudson suggests, has been the desire of diplomats and statesmen to see that country as simply one more among the nation-states of the modern world.

Israel Experiments With Non-Identification:
Will the “Global” Policy Supplant the “Citadel”?

by Jeremiah Ben-Jacob
Now that our country claims, or has had thrust upon it, the leadership of the free world, it finds it must learn to understand the dominating (and often conflicting) concepts and points of view motivating the foreign policies of other nations, whether England, France, Yugoslavia—or Israel.

Why the Democrats Are Confident:
The GOP, They Think, is Riding for a Fall

by Harold Lavine
Back in last November, when Harold Lavine went to Chicago to report a conclave of the top Democrats, he and other reporters found seasoned politicians there not only sanguine of a speedy comeback but, as one said, “in a virtual state of euphoria.” We asked him to find out why, and this article represents his summary of what he learned by listening to the Democrats in Chicago, at later conferences, and in personal interviews.  _____________   After two decades of uninterrupted power, occupancy of the White House had become for the Democrats not merely a habit but a natural right.

How Insure Security in Government Service:
Past Failures and Present Remedies

by Dillard Stokes
The discussion over Communists in government service has tended to be a fierce battle between two extremes—those who have seen only the threat to security, and those who have seen no such threat, or at least none worth bothering about if it meant a risk of any injustice in a single case.

Why Jews Cover the Head:
A Case Study in Tradition

by R. Brasch
Perhaps nothing throws more light on the essential spirit of Judaism than the process of thinking and re-thinking, of creation and recreation, by which it maintains its character and continuity through adapting and re-interpreting its traditional symbols, injunctions, and rituals.

The Stream Sings to the Stone
by Leah Goldberg
In the coolness of her dream the stone I         kiss Since I am song and she the silences, Since I the riddler am and she the mystery, And both were formed of one eternity. The stone I kiss, her solitary face, And she is faith, and I am who betrays; The changeless one, creation's secret she, And I what changes still—discovery. She is the world; mine is the poet's part: And time shall tell I touched her silent     heart. _____________  

Yorkville, Twenty Years After:
The Brownshirts Are Gone—and Much Else

by Gerard Wilk
Twenty years ago, Yorkville, New York's German “quarter,” rang to the tramp of marching Nazis. In recent months there have been alarming reports that neo-Nazi groups were back on the street corner peddling new mixtures of the old poison, and there has been some fear that they might be finding their audiences again.

The Making of the Ideals That Rule Israel:
The Faith of Labor's Founding Fathers

by Judd Teller
Herzl, Achad Ha'am, Jabotinsky, and Weizmann--and the roles their ideas played in developing the various tendencies in the movement for Israel's restoration—are reasonably well known to us.

A Stone Should Live Alone:
A Story

by Jack Luria
My mother had just turned forty when my father died. During the seven days of deep mourning, an elderly landsfrau of my mother's, Esther Tamarkin, came to visit us. “I have been, blessed be God, a widow for over twenty years,” sighed Esther.

From the American Scene: My Child Goes to Jewish Parochial School
by Harold Ribalow
To most American Jews the sudden rise of the Jewish parochial school is a rather bewildering phenomenon—and one needn't be “secular” or “assimilated” or “liberal” to wonder what it portends.

Cedars of Lebanon: Neilah in Gehenna
by I. Peretz
Born in Russian Poland, Isaac Loeb Peretz (1825-1915) began writing at a very early age, but was educated for the law, and practiced it successfully in his native Zamoshch until he moved to Warsaw, where he worked for the Kehillah (the organized community) until his death.

On the Horizon: The Legacy of O. Henry
by Steven Marcus
The reputation of O. Henry, never accepted in serious literary criticism, has nevertheless a curious vitality to which the recent publication of O.

The Study of Man: Where City Planning Stands Today
by Frank Fisher
A spate of new books on problems of city planning suggests that, if our cities are not being rebuilt or made more pleasant at a very rapid rate, at least the city planners are full of ideas as to how this might be done.

Civil Rights in Immigration, by Milton R. Konvitz
by Herbert Ehrmann
Citizens on Probation Civil Rights in Immigration. By Milton R. Konvitz. Cornell University Press. 216 pp. $3.50.   On finishing Professor Konvitz's book Civil Rights in Immigration, one is tempted to repeat the legendary observation of the farmer on seeing his first elephant, “There ain't no such animal.” Certainly there seem to be no very substantial rights assured to immigrants by the Constitution of the United States.

The City, by Julius Horwitz
by Isa Kapp
City in Shirtsleeves The City. By Julius Horwitz. World. 219 pp. $3.00.   In Julius Horwitz's book of essays and stories about New York, the city finally escapes both from the disdain of urban sophisticates like F.

The Great Sanhedrin, by Sidney B. Hoenig
by Solomon Freehof
The Sanhedrin, Past and Future The Great Sanhedrin. By Sidney B. Hoenig. Dropsie College (Philadelphia). 310 pp. $5.50.   The period of the Second Temple was the most creative epoch in all Jewish history.

Russia, What Next? by Isaac Deutscher
by Paul Willen
Will Stalinism Now Reform? Russia, What Next? by Isaac Deutscher. Oxford. 230 pp. $3.00.   This small volume-Isaac Deutscher's contribution to the ever growing mountain of speculation which the perspiring Russian experts have heaped up since Stalin's death-astonishes the reader.

The Man Without Qualities, by Robert Musil
by Heinz Politzer
Nondescript Man The Man Without Qualities. By Robert Musil. Translated by Eithne Wilkins and George Kaiser. Coward-McCann. 367 pp. $4.00.   Robert Musil's Der Mann ohne Eigenschaften is a great and tragic book.

Two Poems
by Charles Gaines
Charles Gaines was born in Baltimore in 1924, spent the first twelve years of his life in an orphanage for Negro children, and thereafter was brought up in foster homes.

Reader Letters January 1954
by Our Readers
Judaism and Christianity TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Jacob Taubes's remarkable essay, "The Is- sue between Judaism and Christianity" (De- cember 1953), effectively quashes the attempt to provide a special place for Christianity with- in Jewish theology.

February, 1954Back to Top
Pepys and Jewish Decorum
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Your August 1953 issue contains a review by Jacob Sloan (“The Beard Is Not the Jew”) in which it is parenthetically stated: “Thus an outsider like Pepys, visiting a 17th-century synagogue in England, marveled to observe the lack of decorum during the religious services.

A License to Doubt
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am grateful to you for your discernment and courage in publishing Robert E. Fitch's “The Illusions of the Intelligentsia” in your December 1953 issue, and, of course, to Dr.

Vergil and “Yahrzeit”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Dr. M. Hadas's interesting article on “Vergil, Hebrew Prophecy, and the Roman Ideal” (November 1953) brings to my mind these lines from the Aeneid (V.

TV Ethics
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I find Mr. Podhoretz's article “Our Changing Ideals, as Seen on TV” (December 1953) altogether extraordinary. Unless it is written with a subtlety of irony which is beyond me, the Olympian moral imperturbability of this young critic in the face of a monstrosity is something like a tour de force.

Judaism vs. Christianity
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Contrary to Mr. Taubes's analysis of “The Issue Between Judaism and Christianity” (December 1953), it seems to me that Judaism and Christianity are alike with regard to “ways of life”; random prophetic visions and metaphysical speculations; a corpus mysticum which is “a way to achieve sacramental union with the divine,” and which “reflects the divine and cosmic order in the human realm”; and antinomian characteristics—Isaiah and Koheleth match Jesus and Paul. Judaism and Christianity part company in their conceptions of the deity. The basic characteristic of Jewish religious thought is its unique concept of abstract Godliness. The human psyche, constantly teetering on this lofty perch, sometimes falls into the mentally-more-comfortable slough of paganism with its golden calves, incarnate Messiahs, Sephirot, Golems, ghosts, and spirits—and Christianity, Sabbatianism, Cabalism, etc., result. All these are divergences from the fundamental Jewish idea of an abstract Godhead—which, by the way, is far too “rich and various” to be enclosed by a rigid Halachah. J.

Jewish Parochial Education
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have just put down your magazine after having read Mr. Harold Ribalow's article “My Child Goes to Jewish Parochial School” (January 1954). To say the least, it was quite shocking. It is understandable that as a reaction to the Jewish catastrophe in Europe there should be an upsurge in Jewish identification among present-day American Jews.

Unions and the Public Interest:
The Degeneration of Collective Bargaining

by A. Raskin
Today labor unions are big business. And some of them show an increasing tendency, as A. H. Raskin here points out, to behave like businessmen of the “robber baron” era, with attitudes to the public often startlingly resembling some of the worst manifestations of that free-wheeling period.

The Two Cradles of Jewish Liberty:
The New World and the Mother Country

by Cecil Roth
For some months now preparations have been busily going forward for the celebration of the Tercentenary of Jewish settlement in America, which formally begins in September of this year.

The Quest for the Grand Moral Synthesis:
Reflections on a Meeting of Minds

by Robert Davis
There are times, Robert Gorham Davis suggests, when the inveterate American practice of “talking things over” may not prove a panacea—is it that some of the deeper questions are perhaps not susceptible of solution by “democratic consensus”? Mr.

The Wretched Little Demon That Was Hitler:
He Possessed the “Mass Soul” of the Third Reich

by Herbert Luethy
The “enigma” of Hitler continues to hold the attention of those at least whose memories are longer than the average.

Western Alternative for “Backward Peoples”:
Modernization Through Benevolent Intervention

by G. Arnold
G. L. Arnold addresses himself here to the central dilemma that has confronted the West in its efforts to help “backward peoples” achieve the economic and social transformation towards which they are driving.

Big-Town Politics: Grass-Roots Level:
The Precinct Captain Gets Out the Vote

by David Gutmann
Political science deals in abstractions most of the time, so that the hard particulars of American politics tend to be overlooked, or to be referred to ironically in passing.

Labor Zionism Comes to Power:
The Making of the Ideals That Rule Israel: II

by Judd Teller
Judd L. Teller here concludes his discussion of the thought and personalities of the men who shaped the faith of Israel's present governing class.

A Family of Four
A Story

by Sylvia Rothchild
Martha and Joe Shur walked along the bay for an hour before they decided to take the apartment. They had seen so many and decided against so many that it was hard to be sure any more.

From the American Scene: Maine Pastoral, with Duck
by Toby Shafter
A duck's life at best may not be very much, but Mrs. Klein's duck, benefiting from a fortunate concurrence of geography and the Jewish laws of kashrut, certainly did have it better than good, while it lasted.

The Blade of Grass Sings to the River
by Leah Goldberg
Even to the children on the disenchanted shore, to little ones like me, one of the myriad poor, the waters as they rove murmur, murmur of love. And when the sun caresses the stream from time to time, even I am seen, where deep the water races, imaged in the soundless green where all things are profound. Deeper grows my image as seaward it is swirled, darkens and disappears on the threshold of forever. One with the voice of the river, the murmuring song of the river, the silent soul declares the glory of the world. _____________  

Cedars of Lebanon: From Moses Montefiore's Diary
by Our Readers
No Jewish figure of the 19th century enjoyed so high a reputation among his own people as Sir Moses Montefiore.

On the Horizon: A Visit from Royalty
by Dan Jacobson
Last year's coronation of the British Queen called forth astonishing “royalist” effusions and demonstrations not only in Britain but in very republican America.

The Study of Man: Pagan Ideas and the Jewish Mind
by Theodor Gaster
The deeper scholars dig into the Jewish past, and the less they find in it that is exclusively Jewish in detail, the more unique becomes the synthesis of those details that is known as Judaism.

What Price Israel? by Alfred M. Lilienthal
by Milton Himmelfarb
Anti-Zionism as Ideology What Price Israel? by Alfred M. Lilienthal. Regnery. 274 pp. $3.95.   Ideology is thought that has suffered hardening of the arteries.

The Marmot Drive, by John Hersey
by William Poster
Hunting Groundhogs The Marmot Drive. by John Hersey. Knopf. 273 pp. $3.50.   Mr. Hersey's latest work offers a marked and somewhat baffling contrast to his previous output.

Don Isaac Abravanel-Statesman and Philosopher, by B. Netanyahu
by Jacob Agus
Sephardic Philosopher-Statesman Don Isaac Abravanel — Statesman and Philosopher. by B. Netanyahu. Jewish Publication Society of America. 346 pp. $3.50.   This book is an excellent biography of a great financier and commentator on the Law who was the most famous personality among the hapless Jews exiled from Spain in the year 1492.

Israel's History in Coins, by A. Reifenberg
by Stanley Hyman
Tangible History Israel's History In Coins. by A. Reifenberg. East and West Library. (Distributed by Farrar, Straus and Young.) 46 pp. $2.50.   The coins of ancient Judea are not particularly interesting or attractive, as ancient coins go.

Dissent: A Quarterly of Socialist Opinion
by Nathan Glazer
Philistine Leftism Dissent: A Quarterly of Socialist Opinion. New York City. Volume I, Winter 1954. $0.60.   When, about a year ago, one heard that a group of writers dissatisfied with the prevailing trends in American politics—Irving Howe, Lewis Coser, Travers Clement, Meyer Schapiro, Harold Orlans, and others were among them—were going to start a new magazine, it seemed a fine idea.

Israel Salanter-Religious Ethical Thinker, by Menahem G. Glenn
by Michael Wyschogrod
Piety and Morals Israel Salanter—Religious-Ethical Thinker. by Menahem G. Glenn. Bloch”. 219 pp. $4.00.   It was the evening of Kol Nidre and it was getting late.

Reader Letters February 1954
by Our Readers
Jewish Parochial Education TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I have just put down your magazine after having read Mr. Harold Ribalow's article "My Child Goes to Jewish Parochial School" (January 1954). To say the least, it was quite shocking.

March, 1954Back to Top
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In August 1952 you published my article “Culture in Tel-Aviv and Environs,” in which I attempted to give a fair yet frank and unbiased picture of theatrical and musical events in Israel.

The American Indian
by Our Readers
To the Editor: We Jews reproach the Germans with their passive acquiescence in such horrors as the slaughter of Europe's Jewry. Our federal government is currently engaged in another act of an endless drama, the dispossession and moral destruction of the American Indian.

“Tragedy” on the West Side
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I don't know whether or not this little story throws much light on the present state of “inter-group relations” in New York City, but perhaps your readers will find it of interest. I recently traveled from the Riverdale section of the Bronx to Manhattan in one of those “limousine” taxis which carry five or six passengers to different destinations at a considerably lower cost than that of a regular taxi. I sat in the front seat beside the driver, and there were four passengers in the back, three women and a man, all rather prosperous-looking, middle-aged Jews bound for various addresses on the middle West Side of Manhattan.

Gefilte Fish, Shochtim, and Liberalism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In Toby Shafter's well-told and amusing story, “Maine Pastoral, With Duck” (February), I did not mind the author's hunting up an old anecdote about a kashrut -ignorant housewife who knew, however, how to “make,” or render, treife meat kosher (so she thought).

Literary “Kashrut”?
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I cannot recall, in the years I have been reading your magazine, word from a reader about the short stories you publish.

“A Pulpit in the South”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was distressed to read the so-called “fictional” article “A Pulpit in the South” by Harry L. Golden, in the December 1953 issue. While I am not a member of the congregation referred to in such a thinly veiled manner, nevertheless I feel that some harm has been done.

by Our Readers
To the Editor: What an excellent piece Cecil Roth's is in the February COMMENTARY! (“The Two Cradles of Jewish Liberty.”) I hope more pieces of this quality are to come for our Tercentenary. Hans Kohn New York City _____________  

Unions and the Public
by Our Readers
To the Editor: A. H. Raskin's “Unions and the Public Interest” (February 1954) was very much in the public interest. Unions should be neither a sacred cow nor the object of Pegler's sadism.

The New Suburbanites of the 50's:
Jewish Division

by Harry Gersh
1954 being the Tercentenary of the Jews' arrival in America, the historians and portraitists, formal and informal, are readying their paint brushes on behalf of the anniversary occasion, scheduled to begin next September.

That Big Deal With the Russians:
A Realistic Look at the New Realism

by Peter Meyer
After twenty years of vigorous idealism culminating in the victorious crusade against Nazism, Americans, says PETER MEYER, are now showing a tendency to lend their ears to the persuasions of “realists”: reactionary ones who would prefer to let the world go hang, relying on the Policy of the Big Bang—the atomic bomb—to keep us safe; and liberal and conservative ones urging the Policy of the Big Deal—a negotiated settlement with the Soviet Union that, we are told, will put an end to the cold war.

The Hot War Over Our Schools:
The “3 R's” and the “Progressives” Meet Head On

by Spencer Brown
Perhaps never before has the “question” of American education been discussed so widely and with so much heat as it is being discussed today.

Will the Iraqis Fight for the West?
From the Bagdad Slum, It Looks Dubious

by Ray Alan
What was once the Garden of Eden has now run dreadfully to seed; Iraq, though it possesses a wealth of cultivable land and an abundant water supply, supports half the population it had a thousand years ago.

Rav Kuk's Path to Peace Within Israel:
“Ascend to the Roots. . . .”

by Herbert Weiner
Abraham Isaac Kuk, Chief Rabbi of Palestine from 1921 until his death in 1935, has some of the proportions of a legendary figure, but his passage into legend has had the effect of obscuring much of his actual teaching and personal quality.

Freud and Boas: Secular Rabbis?
Vienna Gaon; Tsaddik of Morningside Heights

by Stanley Hyman
Two eminent Jews, Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis, and Franz Boas, the great anthropologist, are the subjects of two recently published biographies which Stanley Edgar Hyman considers here.

Pepper and Salt:
A Story

by Irwin Stark
Because he had chosen to live within walking distance of his jewelry store my father was a DP. This was in the Coolidge era when even the West Bronx contained its saving remnant, but in our diaspora of neat private houses, gray brick apartment buildings, and vast stretches of weedy lots, communion was a rare event.

The Success of Faith:
Or is it the Faith of Success?

by William Phillips
Faith, religious and moral, has traditionally been important in American life and culture, but today it is big business, as can be seen from the enormous audience—39,000,000—the radio program “This I Believe” enjoys, in which all kinds of prominent people state the faiths they believe in.

On a Hasidic Theme
by Michel Licht
For my aunt Pesye-Chana and my uncle Shaye-Yidl The Rebbe Reb Dovidl dwelt in Talne, Now he abides in Rachmistrivke. Currently I reside in New York Although I hail from Moskalivke.         It's quite a distance from New York to             Talne         'Twixt the Rebbe and me—a remoteness             more immense:         Whilst I revel in profane dancing and             singing         He rejoices in God with ritual chant             and dance. And as the devout retinue at Talne Bewails his leaving for Rachmistrivke So too bemoan my departure for     New York My desolate kin in Moskalivke.         And the pining of kinsfolk, the lament             of Hasidim,         The longing of Talne and Moskalivke,         Redeems my vain New York existence,         Exults Reb Dovidl in Rachmistrivke. And though it were blasphemous to com-     pare Our Fates' diversely chartered courses, The mere change of abodes has caused the     commingling Of longing and hope at Life's very sources.         And thus are in sweet sorrow joined         The heartbeats 'tween New York and             Moskalivke         As the tender anguish of Talne is en-             twined with         The jubilant spirit of Rachmistrivke. _____________  

From the American Scene: Pawnbroker on Eighth Avenue
by Donald Paneth
In this latest of the sketches of New York life which Donald Paneth has contributed to COMMENTARY, he draws a portrait of one of those necessary, useful, and often misunderstood functionaries in the financial life of the great city: a pawnbroker.  _____________   Irving Berg, who lives in Great Neck, Long Island, drives his son and daughter to school each weekday morning, and then continues on to the railroad plaza, where he parks his car, buys the Times, and takes the 8:47 to New York.

Cedars of Lebanon: Some Love Letters of Moses Mendelssohn
by Our Readers
The story is told that when Moses Mendelssohn asked Fromet Gugenheim to marry him, she hesitated on account of his being hunchbacked.

On the Horizon: A Week of Doodle, and Other Poems
by Reed Whittemore
A Week of Doodle Monday I will now address myself to the problem of writing A few lines, a very few lines each day During this winter of waiting and waiting and waiting For something to say, So that this special skill by which I live, This talent of mine with an image, a rhyme and a pen, Will suffer as little from cold and snow and neglect As a well-oiled gun, On the theory that one spring day I'll get up early, Walk out with vigor and find on a tree a bill Announcing that verse is once again in season— Gridley, fire at will. Tuesday This kind of thing (these lines) might be likened to those Hobbies with hammers and drills Practiced in all the best basements by men who'd dispose Of some of a long day's cache of bills and ills In the evening.

The Study of Man: New Light on “The Authoritarian Personality”
by Nathan Glazer
The study of anti-Semitism and group prejudice in this country has been fundamentally affected by the monumental volume The Authoritarian Personality, published in 1950, which in the few years since its publication has become a kind of “classic” in American social science.

Eisenhower and the Jews, by Judah Nadich
by Judd Teller
The U. S. Army and the DP's Eisenhower and the Jews. by Judah Nadich. Twayne. 263 pp. $4.00.   This book is serious history despite its irrelevant introduction and deceptive title—for both of which, we hope, the publisher alone was responsible.

The Rebel, by Albert Camus
by H. Hughes
Metaphysical Rebellion The Rebel. By Albert Camus. Translated from the French by Anthony Bower. Knopf. 273 pp. $4.00.   The publication a year and a half ago of Albert Camus' L'Homme Révolté was bound to cause a sensation in French literary circles.

The King of Schnorrers, by Israel Zangwill
by Milton Hindus
Does Zangwill Still Live? The King of Schnorrers. by Israel Zangwill. Shoe String Press. 156 pp. $4.00.   The hero of this picaresque tale dealing with the English Jewry of the late 18th century (now reprinted from the English edition of 1893) is the beggar Menasseh Bueno Barzillei Azevedo da Costa, whose name sufficiently indicates his distinguished Sephardic ancestry.

Six Books on Church and State
by Robert Fitch
Religion and the American State Church, State, and Freedom. by Leo Pfeffer. Beacon Press. 675 pp. $10.00. Church and Society: Catholic Social and Political Thought and Movements, 1789-1950. by Joseph N.

In the Workshop of the Revolution, by I. N. Steinberg
by Solomon Bloom
Don Quixote of Moscow In the Workshop of the Revolution. by I. N. Steinberg. Rinehart. 306 pp. $4.00.   Would anyone dare to suggest that our age is—of all things—an age of romance? How can the spirit of the romantic and the visionary breathe in the atmosphere of realism, tension, and foreboding? The experience of the past might reassure us, for what fantastic and utopian dreams—the so-called Utopian socialist systems themselves—did not burgeon in the blood-spattered fields of the French Revolution!

Reader Letters March 1954
by Our Readers
Unions and the Public TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: A. H. Raskin's "Unions and the Public In- terest" (February 1954) was very much in the public interest.

April, 1954Back to Top
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I think I owe it to your readers, as well as to myself, to point out that the article entitled “Western Alternative for the ‘Backward Peoples’” which appeared in your February number had to be rather severely condensed for publication.

by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Mills, Mr. Orlans, and I all agree I was angry when I reviewed the first issue of Dissent, but we disagree on what I was angry about, though I think my review made that quite clear.

Who Conforms and Who Dissents?
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his review of the first issue of Dissent (“Philistine Leftism,” February 1954), Mr. Nathan Glazer is very generous to me: he implies that I escape “the blight” he invents for the magazine as a whole, and even suggests that it may be properly assumed that some thinking went into my essay.

Mr. Lehrman Replies
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Please let me say first that my getting slugged for a COMMENTARY article is so rare I'm almost enjoying it.

Germany's Jews and Restitution
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I should like to call attention to a number of regrettable errors of both “fact” and judgment in Hal Lehrman's article “The New Germany and Her Remaining Jews” (December 1953).

Kibya, Jerusalem, and the River Jordan:
Exploring the Sources of U.S. — Israeli Misunderstanding

by Hal Lehrman
Israel's relations with the United States and the United Nations, except for a moderate recent upturn, have seemed to be deteriorating this past year, taking on a tone of truculence and mutual irritation; and along with this unhappy development, hope for the much desired early Arab-Israeli peace has been plunging downward.

Thirty Days That Shook Norwalk:
National Hullabaloo and Local Community Action

by James Rorty
Headlines in the New York Times on January 27 alerted its readers to the newest manifestation of the “witch hunt”—an attack on democratic liberties perpetrated in Norwalk, Connecticut.

Seder in Rome:
As an American Family Celebrated It

by Leslie Fiedler
Leslie A. Fiedler offers here an account of a community Seder which he attended with his family last year in Rome, a city where, with Passover falling in Holy Week, the Jewish ritual of exile and longed-for return took on a special poignancy.  _____________   It is difficult really to believe in Passover in Rome.

Our Welfare State and Our Political Parties:
Squaring Political Programs with Realities

by Norman Thomas
I think President Eisenhower's Message to Congress on the State of the Union (January 8, 1954) is a historic document.

The Grandmother
by David Galler
                                                             for E.G.G.   It seemed as if I'd gone to the dance, Instead of them.

Modernizing the Jewish Prayerbook:
Revisions That Sacrifice the Spirit

by Theodor Gaster
Responding to the felt religious needs of the different Jewish groups in the United States, numerous revisions and retranslations of the traditional Prayerbook have been made in recent years.

Eve of Holy Day
by Jacob Sloan
Nodding by the bed Of her who bids me stay Till she sleep again, I lift my head and see Upon the farther wall Patches of torn lights— Remnants of old swatches From the ragman's bag:         Like this eve of holy day. Moving bars of white Draw across my eyes From the train that pulls The city through the night— Past where I sit, stiff With anger and restraint At her whose fingers grip Haven in my lap:         At this eve of holy day. This child of my election Holds me to a posture I chose but cannot alter. God I have abandoned And am impaled on love. I dare not move or answer These tatters on my wall. The fear I feared is on me:         And on this eve of holy day. _____________  

Two Stories
by Meyer Liben
The Winners “Hurry up,” said Mrs. Mandel to her husband, “we're already late.” “I'll be ready in a second,” said Mr. Mandel.

T. S. Eliot's Latest Poetic Drama:
Where Are the Eagles and the Trumpets? . . .

by Spencer Brown
The Confidential Clerk, now running with mixed acclaim in London and New York, is the latest of the dramas which the English-speaking world's foremost poet has been offering in his second career as sage and seer in the realm of social, political, and religious ideas and affairs.

In the House
by Leah Goldberg
“I have forgotten,” the sister said. The brother said, “I do not recall.” “I’II never forgive,” the father said. The bride said, “I've forgiven all.” Silent the mother peered through the     blinds: Long is the road and far it winds. “The wind is rising,” the sister said. The brother said, “O hear the rain.” “Locked is the door,” the young bride said. “None,” said the father, “shall unlock it     again.” Silent the mother walked to and fro: God in heaven, how cold the winds blow. “There are five of us,” the sister said. The brother said, “Let us sit and dine.” “Come,” said the bride, “the table is laid.” The father said, “I shall pour the wine.” Silent the mother bowed her head, In five parts broke the Sabbath bread. The sister nibbled her crumbs like a mouse, The brother sopped his bread, the bride Toasted the mistress of the house, The father ate his bread and sighed. Then up rose the mother and drew back     the chain, And opened the door to the wind and the     rain. _____________  

The Lesson of Yalta:
The Cost of By-Passing Democratic Process

by G. Hudson
With our statesmen embarking upon a new period of negotiations with the USSR, American public opinion continues anxiously to review the episode of Yalta, in search of lessons to guide us in the present.

From the American Scene: The Bakery Store Lady
by Sydney Kasper
Every Jewish business institution, someone has said, is merely the lengthened shadow of a woman—and why not, considering for how many generations Jews, at least those of East European origin, have lived under a matriarchal society.

Cedars of Lebanon: Why Sufferings Come Upon Man
by Our Readers
Why God allows the guiltless to suffer, and why suffering seems to have a special affinity for the saintly—these are the most baffling of all religious questions.

She's Crazy and It Means Something
by Eli Siegel
Crazy in St. Louis, Pauline Snodgrass, Who was good in the kitchen once, Good on the doorstep, Good on cleaning pavements Saturday mornings, Crazy, she does this no more. Instead says things that won't get her things     at the grocer's. She talks so streetcar conductors would wonder     and think all wasn't well in Pauline     inside. She wasn't crazy all the time, when she     cleaned doorsteps well and kept the kitchen     sink clean, when you consider kitchen     sinks. Right now she talks funny, and cleans doorsteps     no longer, and quarrels with the     grocer no more. She doesn't look at steaks any more to pick     the one she wants. She's got no interest any more in getting     sugar cheap. She hands no more meekly her fare to the     man taking money on the trolley cars in     St.

On the Horizon: Belittling Sholom Aleichem's Jews
by Midge Decter
For many months now, New Yorkers in large numbers have been flocking to the Barbizon Theater to see The World of Sholom Aleichem, a production offering selections from the works of Sholom Aleichem, Peretz, and other great Yiddish writers.

The Study of Man: Getting at the Facts Behind the Soviet Facade
by Franz Borkenau
In January 1953 Franz Borkenau, noted contemporary historian, astounded his readers on the Continent by asserting, in a West German weekly, that Stalin's life was in immediate danger.

Capitalism and the Historians, edited by F. A. Hayek
by H. Hughes
Capitalism and History Capitalism and the Historians. by F. A. Hayek. University of Chicago Press. 188 pp. $3.00.   The publication ten years ago of F.

Yisroel, edited by Joseph Leftwich
by Judd Teller
The Flavor of Galut Yisroel, the First Jewish Omnibus. by Joseph Leftwich. Beechhurst Press. 723 pp. $6.00.   This is the American edition of an anthology first published in Britain in 1933.

A History of Psychoanalysis in America, by Clarence P. Oberndorf
by Lillian McCall
Mr. Psychoanalysis A History of Psychoanalysis in America. by Clarence P. Oberndorf. Grune and Stratton. 280 pp. $5.   Contemporary psychoanalytic prose is a wasteland in which the parched reader falls on quotations from Freud as he would on ice-cold Coca-Cola in the middle of the Sahara.

She Came to Stay, by Simone de Beauvoir
by William Poster
Existential New Woman She Came to Stay. by Simone de Beauvoir. World. 404 pp. $5.00.   The furious argument of The Second Sex, the first book by Miss de Beauvoir to attract the American public's attention, is directed at the traditional notion of femininity.

Race, Jobs, and Politics: The Story of FEPC, by Louis Ruchames
by Herbert Northrup
Convincing the Convinced Race, Jobs, and Politics: The Story of FEPC. by Louis Ruchames. Columbia University Press. 255 pp. $3.75.   Mr. Ruchames tells the story of the wartime FEPC, from its dramatic beginnings as a means of warding off the Negro “March on Washington” to its death by filibuster.

Miniatures of Early American Jews, by Hannah R. London
by Charles Reznikoff
Jewish Miniatures Miniatures of Early American Jews. by Hannah R. London. The Pond-Ekberg Company. 154 pp. $10.00.   Hannah London is a specialist on the portraiture of early American Jews.

Reader Letters April 1954
by Our Readers
Germany's Jews and Restitution TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I should like to call attention to a number of regrettable errors of both "fact" and judgment in Hal Lehrman's article "The New Germany and Her Remaining Jews" (December 1953). Specifically, I take strong exception to his refer- ences to the activities in Germany of the Jew- ish Restitution Successor Organization (JRSO), on whose Board of Directors and Executive Committee I have been a member for the past four years. Mr.

May, 1954Back to Top
Knowing God
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Having been quite busy, I did not read the December (1953) issue of COMMENTARY until recently. I found it an exceptionally fine issue and the essay by Jacob Taubes on “The Issue Between Judaism and Christianity” singularly discerning.

Economists, Socialist and Non-Socialist
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “Our Welfare State and Our Political Parties” (April 1954), Norman Thomas writes, “In out time only two first-rate theoretical contributions have been made to the study of economics by non-socialists.

by Our Readers
To the Editor: As one who has been, at times, highly critical, both verbally and in print, of COMMENTARY, may I take this opportunity of telling you how much I have enjoyed the issues in these last couple of years, but most of all the January 1954 issue.

Freedom and Measure
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. H. Stuart Hughes, in reviewing Albert Camus' The Rebel (March 1954), is led to conclude, regretfully, that the book is a failure.

Pious Fables?
by Our Readers
To the Editor: May I offer a few comments on Charles Reznikoff's review of my book, Miniatures of Early American Jews, in the April COMMENTARY? As history is often compounded of both fact and fiction, the most respected of historians are apt to swallow “a pious fable or two.” It is possible that even Mr.

Sir Moses Montefiore
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The prefatory note to the interesting extracts from the diaries of Sir Moses Montefiore published in your issue of February last, gives, I submit, a somewhat misleading impression as to the reasons for his outstanding position in the history of British Jewry.

Unions and the Public
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Raskin's article, “Unions and the Public Interest” (February 1954), is a clever attempt to use misleading unsubstantiated generalization to support the argument that an ominous trans—formation is taking place in the U.

How Eisenhower Plans to Deal with Depression:
Wait-and-See, Followed by What?

by A. Raskin
We have been having an economic recession, though it is a matter of debate as to how severe, and of what likely duration.

France's New Parochial Nationalism:
Isolationism Rallies Under the Red Banner

by Herbert Luethy
Few political analysts writing in Europe today have Herbert Luethy's gift for bringing to the familiar central problems that agitate us internationally, and about which millions of words get written, the fresh illumination that comes when an informed mind searches out the key factors to their source.

The Bond Between Christian and Jew:
Their Common Ethic

by Robert Fitch
In December 1953, Jacob Taubes argued in the pages of this journal that the currency of such phrases and conceptions as “the Judeo-Christian tradition” obscured the very real, fundamental, and unresolvable issue between Judaism and Christianity.

The Burning of the Talmud in Paris:
Date: 1242

by Allan Temko
The statuary on the outside of many a Gothic cathedral includes two female figures representing respectively the “Church Triumphant” and the “Synagogue,” with blindfolded eyes, “Defeated.” A tremendous, if inadvertent, piece of irony is contained in this tableau, for if ever an institution preserved itself by the exercise of clear vision, and by seeking the light, it was the medieval synagogue.

In Santa Fe, the City Different:
Old Jewish Settlers and New

by Albert Rosenfeld
In Santa Fe life is a little different from what it is elsewhere in the United States, and Santa Fe's Jews are a little different too—but not altogether unsusceptible to the same tides and currents that seem to be moving Jews the world over.

The American People and Cold War Policy:
Is Public Opinion Against Foreign Involvement?

by Nathan Glazer
Are the American people congenitally isolationist? Many both here and abroad believe that they are, and this belief has strongly affected our own initiative in making international commitments, and weakened our allies' confidence in the commitments we have made.

Some Enchanted Evening
A Story

by Eliot Wagner
Julie Margulies as she vigorously brushed down her hair caught her image sideways in the medicine chest mirror and after all wondered why she had come to be so late. It was Saturday, she had a blind date who must by now have been waiting at Lucille's, and Lucille was but three houses down the block.

The Memorial
by Charles Bell
At the head of the town by the levee is a new monument To a free country and to those who died fighting In its last great war.

The New Climate in Israel:
Five Years Have Wrought a Change

by Ernest Stock
Returning to Israel for the first time since 1949, Ernest Stock finds significant changes in the atmosphere of the young country—some of these changes the natural results of “growing up,” some of them reflecting a certain weariness with the idea of pioneering.

From the American Scene: Wine Like Mother Used to Make
by Morris Freedman
Jews who went out to buy their Passover wine this past month were no longer, in this act, so much separated from the American population in general as they may have thought, for over the past few years kosher wine has been becoming almost as widely bought by the general population as the cola drinks.

Cedars of Lebanon: From the Teachings of Rav Kuk
by Our Readers
Abraham Isaac Kuk, born in Latvia in 1865, was Chief Rabbi of Palestine from 1921 to his death in Jerusalem in 1935.

On the Horizon: Whose History, What Jews?
by Judd Teller
In last month's COMMENTARY, Midge Decter pointed out how the American Jewish cultural “renaissance” has in one area given renewed life to some questionable ideological tendencies (“Belittling Sholom Aleichem's Jews”).

The Study of Man: Archaeology and the Bible's Historical Truth
by Immanuel Lewy
Not long ago the Higher Criticism seemed to have deprived us of any grounds for belief in the historical authenticity of the Bible.

The Golden Door, by J. Campbell Bruce
by Oscar Handlin
The Monstrous Betrayal The Golden Door: The Irony of Our Immigration Policy. by J. Campbell Bruce. Random House. 244 pp. $3.75.   Mr. Bruce has written a book that every American conscious of his country's heritage of freedom should know.

Philosemitismus im Barock, by Hans Joachim Schoeps
by David Baumgardt
Philo-Semitism Philosemitismus im Barock; Religions- und Geistes-geschichtliche Untersuchungen. by Hans Joachim Schoeps. J. C. B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), Tübingen (Germany). 216 pp.   We know more than enough about the centuries-long history of anti-Semitism.

Problems of Capital Formation in Under-developed Countries, by Ragnar Nurkse; The Progress of Underdeveloped Areas, ed. by Bert
by G. Arnold
The Problem of Backward Countries Problems of Capital Formation in Underdeveloped Countries. by Ragnar Nurkse. Oxford. 160 pp. $3.00. The Progress of Underdeveloped Areas. by Bert F.

Lily, by Vincent Sheean
by Isa Kapp
Not-So-Innocent Abroad Lily. by Vincent Sheean. Random House. 233 pp. $3.50.   Vincent Sheean's novel Lily is about a wealthy, susceptible, forthright American lady in Europe, responding to the magnetism of an older civilization.

European Communism, by Franz Borkenau
by G. Hudson
Communism on the Continent European Communism. by Franz Borkenau. Harper. 564 pp. $6.00.   Mr. Borkenau writes as an ex-Communist, and although his inside knowledge of the movement dates from a long time ago, it has given him that instinctive understanding of the workings of Communist organization which it is so hard for the outsider to attain.

Three Books on Modigliani
by Alfred Werner
Unhappy Genius Modigliani. by Gotthard Jedlicka. Eugen Rentsch Verlag, Erlenbach-Zurich. 83 pp.; 48 plates. $6.50. Modigliani. Introduced by Maurice Raynal. Skira, Geneva-Paris-New York. 4 pp.; 10 color plates.

Reader Letters May 1954
by Our Readers
Unions and the Public TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Mr. Raskin's article, "Unions and the Public Interest" (February 1954), is a clever attempt to use misleading unsubstantiated generalization to support the argument that an ominous trans- formation is taking place in the U.

June, 1954Back to Top
Psychoanalysis and Faith
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It is unfortunate that Lillian Blumberg McCall chose to use her review of Dr. C. P. Oberndorf's History of Psychoanalysis in America (April) as an occasion for petty self-pleading and captious criticism of psychoanalysis in general.

Did Stalin Represent Progress?
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his review of Isaac Deutsoher's Russia, WhatNext? (January), Mr. Paul Willen asks: “How could one man be so right and so wrong at the same time?” After reading the review, I am impelled to paraphrase his question—to wit: How could one reviewer be so right and so wrong at the same time? Mr.

The Norwalk Incident
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his article “Thirty Days That Shook Norwalk” (April), James Rorty did not spare the whip in singling out for criticism all factions involved in the so-called Norwalk incident. On the whole, however, I believe Mr.

The Crisis in U. S. Foreign Policy:
Can the Democracies Surmount the New Soviet Diplomacy?

by Sidney Hertzberg
The present Indo-Chinese crisis again reminds the free world of something which it apparently strives desperately to forget—that the Communist drive to dominate the world is unrelenting, and not to be conjured out of existence.

A Jewish Guide to Paris:
Mementos of an Old People in an Old City

by Allan Temko
June is the month in which the great tidal wave of American tourists, sweeping from west to east, begins to break on the shores of Europe, For most of these tourists “that great city,” Paris, is, it goes without saying, the chief Mecca of their pilgrimage.

American Policy and Arab-Israeli Peace:
Our Course in the Light of Near East Realities

by Hal Lehrman
Deep disagreement exists between the United States and Israel on ways to reduce Holy Land tensions. Each side believes that the other's “mistakes” are inflaming the Arab-Israeli crisis.

Charles Fleischer's Religion of Democracy:
An Experiment in American Faith

by Arthur Mann
Peculiarly representative of a bygone chapter in American religio-cultural history was Charles Fleischer, rabbi of Temple Adath Israel in Boston from 1894 to 1911, and later the founder and leader of the non-sectarian “Sunday Commons.” Fleischer's radical reinterpretation of Judaism, and his substitution for it of a “religion” of progress and American democracy, was the rash expression of an impulse which, Arthur Mann indicates, has importantly shaped the religious temper and practice of the various ethnic groups of this country, and served to bring the different faiths closer together.

Does Our Social Security System Make Sense?
Insurance, Relief, or What?

by Dillard Stokes
Most Americans believe that our system of Social Security is a form of insurance which is paid for out of employee and employer contributions to a social insurance fund, and that the beneficiary (or his heirs) will eventually get back in benefits as much as he paid in m deductions.

My Three Esthers:
The Maid Problem, as It Looks in Jerusalem

by Judy Shepard
In its drive for the normalization of Jewish life, the State of Israel has also acquired a maid problem like unto the nations—but, as one would expect, not quite like.

The Devout
A Story

by Elaine Gottlieb
When Tess and her brother were very young, God was the most exciting thing they knew. They thanked Him for bread, for fruit, for meat, in prayers taught by their grandparents.

From the American Scene: Summer Day
by Jack Luria
We live beyond experiences, but we do not always oudive them. Even today the smell of fresh rye bread and the click of billiard balls waken memories of my childhood which almost thirty years have not swept away.

A Letter to My Mother
by Saul Gottlieb
I wonder if you thought, when you were           young     and bobbed your hair and smoked, that living would be easy and babies fun       and time a slow progression of qualities of happiness, each deeper       than the last; the past a gray expanse of desert you danced through       to blue waters where the playful waves dashed back an image       of your self upon you, new combinations breaking up the patterns       of the serious individual. I wonder if you thought, when I was born       and bubbled fatly in your arms, the love you lavished in my eyes       would always be anchored hard inside, rich payment for the anatomies       I made your maidenhood; that love was enough and more than enough       to make a person free; that this was the beautifully simple plan       your parents never knew who had rules but never the golden rule,       so free and easy. I wonder if you thought, when you saw me       kissing my three children, they too would someday break my heart,       who loves them as you did me, who knows living is harder work than love,       and time a swift transgression of the tiniest joys of life, each smaller       than the last; the past a faded photograph, found in a purse       cluttered with greasy cash and the regulated patterns of the day       of the serious individual. _____________  

Cedars of Lebanon: The Discovery of America
by Our Readers
Ladino is the archaic written idiom of the Spanish-speaking Jews; in it are found translations of the Bible, of liturgy, and of didactic works, and even of some original ethical tracts.

On the Horizon: Mr. Lewissohn's Wicked Son Mr. Lewis
by Shimon Wincelberg
Jewish self-understanding in America at times takes some rather odd forms. Here Shimon Wincelberg comments on the familiar catastrophic perspective for American Judaism as pictured once again in a one-act play, Wherefore Is This Night? by Violet Fidel, published in International Folkplays by the University of North Carolina Press.  _____________   The American Jewish family portrait emerging season after season out of the lukewarm crucible of the Creative Writing class, and from there sometimes into print, has by now become as rigidly typed as the Four Sons of the Haggadah.

The Study of Man: Paul, the Horror Comics, and Dr. Wertham
by Robert Warshow
This department, usually devoted to the examination of more or less finished work in the social sciences, rarely finds an opportunity to present the materials of those sciences in their raw state.

The Web of Subversion: Underground Networks in the U. S. Government, by James Burnham
by Irving Kristol
The Web of Realism The Web of Subversion: Underground Networks in the U. S. Government. by James Burnham. John Day. 248 pp. $3.75.   A few years back, the French periodical Crapouillot issued a special number devoted to La Farce des Services Secrets, which rambled through the underground of history with a jaundiced eye and frivolous pen.

The South African Way of Life, ed. by G. H. Calpin; The People of South Africa, by Sarah Gertrude Millin
by Dan Jacobson
Unhappy South Africa The South African Way of Life. by G. H. Calpin. Columbia University Press. 200 pp. $3.50. The People of South Africa. by Sarah Gertrude Millin. Knopf.

A Priceless Heritage, by Morris A. Gutstein
by Herbert Gans
Chicago's Jewry A Priceless Heritage. by Morris A. Gutstein. Bloch. 488 pp. $6.00.   For some time now, the historians have been urged by sociologists, economists, and their other colleagues in the social sciences to incorporate some of the latter's methods and materials into the study of history.

The Joker, by Jean Malaquais
by Otto Friedrich
Anti-Utopia The Joker. by Jean Malaquais. Doubleday. 319 pp. $3.95.   In more than a generation of nightmare novels, there have developed two main versions of the anti-utopia—that dream of a future state administered for the greatest ill of the greatest number.

Woodrow Wilson and the Progressive Era, by Arthur Link
by Alan Westin
“We Are All Liberals” Woodrow Wilson and the Progressive Era. by Arthur Link. Harper. 331 pp. $5.00.   At his inaugural in 1913, Woodrow Wilson might have summed up his age by paraphrasing Jefferson and saying that “we are all liberals; we are all progressives.” For Wilson of the reformist New Freedom, Theodore Roosevelt of the insurgent New Nationalism, and the native Socialist Eugene Debs had, together, polled over eleven million votes that year, as against a scant three million for the unhappy William Howard Taft (And Taft himself, as Professor Link points out, would have denied emphatically that he was a conservative in 1912.) In those days “liberal” and “progressive” were words with political sex appeal.

Reader Letters June 1954
by Our Readers
The Norwalk Incident TO THE EDITOR OF CoMMENTARY: In his article "Thirty Days That Shook Norwalk" (April), James Rorty did not spare the whip in singling out for criticism all factions involved in the so-called Norwalk incident. On the whole, however, I believe Mr.

July, 1954Back to Top
The Berlin Jewish Community
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Hal Lehrman's enlightening article about “The New Germany and Her Remaining Jews” (December 1953) needs a few elaborating comments.

Two Cadillacs in Every Garage
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I cannot help but express surprise that Morris Freedman's “Wine Like Mother Used to Make” (May) was given such a prominent place in your magazine.

Individualism in the Suburbs
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Harry Gersh's account of his family's migration across New York (“The New Suburbanites of the 50's,” March) was interestingly nostalgic, but his comments on life in Suburbia were disquieting, I suspect, not only to this reader but to Mr.

Has Soviet Anti-Semitism Halted?
The Record Since Stalin's Death

by Peter Meyer
Following Stalin's death and the abrupt repudiation of the Moscow “doctors' plot,” it was (and still is) widely presumed that Soviet Russia, as part of a modification of her hitherto intransigent attitude, had called off the anti-Semitic campaign which reached its high point in the Prague trials of Rudolf Slansky and other “Zionist conspirators.” Unhappily, recent events in Czechoslovakia, Rumania, and Hungary, as here reported by Peter Meyer, show that the present reality is of quite a different order than these hopeful beliefs.  _____________   In late April of this year, a weird treason trial took place in Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia, which deserved more than the few lines it got in a late city edition of the metropolitan newspapers.

Winning the Fight Against McCarthy:
The Need to Struggle on Two Fronts

by Alan Westin
The liberal has long had to fight a steady campaign on two fronts—against the demagogue on the “right,” and, on the other hand, the international Communist conspiracy—but never has this been more difficult than today, when the loud threat of McCarthy on the one front makes many a liberal think that it might be advisable to concentrate on the nearer danger and neglect for a moment the other enemy.

by David Ignatow
I must find a stranger to knock on my door. For one month I have lain on my couch     waiting for a friendly knock.

Israel's Coming Crisis Over “Jewishness”:
The Rebellion Against the Religio-Ethnic State

by Robert Lindsey
A tremendous piece of historical irony lies in the fact, reported by many observers, that the younger Israelis, the sabra generation, in their effort to repudiate the Diaspora past, tend also to repudiate the Jewish identity as it developed in that past, and seem to be seeking a new national identity.

A Summer Burial:
A Story

by Hamlen Hunt
You would think no one had ever died on Cape Cod before. Yet, on the Truro hilltop, near the Town Hall and back of another hillside where one used to find the bones of whales and their giant skeletal heads strewn among the pine trees, there was a sloping graveyard.

Martyrdom Near Dubno
by Jacob Sloan
This poem of Jacob Sloan's was inspired by an incident which he came across while helping to prepare for publication Leon Poliakov's book on the catastrophe of the Jews under Hitler. _____________   I was this baby crying with delight at the skipping white kid and the golden peacock flying from the far country of Poland carrying a learned silken groom to fetch me home in his black chemodán. A soldier lights a cigarette.                                               I laugh, again, at the whiteness shining on his gold bayonet. I was this held son in my father's hand struggling with my tears, and against his soft stroking explanation, against his pious finger to the sky, sealed.                                        The soldier flings the butt into the thicket whence no horn- tangled ram's pulled forward in my stead.                                                 My father leans down and tells the live heads in the       clay what, silent, I deny.

Yiddish Litterateurs and American Jews:
Have They Come to a Parting of the Ways?

by Judd Teller
The fate of Yiddish letters has been a checkered one in this country, but on the whole a record more of triumphs than of defeats.

Twenty-One G.I.'s Who Chose Tyranny:
Why They Left Us for Communism

by Harold Lavine
When the truce came to Korea, twenty-one American prisoners of war chose to remain with the Communists. Harold Lavine here tells the stories of these men and tries to discover what common factors of personality and fate led them to give up their American citizenship in order to lose themselves in the world of totalitarianism.  _____________   There were twenty-one who stayed behind, twenty-one GI's, captives of the Reds, who chose to remain with the Reds rather than come home.

The Humble and Colossal Pissarro:
Father to Us All

by Alfred Werner
With this essay on Camille Pissarro, Alfred Werner continues his work of sifting fact from fiction in the lives of great Jewish artists.

From the American Scene: The Green Pastures of Grossinger's
by Morris Freedman
Grossinger's, someone has said, is more than a resort hotel, it is a way of life. Be that as it may, it has by now undoubtedly established itself as an institution on the American scene, and as such is entitled to the respectful attention of the inquiring sociological practitioner.

Cedars of Lebanon: An 18th-Century Defender of the Faith
by David Nieto
David Nieto, the spiritual leader of the Spanish and Portuguese Jewish community in London from 1701 to his death in 1728, was born 300 years ago in Venice, on January 18, 1654.

On the Horizon: Oh, Pioneers!-Israel on Film
by William Schack
“Khamishia,” a five-part movie recently released in New York and elsewhere through the country, is the first film made entirely in Israel.

The Study of Man: How the Polish Jew Saw His World
by Celia Rosenthal
This sociological picture of the culture and values of a typical East European small-town Jewish community has had in large part to be reconstructed, now that the long chapter of Jewish history which it recalls has come to a tragic close.

Jew and Greek: A Study in the Primitive Church, by Dom Gregory Dix
by Gerson Cohen
Judaism and Early Christianity Jew and Greek: A Study in the Primitive Church. by Dom Gregory Dix. Harper. 119 pp. $2.50.   This essay, the posthumously edited work of an Anglican scholar-theologian, traces the development of the primitive Christian church during the crucial generation between 34 and 60 C.E., when Christianity developed from a small Jewish sect into a universal church. To Dom Gregory, the emergence of Christianity can only be understood against the background of the deep cleavage between the Greco-Roman or Hellenic and the Judeo-Persian or Syriac worlds.

The Black Swan, by Thomas Mann
by Philip Rahv
The Triumph of Decay The Black Swan. by Thomas Mann. Translated by Willard Trask. Knopf. 141 pp. $2.75.   This latest novella will scarcely add anything substantial to its author's fame.

Religion Behind the Iron Curtain, by George N. Shuster
by Robert Fitch
Communism's Attack on Religion Religion Behind the Iron Curtain. by George N. Shuster. Macmillan. 281 pp. $4.00.   To give us the story of religion behind the Iron Curtain, Dr.

Elihu Root and the Conservative Tradition, by Richard W. Leopold
by Will Herberg
A Conservative Worthy Elihu Root and the Conservative Tradition. by Richard W. Leopold. Little, Brown. 222 pp. $3.00.   In the course of his long and busy career, Elihu Root was thrown by events into three crucial encounters that may be taken as symbolic of his place in history.

A Kid for Two Farthings, by Wolf Mankowitz
by Robert Brustein
Little Joe A Kid for Two Farthings. by Wolf Mankowitz. Dutton. 120 pp. $2.50.   Wolf Mankowitz's little book has a simple and harmless theme and it takes us on a pleasant excursion through London's East End.

Reader Letters July 1954
by Our Readers
Individualism in the Suburbs TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Harry Gersh's account of his family's migra- tion across New York ("The New Suburban- ites of the 50's," March) was interestingly nostalgic, but his comments on life in Suburbia were disquieting, I suspect, not only to this reader but to Mr.

August, 1954Back to Top
Santa Fe's Cathedral
by Our Readers
To the editor: Albert Rosenfeld's “Santa Fe, the City Different” (May) refers to the word “Adonoi” inscribed in Hebrew over the front arch of the Cathedral of St.

Anti-Orthodox Prejudice?
by Our Readers
To the editor: The article on Ralbbi Kuk (“Rav Kuk's Path to Peace Within Israel,” March), zecher tsedek le-vrocha, was very much worth reading, though I could wish it had drawn more heavily on the Rav's own books.

The Jewish Prayerbook
by Our Readers
To the editor: In his paper “Modernizing the Jewish Prayer-book” (April 1954), Theodor H. Gaster subjects various modern prayerbooks—all naturally emanating from non-Orthodox circles, who alone recognize the existence of the problem—to critical analysis.

American Policy and Israel
To the editor: Hal Lehrman's “American Policy and Arab-Israeli Peace” (June) qualifies on several counts as propaganda rather than factual reporting or impartial evaluation. Item: the story—real or fictitious—with which Mr.

The Theological Approach
by Our Readers
To the editor: The fine scholarly articles on Jewish-Christian theological relationships (as well as the letters dealing with them) which have appeared in your magazine in recent months illustrate the great thirst for a true understanding of Judaism.

Ben Gurion's Dispute with American Zionists:
Why They Reject the “Duty to Emigrate”

by Benno Weiser
While he was Israel's Prime Minister, Ben Gurion declared it the obligation of American Jews to provide immigrants to “the Jewish state,” and out of office he has not ceased to express his disappointment at the unreadiness of American Zionists “to cast their lot with the homeland.” He has even challenged their right still to be called Zionist.

The Hidden Springs of Sigmund Freud:
Does the Oedipus Complex Unlock His Personality?

by Lillian McCall
How can we best understand Freud? The recent appearance of Dr. Ernest Jones's biography of Sigmund Freud, and now the publication of Freud's letters to his friend Fliess, raise the question of a psychoanalytic interpretation of Freud himself.

Is Time Running Out on the Republicans?
They Can't Hope to Hold Power, Unless—

by Carroll Kilpatrick
The split personality of the Republican party was spread plain for all to see by the Army-McCarthy hearings. For many people the proceedings posed a more serious question than the personalities involved: namely, was the Republican party in its present disunity capable of governing the U.S.? Carroll Kilpatrick, an editorial writer on the Washington Post, here states why he believes time is running out on the GOP, and suggests what must soon be done if it hopes to stay in power.  _____________   As the Republican party goes into the 1954 Congressional campaign—a campaign that may be decisive in Republican history—it is the division within the party rather than the Democratic opposition that is the chief concern of the Republican administration.

by Harold Norse
The full moon on the Colosseum Lights up the legends, shedding shadows On the exhausted center, on the arches Where the centuries played heartless games: Earthquake, prince, barbarian Brought down the tufa and the travertine, Ate the arcades and raped the iron —And willed this gaping splendor to the     moon! The Venerable Bede foretold it, Jeremiah, John, Isaiah, Hebrews, apostles, visionaries, Recorders of the future Fall, all mysteries divined— We are as the smoke and foam Without the overflow of Love: “When falls the Colosseum Rome shall fall, And when Rome falls with it shall fall the     world.” Thus Bede; and thus the Cabala That vaulted language on the word— The corbel and the cornice of creation, Keystone of Zimzum, holy love, light. So here among Corinthian pilasters And ruined cages, rackrent corridors, Where, by one reflex, beasts and men To nature's howling lust were moved, I stand in moonlight and klieglight Among the lonely watchers lonely, Prowling or waiting for quick touch     or soldi. Under the blind arcs and the tall black cross I see Rome fall, and Israel.

Morocco's Jews Enter the 20th Century:
An Adventure in Redemption

by Hal Lehrman
During the Arab-Israeli war, and its aftermath of Middle East tensions, the plight of the Jews in Morocco seemed so desperate that at one time the possibility even of total evacuation to Israel was seriously considered.

The Emigre Doctor Finds His Place:
But Not All the Problems Are Solved

by James Rorty
The years since 1933 have brought to this country a large number of European doctors who, after experiencing varying difficulties, have found places for themselves in American medicine.

The Hebrew Bible in Other Tongues:
Changing Letter, Changing Spirit

by David Daiches
Does the Hebrew Bible, when translated into another language, lose much of its essential character, become a different book? Bible translation, we know, is inevitably not only a kind of commentary, but in a sense a recasting of the spirit as well as the letter.

The Snuffbox
by Jack Luria
The old man was dead, at last. The doctor let the grayish-yellow hand fall back at the side of the dead man and, after putting his stethoscope on the living room table, went into the kitchen to wash his hands.

From the American Scene: Grossinger's Green Pastures
by Morris Freedman
The Catskill vacation refuge offering a strictly kosher cuisine combined with lavish night club entertainment and sports program has become an institution on the American scene.

Cedars of Lebanon: God Laments
by Our Readers
The Midrash on Lamentations not only elaborates on the circumstances surrounding the fall of the Temple, but inquires as to the reasons.

On the Horizon: What Should My Child Read?
by Isaac Rosenfeld
There was a time when there was no such thing as children's literature—children read what they found on their parents' bookshelves.

The Study of Man: The Changing History of Our Civil War
by T. Williams
History happens, but historians (however scholarly and objective) tend to see and record events through differing lenses. The Civil War, which established the American society of today, has been the most interpreted event in American history, and from ever-changing and conflicting points of view.

Alexander Jannai
by Constantine Cavafy
Proud with success, richly pleased King Alexander Jannai and his royal consort, Alexandra the Queen, walk to the sound of escorting music, in motley pomp and luxury pass through the markets of Jerusalem. Well done, brilliantly, the work begun by great Judas Maccabeus and his four brothers, men of renown, and after them carried on stubbornly through all perils and all strains. Now nothing has been left that is unseemly! Done with bending the knee To Antiochia's braggadocio kinglings .

An American Synagogue for Today and Tomorrow, edited by Peter Blake
by Leo Steinberg
The Synagogue's New Look An American Synagogue for Today and Tomorrow. by Peter Blake. Union of American Hebrew Congregations. 311 pp. $10.00.   Suppose some art historian in remote future times lights on the synagogue lately built by Percival Goodman for the Temple Beth El congregation of Providence, R.

This Music Crept by Me Upon the Waters, by Archibald MacLeish; Dream and Responsibility, by Peter Viereck
by Steven Marcus
The Power of The Audience This Music Crept by Me Upon The Waters. by Archibald Macleish. Harvard University Press. 38 pp. $1.50. Dream And Responsibility. by Peter Viereck. University Press of Washington.

Personalities and Events in Jewish History, by Cecil Roth
by Judd Teller
Human Interest History Personalities and Events in Jewish History. by Cecil Roth. The Jewish Publication Society. 323 pp. $4.00.   Most past historians of the Jews, from Graetz on, wrote in the grand manner, treating only of the heroic aspects of the Jewish fate, of martyrdom and “mission,” and the classical persecutions.

Pictures from an Institution, by Randall Jarrell
by Isa Kapp
Taste as Virtue Pictures from an Institution. by Randall Jarrell. Knopf. 277 pp. $3.50.   Pictures from an institution is a comedy of manners about that summit of the American educational dream, the progressive college for girls.

Moses, by Elias Auerbach
by Alexandre Reiter
Founder of Judaism Moses. by Elias Auerbach. Amsterdam, G. J. A. Ruys. 15 florins.   About the year 1350 B.C.E., Egypt reached the zenith of her cultural development.

Myer Myers, Goldsmith: 1723-1795, by Jeanette W. Rosenbaum
by Charles Reznikoff
A Colonial Craftsman Myer Myers, Goldsmith: 1723-1795. by Jeanette W. Rosenbaum. Jewish Publication Society of America. 141 pp. $6.00.   A student of early American Jewry was bound to run across the name of Myer Myers and become eager to know more about him: a silversmith when most Jews in the colonies were merchants and tradesmen, and a craftsman so well thought of by his fellows as to serve as chairman of their society.

Reader Letters August 1954
by Our Readers
The Theological Approach TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: The fine scholarly articles on Jewish-Christian theological relationships (as well as the letters dealing with them) which have appeared in your magazine in recent months illustrate the great thirst for a true understanding of Ju- daism.

September, 1954Back to Top
The Jewish Prayerbook
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Since Dr. Gaster was good enough to include the Reconstructionist Prayerbook among those he criticized in Commentary (April 1954), I feel constrained to take issue with him with reference to the proper approach to the traditional prayers.

American Yiddish Literature
by Our Readers
To the Editor: One cannot praise too highly the excellent contributions Mr. Judd Teller has been making to your magazine, and most recently his “Yiddish Litterateurs and American Jews” (July). The decline of Yiddish literature is always explained on sociological grounds—the steep falling-off in the number of Yiddish-reading Jews.

Adventure In Freedom: First Chapter:
The Emergence of the American Jewish Pattern

by Oscar Handlin
With the curtain going up this month on the national celebration of the tercentenary of the coming of Jews to these shores, we present with pleasure this account by Oscar Handlin of the beginning chapter of Jewish experience in America, in which, as he tries to point out, the pattern was set that has molded American Jewish life—its unique spirit and its characteristic forms—down to this day.

The Myth of the German General Staff:
A Historian Looks at the “Glorious Tradition”

by Solomon Bloom
Whatever indignation it may have aroused on moral and political grounds, the German General Staff has always been accepted at its own valuation not only as a model of military wisdom and efficiency, but as a dedicated elite above the sordid business of politics and policymaking, foreign and domestic.

Gary's Industrial Workers as Full Citizens:
They Mean to Use Their New-Won Status and Power

by Warner Jr.
There was a time when the steel mills of Gary, Indiana, stood as a symbol of the conflicts and oppressions of a dehumanized industrialism.

Can We Moderns Keep the Sabbath?
Neither Fundamentalism Nor Evasion Offers an Answer

by Emanuel Rackman
It is no secret that the prescriptions for observance of the Sabbath have undergone a slow attrition, even among Orthodox Jews.

The British Case for “Co-Existence”:
The Cold War As It Looks to Our Allies

by G. Arnold
Many Americans have watched the Geneva Conference and the cease-fire in Indo-China with a frustrating sense that the ignoble history of the years of “appeasement” before 1939 is being repeated; and there has been an especially bitter irony in seeing Winston Churchill in a role apparently similar to that once played by Neville Chamberlain.

William Faulkner and the Problem of War:
His Fable of Faith

by Norman Podhoretz
In William Faulkner's latest novel, A Fable (Random House, 437 pp., $4.75), Norman Podhoretz finds a demonstration of the gap which separates America's foremost living novelist from the real problems of our day.

Tears in Utopia:
A Story

by Shlomo Katz
Even the full and purposive life of an Israeli kibbutz is not entirely free of the heartaches of the “bourgeois” world.  _____________   In an Israeli paper not long ago, I read: “The fight between the right- and left-wing members of Kibbutz Beth El became a pitched battle.

Two Children Vendors:

by Reuven Berman
It is when the streets stream with night's      abandon and festive cafes, gloomy, open wide their doors and spill their yellow laughter onto the pavement that they stand with their backs to wide windows' light and command “Chokolad!” with their young voices that are as gloves over the hard brown fists of their youth. Later, when the streets are hollow ravines and a lone walker's heels echo like stone tears on their floors they lay their boxes in a carriage and cover them unceremoniously as they would the carcass of an unknown     dog. The boy's crippled gait is spasmodic and powerful as he propels the noisy cart along the cluttered curb while the girl skips and sings around him, a moth. For the day's last gesture they fling paper bullets at the eye of a one-eyed fiddler whose song is like that of a polished piece of     chalk when jerked peremptorily across a dry black-     board. The two vendors leave the main street, expiring now in sly neon embers, and enter a brown shambling alleyway where houses lurch at each other for support; where old people in a wordless room listen to the movements of the dust, listen to the rotting of old furniture, to the small clamor of the approaching cart, and wait. _____________  

From the American Scene: Gideon Battle on the Hackensack Plains
by S. Hecht
Emergency meeting at the shul: Reedville's Jews, a mixed but stiff-necked lot, try to deal with the complex social, religious, ethical, and possibly economic problems raised for them by the distribution of copies of the New Testament in the public school—and S.

Cedars of Lebanon: The Ram's Horn
by Our Readers
These passages concerning the blowing of the ram's horn, or shofar, on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, are selected from Days of Awe, by S.

On the Horizon: The Sculpture of Jacques Lipchitz
by Clement Greenberg
Clement Greenberg offers here an assessment of the work of a great modern sculptor who has aspired “to continue the great stream of European sculpture from Michelangelo and Bernini to Rodin.”  _____________   Through earlier and more securely placed as a contemporary master, Jacques Lipchitz has not yet enjoyed a boom as concentrated as those which, since the war, have swelled and somewhat inflated the reputations of Henry Moore and Alberto Giacometti.

The Study of Man: Economics: Science or Visionary Art?
by Robert Lekachman
Economics, perhaps because it deals so obviously with material and measurable things, has tended to be placed with the purer and more precise sciences, and has claimed some of the certainties of mathematics and physics, setting up “laws” and “equations” for which it claims objective and ultimate truth.

Against the Stream, by Karl Barth
by Jacob Taubes
Christian Nihilism Against the Stream. by Karl Barth. Philosophical Library. 252 pp. $3.75.   When the near collapse of European society in the 1914 war turned men's thoughts—for the first time, really, in two hundred years—once more to the alternative of theology, Karl Barth's Commentary to the Epistle to the Romans (1919) formed one of the most important attempts at an answer.

The Commodore, by Robert D. Abrahams
by Charles Reznikoff
For the “Young Adult” The Commodore. by Robert D. Abrahams. The Jewish Publication Society of America. 191 pp. $2.75.   “This stirring tale,” to quote the jacket, is about the life of Uriah P.

Cults and Creeds in Graeco-Roman Egypt, by H. Idris Bell
by Stanley Hyman
Myth and History Cults and Creeds in Graeco-Roman Egypt. by H. Idris Bell. Philosophical Library. 117 pp. $4.75.   Comparative religion has gone out of favor, and the fashion now is a kind of speculative pragmatic history: would Islam have conquered without its Book, why did the agnobolium of Christianity win out over the taurobolium of Mithraism, is the pietistic ancestor-worship of the Chinese the direction in which Judaism is moving? Sir Harold Idris Bell, who identifies himself by that loveliest of professional titles, “papyrologist,” has here published the four lectures he delivered at the University of Liverpool in 1952, under the Forwood Foundation for the Philosophy and History of Religion.

A Time to Love and a Time to Die, by Erich Maria Remarque
by Heinz Politzer
The Romance of Death A Time to Love and a Time to Die. by Erich Maria Remarque. Translated from the German by Denver Lindley.

The Road to Mecca, by Muhammad Asad
by Judd Teller
A Jew in Islam The Road to Mecca. by Muhammad Asad. Simon and Schuster 400 pp. $5.00.   Because it is the story of a spiritual odyssey, this book cannot be treated apart from its author.

Morocco's Jews Enter the 20th Century:
Leaves from a Traveler's Notebook—II

by Hal Lehrman
Concluding the Moroccan travel journal of which the first parts were published in our last issue, Hal Lehrman here rounds out his picture of the social, economic, and political progress which Morocco's Jews have made in the past few years, in the midst of the seething politics and nationalist struggles of that country.

Reader Letters September 1954
by Our Readers
American Yiddish Literature TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: One cannot praise too highly the excellent contributions Mr. Judd Teller has been mak- ing to your magazine, and most recently his "Yiddish Litterateurs and American Jews" (July).

October, 1954Back to Top
Franz Boas
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Dr. Melville J. Herskovitz, the author of the biographical 9tudy of Franz Boas that I reviewed in your pages (March), has written to me to protest two statements that I made in the review.

Hagar, Ishmael, and Biblical Criticism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would rather entrust the probing of our Holy Writ's authenticity to the tender mercies of a host of hostile higher critics than rely on the aluminum-foil shields provided by such writers as Immanuel Lewy (“Archaeology and the Bible's Historical Truth,” May). In the course of his article Dr.

The Jewish-Christian Debate
by Our Readers
To the Editor: My rather scattered notes concerning the theological differences between Judaism and Christianity (December 1953) have given rise to a series of remarkable comments from the Jewish and Christian side, both orthodox and liberal.

Our Social Security System
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Charges of fraud and deceit against the American Social Security program are as old as the program itself.

Grossinger's: Israel Division
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was particularly interested in the article “The Green Pastures of Grossinger's” by Morris Freedman. It so happened that Mrs.

by Our Readers
To the Editor: Students of Dr. Morris Freedman's writings in COMMENTARY will recognize in his entertaining, informative, and very artful “The Green Pastures of Grossinger's” (July and August, 1954) his characteristic ambivalence towards large-scale luxury enterprise.

What Mendes-France's “New Deal” Stands For:
Gravedigger of the European Idea?

by Herbert Luethy
With that penchant for easy, dramatic labels, American journalists have hailed the domestic program of the “dynamic” Mendès-France as France's “New Deal,” and he has not been averse to the title.

The American Jewish Pattern, After 300 Years:
The Recent Decades — the Prospect Ahead

by Oscar Handlin
The historian Oscar Handlin here looks back, in this tercentenary year, over the course of Jewish experience in the United States, and describes the pattern he sees as having been established on these shores, and within which the future is likely to shape itself.

Austria and the Jews: Struggle for Restitution:
Minimal Justice Is Still Denied

by Hal Lehrman
Hal Lehrman, who reported on the Jews of Morocco in their current crisis in our two previous issues, turns here to another problem of pressing importance on the Jewish agenda: the long and to date frustrated—and frustrating— negotiations with the Austrian government for partial restitution of the vast material losses suffered by Austrian Jews under Hitler.

Succahs Open to American Skies:
A Commentary on the Feast of Tabernacles

by Grace Goldin
The festival of Succoth—a festival taken over from paganism and turned to the uses of Judaism—offers Grace Goldin an occasion for personal reflections on the relation of Judaism and the individual Jew to the broader life and landscape of America, as she has experienced it in New York City, Oklahoma, Iowa, and elsewhere.

The Fears of the Intelligentsia:
The Present Slough of Despond

by Robert Fitch
There is by now overwhelming testimony to the fact that many Americans, and perhaps especially those in the academic and intellectual professions, believe themselves to be living in a “climate of fear.” Robert E.

The Break
by Dan Jacobson
By now familiar to our readers for his unique stories and essays dealing with the life of his native South Africa, Dan Jacobson is also deeply interested in aspects of Israeli experience, especially such as involve the “outsider.” He himself lived and worked on a kibbutz for a time.

by Gerald Stern
I By taking ship at Joppa, I had hoped     To find a Spanish grotto and dissect Your living hand from mine, but I was cast Upon a new misfortune, Nineveh. I knew in Syria my sleepless foe Would never let the sunlight come between His precious dream and mine, but when the     day Had come for my departure and I sought The sea for murmurings, I found the world Was steeped in deepest blue; impetuous I leaped, but soon the gargantuan cant, Exultant, came in boisterous estate To burst our frail galley and leave me Beside myself, oblivious of Spain. _____________   II I turned, I turned, the deep imagined blue And ghostly-ridden flood gathered upon My spindling empery and hurled me down To new humility and penitence. My lot was cast, the broken unseen world Provided me with miracles to keep My searching arms engrossed and burdened     me With infinite princely pity.

Mt. Everest and the British National Spirit:
The Triumph That Marks Decline

by Steven Marcus
The modern world of technology takes its toll sometimes in unexpected ways; Steven Marcus finds in Sir John Hunt's account of The Conquest of Everest (Dutton, 320 pp., $6.00) evidence of an unhappy decline in the British tradition of exploration and adventure in the moment of one of its greatest triumphs.

From the American Scene: Leaving Home
by Shlomo Katz
As he stood by the ice-coated kitchen window, his hands resting on the warm radiator cover, the memory of trains rumbling on the overpass over Kedzie Avenue suddenly invaded Norman's mind.

Cedars of Lebanon: Young Artist's Rosh Hashanah: Rome, 1821
by Moritz Oppenheim
Moritz Daniel Oppenheim (1800-1882), the first German Jewish artist of note, was born in the Judengasse at Hanau, a small town near Frankfort on the Main, where he attended a Talmud Torah.

On the Horizon: “Frenchman, Go Home!”
by Ray Alan
Ray Alan tells a story of the political complexities and seductive voices of the Middle East. It is a story with a moral—for diplomats.

The Study of Man: The Psychological Theory of Prejudice
by Paul Kecskemeti
In the past two decades, ethnic prejudice has been an area of prime concern for American social scientists, and they have been able to make important contributions not only to its understanding, but to programs looking to its elimination.

A Child of the Century, by Ben Hecht
by Louis Berg
Brat of the Century A Child of the Century. by Ben Hecht. Simon and Schuster. 654 pp. $5.00.   “I am a rascal,” says your true rascal grinning, and thereby robs you of the privilege of calling him one. Ben Hecht, whose heroes are mainly rascals, does not belong in the merry and daring company he cherishes.

Forum: For the Problems of Zionism, World Jewry and the State of Israel
by Milton Himmelfarb
Unease in Zionism Forum: For The Problems of Zionism, World Jewry and the State of Israel. Number 1, December 1953. Jerusalem: Information Department of the Jewish Agency.   It is still hard for us to realize just how remarkable the success of Zionism has been.

The Irish and Catholic Power, by Paul Blanshard
by James Farrell
Blanshard and the Catholics The Irish And Catholic Power. by Paul Blanshard. The Beacon Press. 375 pp. $3.50.   About four years ago a young Irishman, just arrived in America, came to see me.

The Life and Times of General Two-Gun Cohen, by Charles Drage
by Harold Lavine
General Cohen, Retd. The Life and Times of General Two-Gun Cohen. by Charles Drage. Funk & Wagnalls. 312 pp. $4.00.   In Taipeh, back in 1953, the new Old China Hands addressed him respectfully as General, while the real Old China Hands called him Morris (and sometimes Moishe).

The Conquest of Don Pedro, by Harvey Fergusson
by Midge Decter
A Jewish Conquistador The Conquest of Don Pedro. by Harvey Fergusson. Morrow. 250 pp. $3.50.   This is a novel laid in post-Civil War New Mexico.

Reader Letters October 1954
by Our Readers
Grossinger's TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Students of Dr. Morris Freedman's writings in COMMENTARY will recognize in his enter- taining, informative, and very artful "The Green Pastures of Grossinger's" (July and August, 1954) his characteristic ambivalence towards large-scale luxury enterprise.

November, 1954Back to Top
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am at present engaged in preparing a study of the literary career of Ford Madox (Hueffer) Ford (1873–1939) and would appreciate it very much if anyone possessing letters or other material concerning his life and work would communicate with me. Frank MacShane 60 Crofut Street Pittsfield, Massachusetts _____________  

Zionism, American and Israeli
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Benno Weiser's “Ben Gurion's Dispute with American Zionists” (August) is to be commended as the most illuminating and brilliant analysis published in America or Israel. It is, however, regrettable that the conclusions of the article do not equal the brilliance of the analytical parts.

The Open (Closed) Door Policy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Please, may this Christian admirer of COMMENTARY ask the author [S. T. Hecht] of that endearing report “Gideon Battle on the Hackensack Plains” (September 1954) a question? Has he really not observed that the “fraternity of the open (closed) door” cuts across all lines—racial, religious, any you can name? I think immediately of my own family with its Lock The Door member in unceasing debate with its Who's Going To Rob US member; of our neighbors in Maine whose home life is enlivened by this same but more frequent battle between mother (Lock The Door) and son (You've Lived Here Sixty Years); of our best friends—old Connecticut residents, ditto. Elizabeth Sheridan New York City _____________  

Catholicism and Totalitarianism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: When I opened my October COMMENTARY and saw that James Farrell had devoted five pages to an analysis of The Irish and Catholic Power, I thought, this is grand.

Sabbath Means
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I wish to congratulate Rabbi Rackman and COMMENTARY on a brilliant article “Can We Moderns Keep the Sabbath?” (September).

The German General Staff
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Solomon Bloom's article on the myth of German military supremacy (September 1954) is devastating. He did a Davidian job on the Prussian militarists.

Everest and England
by Our Readers
To the Editor: We set out to climb Everest, not “for England” as Steven Marcus claims (“Mt. Everest and the British National Spirit,” October), but for its own sake.

The Community and I:
Belonging: Its Satisfactions and Dissatisfactions

by Evelyn Rossman
In this tercentenary year of Jewish settlement, we are increasingly aware that there has been under way a migration almost as massive as any of the earlier waves of immigration that shaped the American Jewish story.

European Union Refuses to Stay Buried:
The London Conference—and After

by Herbert Luethy
The London conference in September has been hailed as a dramatic and hopeful reversal in the tide of European affairs.

The Marriage
by Harvey Shapiro
When they were canopied, and had the wine To lace their spirits in the trembling cup, And all the holy words sang round their     heads In tribute to the maker and the vine, He saw the leeching sea lap, like darkness, Up her summer's gown, as if dark time And he should race to claim the maidenhead. When he smashed the cup, then ruin spread. The dazzled floor showed sea and blood. Beyond this harvest that the ritual bore (Their mothers weeping on the farther     shore) They saw the journeying years extend. And Zion's hill rose for their reckoning. _____________  

The Native Anti-Semite's “New Look”:
His Present “Line” and His Prospects

by James Rorty
After some years of relative quiescence, the anti-Semitic demagogue is once more astir in the land, peddling the same line of goods but in a new package.

Double Ritual
by Dachine Rainer
For Baby Thérèse and Great-Grandpa Mendel   Death-Thresholded old man hold Upon your uncertain lap—here, hold! Upon your near-centuried lap, your golden child. Death's intervening face affronts my gaze. This is no place for your reproachful aches. Too late!

Arms for Arabs-and What for Israel?
Dilemmas in the Search for a Middle East Balance of Power

by Hal Lehrman
No reader of the newspapers can doubt that the differences between Israel and the Eisenhower administration with regard to policy in the Middle East have sharpened in recent months.

What Arms Policy to Prevent World War III?
Facing Up to the Problem of Atomic Defense

by Harold Lavine
Americans being not only traditionally peace-minded, but inveterately against arms and armies, it should surprise no one that the problem of how best, in an atomic age, to defend our country and the West against its very present enemies has been marked by confusion, divided counsels, and, above all, wishful thinking on the part of “realists” as well as “idealists.” Harold Lavine, an associate editor of Newsweek, is chiefly known as an analyst of domestic politics, but he covered World War II as well as Korea from the front lines, field headquarters, and Washington, and is considered one of the most knowledgeable writers we have on U.

Maimonides: Religion as Poetic Truth:
A Modern Commentary on the Great Commentator

by David Baumgardt
This year marks the 750th anniversary of the death of Maimonides (in 1204), whose lasting significance for Judaism is such as to demand reappraisal of his ideas on every appropriate occasion.

To the Mountains
by Philip Moss
In front of his house Hymie sat clutching the wheel of his car. “Start, you dirty sonofagun!” The motor chugged, back-fired, and died.

From the American Scene: The Schooling of Abraham Cahan
by Sarah Schack
Among the distinguished American Jews of the third and largest wave of immigration to these shores, there was hardly one more representative than Abraham Cahan, at least of one of the two dominant strains of the East European cultural heritage.

Cedars of Lebanon: The Messiah as Teacher
by Our Readers
The Messianic hope, which originated in Biblical times as hope for a new, triumphant Jewish king, expanded and developed in the course or the centuries until it encompassed the hope for individual, national, and universal redemption.

On the Horizon: One Touch of Yiddish
by Shimon Wincelberg
I remember, as a new immigrant in New York, how delighted I used to be at having a Gentile politician or policeman quite proudly come out with an occasional Yiddish expression.

The Study of Man: Where Modern Germany Took the Wrong Turn
by H. Hughes
Not so long ago popular opinion execrated everything in the German tradition as a mere leading on to Nazism and Hitler.

Understanding the Sick and the Healthy, by Franz Rosenzweig
by Michael Wyschogrod
God, Man, and the Word Understanding the Sick and the Healthy. by Franz Rosenzweig. Edited with an Introduction by N. N. Glatzer.

Guide to Politics-1954, edited by Quincy Howe and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr.
by Martin Greenberg
The New Deal Conservatives Guide to Politics—1954. by Quincy Howe and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. Dial. 239 pp. $2.50.   To judge by the pronouncements of one wing of the Republican party, the ADA—Americans for Democratic Action—are a pretty wild and suspicious lot, a gang of Communist-loving radicals full of schemes to tear the country apart and bind Americans hand and foot in the shackles of collectivism.

The American People in the Twentieth Century, by Oscar Handlin
by Daniel Boorstin
The American Accent The American People in the Twentieth Century. by Oscar Handlin. Harvard University Press. 244 pp. $3.75.   A few years ago, in The Uprooted, Professor Handlin told the story of immigration to the United States from the point of view of the immigrant.

Rebuilding the Land of Israel, by Gershon Canaan
by Alfred Werner
Architecture in Israel Rebuilding the Land of Israel. by Gershon Canaan. Architectural Book Publishing Company. 205 pp., illustrated. $12.50.   It has become the fashion to shudder about Israeli architecture.

Blessed Is the Land, by Louis Zara
by Charles Reznikoff
Ashur Levy on the Anvil Blessed is the Land. by Louis Zara. Crown. 393 pp. $3.95.   Thanks to the industry of committees celebrating the tercentenary of the arrival in New Amsterdam of the Jews, there is now no one, I suppose, who has not heard of “Ashur” Levy: how he was one of those who left Brazil after the capture of Recife by the Portuguese; how he requested of the Dutch in New Amsterdam—and finally won—the right to serve in the militia instead of paying the tax imposed on Jews for their exemption, because he had to work with his hands for his living; how he became a butcher and had a slaughterhouse, ran a tavern, and in the end, well off and generous, had the respect and confidence of the Dutch and English.

Guignol's Band, by Louis-Ferdinand Celine
by Isaac Rosenfeld
The Syntax of Non-Existence Guignol's Band. by Louis-Ferdinand Celine. New Directions. 287 pp. $5.00.   Though it's a rather tall order, syntactical analysis being what it is, an examination of the way in which Guignol's Band, Céline's latest novel, is written may largely explain his downfall as a writer and even help account for his collaboration with the Nazis.

Reader Letters November 1954
by Our Readers
We set out to climb Everest, not "for Eng- land" as Steven Marcus claims ("Mt. Everest and the British National Spirit," October), but for its own sake.

December, 1954Back to Top
In Defense of Ben Hecht
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his glandular review of Ben Hecht's A Child of the Century (October), Louis Berg brings up quite a battery of artillery with which to demolish what he calls a “half-baked book” written, as it were, by a literary clown.

Freudianism and Mrs. McCall
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The publication of Lillian Blumberg McCall's most recent article on psychoanalysis in the August COMMENTARY prompts the following protest with respect to your journal's policy concerning choice of subject matter and source of information. The clinical data, theoretical formulations and arguments, and the technics and goals of psychoanalysis are properly subject matter for discussion only by psychoanalysts and only in professional journals.

Prejudice and Social Memory
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Paul Kecskemeti's “The Psychological Theory of Prejudice” (October) is interesting and profitable reading. His thesis about “social memory” makes sense to me, and I have used it for years on lecture platforms in trying to answer the questions: “But why have the Jews been victims of persecution for so many centuries unless there is something basically wrong with them?” and “—yes, but why does everyone believe that Negroes are naturally inferior?” As to Jews, this simply meant that, for many centuries, Christians had made outcasts or “untouchables” of Jews, for religious reasons.

Judah and the Indians
by Our Readers
To the Editor: My daughter, age four, attends the nursery school of a large and important New York synagogue. Yesterday morning she awakened me with her own monotonic version of a little number apparently called “Chanukah Is Here; Candles Are Light.” Thus it was brought to me, very suddenly and very early in the morning, that by sending her to nursery school I was indeed participating in the great effort to transmit Jewish values from this generation to the next. “Do you know what Judah Maccabee did?” Rachel continued. “What?” I asked. “When Judah Maccabee was a little boy, he always took turns, and so when he grew up everybody loved him.

Faulkner as Artist
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am troubled by Norman Podhoretz's essay on Faulkner (“William Faulkner and the Problem of War,” September). He has made the not unusual discovery that Faulkner is a first-rate but minor talent.

The ORT in Morocco
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Hal Lehrman's articles on Morocco (“Morocco's Jews Enter the 20th Century,” August and September) deserve the highest praise.

Desegregation Along the Mason-Dixon Line:
Some Border Incidents and Their Lessons

by James Rorty
Someone has called the momentous decision of the Supreme Court banning racial segregation in U. S. public schools the second “shot heard around the world.” Much of the world has since had its ears cocked—some fearfully, some hopefully—for the crackling sounds of violence, perhaps even civil war, that might follow attempts at enforcement.

Reform Judaism Re-Appraises Its Way of Life:
How Restore the Spirit of the Law, Without Its Letter?

by Israel Knox
Few developments in American Judaism have excited more intense interest than the recent return of the Reform wing towards the more traditional, in ritual, ceremony, and belief.

The Peking-Moscow Axis and the Western Alliance:
How Really Hopeful for Us Are Their Disagreements?

by Franz Borkenau
In the face of the continuing threat of the two massive Communist totalitarian powers—no less real because tactical “peace doves” are sometimes flown in alternation with jet planes over our lines—it becomes of high importance to try to fathom the differing aims of Red Russia and Red China.

Late Autumn of the “Liberal Drama”:
“One Red Leaf, the Last of Its Clan”

by Spencer Brown
In Robert Ardrey's Sing Me No Lullaby, which closed recently after a brief run at the Phoenix Theater in New York, and in the curiously ambivalent reception of the play—ideas, “A plus”; dramatic technique, “C minus”—by some of our more respected critics, Spencer Brown finds striking evidence of the intellectual backwardness which afflicts the contemporary American theater.  _____________   When critics dismiss a play as incompetent and yet go out of their way to commend its ideas, we may infer that the ideas represent something vastly important to the critics' readers—or at least to the critics.

A Gallery of Jewish Colonial Worthies:
Some Loyalists, Some Patriots

by Charles Reznikoff
In sharply executed vignettes of a number of key figures, Charles Reznikoff brings before us the variety and color of Jewish life in Colonial and Revolutionary America, when the New World pattern of religious and other freedoms—whose celebration is a leading motif of this year's Jewish Tercentenary—was worked out and finally established.

French Jewry in a Time of Decision:
Vestigial Remnant or Living Continuity?

by Arnold Mandel
Though the Jews of France now form the largest Jewish community in continental Western Europe, it is doubtful whether we are at present any better informed about their collective life than about that of the Jews of Iran or Iraq.

Danny O'Neill Was Here
A Story

by James Farrell
Danny O'Neill—already familiar to hundreds of thousands of readers throughout the world from James T. Farrell's monumental series of novels of American life—here revisits the streets of his childhood and youth, and finds a new generation of young people still struggling to “get out” as he did, or else sinking, defeated, into the drab, narrow life of a big-city slum.  _____________   Standing at the parlor window, Danny looked out at Washington Park, bare under the heavy autumn sky.

From the American Scene: Sixty-Five and Over
by Sylvia Rothchild
Old people—especially those who do not suffer ailments sufficiently acute to require active attention—are the forgotten ones of our society.

Cedars of Lebanon: The Chanukah of Adam and Eve
by Our Readers
This little Talmudic tale is presented here as retold by the French writer Isaac Pougatch in his book Hanoucca, published by Editions OPEJ (Oeuvxe de Protection des Enfants Juifs).

On the Horizon: That Christmas Problem
by Melvin Landsberg
That the celebration of Christmas in the United States, especially in the public schools, has long offered a problem to the sensitivity of many Jews, for religious and other reasons, is well known.

The Eavesdropper: A Sociological Poem
by Chester Kallman
What was it that he heard Crouched on the twilit stair? What many have heard before, Rejection in one form or another. He had feared the dark of his bedroom, But the words from the shining kitchen— “Since the death of his mother We've kept him, and I think it's hard, For Lou doesn't like him at all”— Found him like a spotlight, Self-consciously unprepared. The words define their distance, Silent as comets they fall; But even today, on the landing, Near as his hand, three statuettes Dancing about a globe Of opaquely illumined glass, Are fixed in the gilt of their pedestal And the taste of the middle class. _____________  

The Study Of Man:Class and Opportunity in Europe and the U.S.
by Seymour Lipset
In an article that continues to be the subject of lively discussion (“Is America Still the Land of Opportunity,” November 1953), William Petersen concluded—contrary to much recent opinion that the “rags-to-riches” tradition of the United States had become a myth—that the individual has as much or more chance to rise in the world as he ever had in this country.

Individualism Reconsidered, and Other Essays, by David Riesman
by Paul Kecskemeti
The Perils of “Freedom from Want” Individualism Reconsidered, and Other Essays. by David Riesman. The Free Press (Glencoe, Illinois). 529 pp. $6.00.   This big volume contains no less than thirty substantial essays, all published within the short period from 1947 to 1954.

The Middle East 1945-50, by George Kirk; Anglo-Egyptian Relations 1800-1953, by John Marlowe
by G. Arnold
Britain's Middle East Course The Middle East 1945-50. by George Kirk. Issued under the auspices of the Royal Institute of International Affairs. Oxford University Press.

Stefan and Friderike Zweig, Their Correspondence: 1912-1942
by Judd Teller
Expatriate from the 19th Century Stefan and Friderike Zweig, Their Correspondence: 1912-1942. by Henry G. Alsberg, With the Assistance of Erna MacArthur. 344 pp.

The Measure of Man, by Joseph Wood Krutch
by Lincoln Reis
An Old-School Testament The Measure of Man. by Joseph Wood Krutch. Bobbs-Merrill. 261 pp. $3.50.   The Measure of Man is another of those tracts for the times which address themselves to the “predicament of modern man,” diagnose it, and suggest a cure.

Why Dictators? The Causes and Forms of Tyrannical Rule Since 600 B. C., by George W. F. Hallgarten
by Robert Langbaum
Why Dictators? Why Dictators? The Causes and Forms of Tyrannical Rule Since 600 B.C. by George W. F. Hallgarten. MacMillan. 379 pp. $5.50.   Although Dr.

Martyrs and Fighters: The Epic of the Warsaw Ghetto, edited by Philip Friedman
by Lucy Dawidowicz
Documents of the Warsaw Ghetto Martyrs and Fighters: The Epic of the Warsaw Ghetto. by Philip Friedman. Praeger. 325 pp. $4.00.   Martyrs and Fighters, as far as I know, is the first attempt in English to give a connected account of the life and death of the Warsaw Ghetto.

Reader Letters December 1954
by Our Readers
The ORT in Morocco To THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Mr. Hal Lehrman's articles on Morocco ("Morocco's Jews Enter the 20th Century," August and September) deserve the highest praise....

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