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January, 1965Back to Top
Integration & Education
To the Editor: Congratulations both to the author and to COMMENTARY for publishing Midge Decter's excellent article [“The Negro & The New York Schools,” Sept.

Mission Schools in Israel
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Having recently returned from Israel where my husband was a Fulbright lecturer, I would like to add to Rabbi Weiner's experience with the Israelis and the missionary schools [“Christian Schools & Israeli Children,” July '64]. We lived in one of the newer quarters of Tel Aviv and the nearest English-speaking school, to which we sent our son, was run by the Church of Scotland in Jaffa.

Intelligence & Race
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . Martin Mayer [in his review of The Geography of Intellect by Weyl and Possony, July '64] uses the “facts” of psychometric statistics to make the case for Negro mental inferiority.

The Price of Survival
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Students of English literature have reason to be grateful that David Daiches's writings on Burns or Stevenson are free of the moral frivolity which he habitually brings to his discussion of Jewish questions.

Spain, the Right, & de Gaulle
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Ray Alan's perceptive account “Spanish Anti-Semitism Today” [Aug. '64] is slightly marred by his curious reference to the French fascist ideologist, Dr.

Vatican II & the Jews
by F. Cartus
On November 20, 1964—the last day of the third session of the Second Vatican Ecumenical Council in Rome—the highest legislative and representative body of the Roman Catholic Church, by the overwhelming vote of 1893 to 99, approved of a document condemning “hatred and persecutions of Jews, whether they arose in former or in our own days,” affirming the validity of Judaism as a religious way of life with which Catholics must establish relations of “mutual knowledge and respect,” and repudiating the idea of “the Jewish people as one rejected, cursed, or guilty of deicide.” This text, running a little more than six paragraphs, marked a turning point in the history of the Church, for in and through it a tacit but definitive judgment was passed on countless generations of Popes, Kings, Church Fathers, Saints, writers, theologians, and ordinary Christians; on them and on their attitude to Jews and Judaism. The declaration approved by the Council Fathers stood in the most dramatic contrast to a theological tradition which has dominated Catholic thinking about Jews for 1900 years.

Getting the Story in Vietnam
by David Halberstam
In most underdeveloped countries the relationship between the American embassy and the American reporter is fairly simple and generally straightforward.

Soviet Anti-Semitism: An Exchange
by Bertrand Russell
The following exchange between Bertrand Russell and Aron Vergelis, the editor of the Yiddish-language Soviet magazine, Sovietish heimland, was initiated last spring by a letter to Lord Russell from a Russian Jew who wished him to intercede against the suppression of Jewish culture. Moscow, 20 May, 1964 Dear Mr.

The State of Soviet Jewry
by Maurice Friedberg
According to a theory currently fashionable among Western. Sovietologists, the abyss that separates the Soviet Union from the United States is gradually narrowing.

The Tragic Legend of Reconstruction
by Kenneth Stampp
In much serious history, and in a durable popular legend, two American epochs—the Civil War and the reconstruction that followed—bear an odd relationship to one another.

Change of Heart
by Meyer Liben
1. My Friend Do you remember how years ago, and not too many at that, we used to say, in a kind of jocular manner: “my frand,” not “my frend,” but “my fraaand,” carrying the a out to inordinate lengths? It was supposed to be funny, but I never could see why.

My Father and I
by Nathan Asch
Though it has not been written about much, the children of famous artists do not have an easy time, nor do they usually end up well.

MLF & Other Problems
by George Lichtheim
This department, conducted for the past three years by Hans J. Morgenthau and devoted to a wide range of political and social questions, will be conducted throughout the coming year by GEORGE LICHTHEIM.

How We Are
by Milton Himmelfarb
Like Everyone Else, Only More So? The ancients knew it and we learn it anew every day: no opinion is so absurd as not to be professed by some learned man.

Daniel: Dialogues on Realization, by Martin Buber
by Isaac Singer
Rootless Mysticism Daniel: Dialogues On Realization. by Martin Buber. Translated with an introduction by Maurice Friedman.Holt, Rinehart & Winston. 144 pp. $4.00. In every age, there have been philosophers, mystics, and poets who have sought for a relation between man and the powers which created the world and sustain it.

Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man, by Marshall McLuhan
by Neil Compton
The Cool Revolution Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. by Marshall McLuhan. McGraw-Hill. 359 pp. $7.50. The typical reader of COMMENTARY is living in a numbed and somnambulistic trance, self-hypnotized by his visual, linear bias.

The Liberal Idea of Freedom, by David Spitz
by George Kateb
The Basis of Democracy The Liberal Idea of Freedom. by David Spitz. University of Arizona Press. 210 pp. $5.50. For some time there has been a strong revival of interest in the political theory of democracy.

Last Exit to Brooklyn, by Hubert Selby, Jr.
by George Elliott
Gone to Hell Last Exit to Brooklyn. by Hubert Selby, Jr. Grove. 304 pp. $5.00. At first the half dozen stories in this book appear to be little-magazine, big-city naturalism of a familiar kind: Farrell crossed with Joyce.

O Strange New World: American Culture: The Formative Years, by Howard Mumford Jones
by Staughton Lynd
The Long View O Strange New World: American Culture: The Formative Years. by Howard Mumford Jones. Viking. 464 pp. $8.50. Professor Jones surprises us at the outset.

Reader Letters January 1965
by Our Readers
Spain, the Right, & de Gaulle TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Ray Alan's perceptive account "Spanish Anti-Semitism Today" [Aug. '64] is slightly marred by his curious reference to the French fascist ideologist, Dr.

February, 1965Back to Top
Wilhelm Reich Defended
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Philip Rieff's article, “The World of Wilhelm Reich” [Sept. '64] . . . can only serve to obstruct a sober evaluation of the work of a strange and brilliant man.

Schools & Integration
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I wish to extend to you my sincere compliments on Midge Decter's article [“The Negro and the New York Schools,” Sept.

Ideology: Round 3
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Daniel Bell should mind his facts when he says that I and people I respect are “happily playing the heretic in the fields of official clover” [“Ideology—A Debate,” Oct.

From Protest to Politics: The Future of the Civil Rights Movement
by Bayard Rustin
I The decade spanned by the 1954 Supreme Court decision on school desegregation and the Civil Rights Act of 1964 will undoubtedly be recorded as the period in which the legal foundations of racism in America were destroyed.

A Kind of Survivor
by George Steiner
For Elie Wiesel Not literally. Due to my father's foresight (he had shown it when leaving Vienna in 1924), I came to America in January 1940, during the phony war.

What Happened at Berkeley
by Nathan Glazer
As I write this, in late December, we in Berkeley are in the Christmas lull. The university's 18,000 undergraduates are for the most part at home, many of the faculty and even some of the graduate students are away.

The Problem of Isaac Bashevis Singer
by Dan Jacobson
No doubt the world is entirely an imaginary world, but it is only once removed from the true world. —Gimpel the Fool What is immediately striking about the stories and novels of Isaac Bashevis Singer is the contrast between the formidable barriers to understanding which appear to surround his work and the simplicity and directness of his narrative style.

Communism in Asia
by Donald Zagoria
What is now happening in Vietnam may well be only the beginning of a new phase in the cold war, with the theater of operations shifting from Europe to Asia, and with the United States trying to contain Communism there just as it sought to do in Europe in the 1950's.

J. Edgar Hoover-The Compleat Bureaucrat
by Joseph Kraft
Roosevelt's first Attorney General, Homer Cummings, once showed up for work on a Sunday without a pass. He was stopped at the gate of the Justice Department by a guard, and there ensued the usual conversation with the usual result: the guard had the last word.

How Good Is Israeli Art?
by Hilton Kramer
Artists who live in small, developing countries at some distance from the principal centers of artistic innovation confront an insidious dilemma.

My Friend Fuentes
by Keith Botsford
We were born within two months of each other, the Mexican novelist Carlos Fuentes and I, but that cannot possibly explain why we understand each other with such facility.

The Demagogy of LeRoi Jones
by George Dennison
In the relations between Negroes and whites two kinds of questions are always coming up, one concerning feelings and the other policies.

Jerusalem and Albion: The Hebraic Factor in Seventeenth Century Literature, by Harold Fisch
by David Daiches
“Hebraism” Reconsidered Jerusalem and Albion: The Hebraic Factor in Seventeenth Century Literature. by Harold Fisch. Schocken. 320 pp. $6.95. “Hebraism,—and here is the source of its wonderful strength—has always been severely preoccupied with an awful sense of the impossibility of being at ease in Zion; of the difficulties which oppose themselves to man's pursuit or attainment of that perfection of which Socrates talks so hopefully, and, as from this point of view one might almost say, so glibly.” Reading these words of Matthew Arnold in my father's copy of Culture and Anarchy as a youngster of eighteen, I scribbled angrily in the margin: “No no.

The Real Voice, by Richard Harris
by David Bazelon
Prescription and Prices The Real Voice. by Richard Harris. Macmillan. 245 pp. $4.95. The late Senator Estes Kefauver did not become chairman of the Senate Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly until January 1957.

The Theatre of Revolt, by Robert Brustein
by John Gross
The Nay Sayers The Theatre of Revolt. by Robert Brustein. Atlantic-Little, Brown. 435 pp. $7.50. There was once a man who planned to write a history of England from 1066 to the present, to be entitled “The Age of Transition.” At first sight Robert Brustein's book seems much the same kind of enterprise.

Equal Time: The Private Broadcaster and the Public Interest, by Newton N. Minow
by Walter Goodman
Doing something about TV Equal Time: The Private Broadcaster and the Public Interest. by Newton N. Minow. Edited by Lawrence Laurent. Atheneum. 316 pp.

The Words, by Jean-Paul Sartre
by Kathleen Nott
The Little Bourgeois The Words. by Jean-Paui. Sartre. Translated from French by Bernard Frechtman. Braziller. 255 pp. $5.00. Sartre occasionally describes himself as a Marxist.

I Never Saw Another Butterfly: Children's Drawings and Poems from Theresienstadt Concentration Camp, 1942-44
by Mary Ellmann
A Certain Justice I Never Saw Another Butterfly. Children's Drawings and Poems From Theresienstadt Concentration Camp, 1942-44. McGraw-Hill. 80 pp. $3.95. Almost all the pictures reproduced here with such painstaking care were done in 1943.

Reader Letters February 1965
by Our Readers
Ideology: Round 3 TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Daniel Bell should mind his facts when he says that I and people I respect are "happily playing the heretic in the fields of official clover" ["Ideology-A Debate," Oct.

March, 1965Back to Top
The Trial of Jesus
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The appearance of Paul Winter's article “The Trial of Jesus” [September 1964] is, for obvious reasons, as timely as it is important.

Conservatism After Goldwater
by David Danzig
Now that the Republican party has been overwhelmingly repudiated for its secession from contemporary American society, and the efforts of reconstructing it have begun, there has developed a tendency to view the Goldwater candidacy as a temporary aberration that was decisively corrected at the polls by the American consensus.

The Conservative Mindlessness
by Richard Rovere
Shortly after the Last election, William F. Buckley, Jr., in his syndicated newspaper column, urged his fellow “conservatives” to “consider the fate of the Socialist party in American elections between 1900 and 1932.

The Last Return
by Elie Wiesel
Somewhere in Transylvania, in the shadow of the Carpathians, very near the most capricious frontier of Eastern Europe, there is a dusty little town called Sighet.

On Teilhard de Chardin
by Stephen Toulmin
From time to time in the history of ideas a man appears who, for a while, comes near to defeating all criticism: not because his works are above criticism, nor because their value is universally agreed upon, but rather through sheer elusiveness.

Other Chanukahs
by Leo Skir
It was the first night of Chanukah. I had been working in the Columbia Library that day, on a paper for my History of the English Language class, which paper was to be on a line of Chaucer, chosen by the student.

China, Russia & the Experts
by George Lichtheim
“Behind it all looms Communist China. Now United States experts in the Far East are forecasting that the Chinese will be able to launch short-range nuclear missiles within five years.

Academic Women
by Mary Ellmann
Since their political equality was secured by the suffragettes, American women have toyed with the idea, the possibility in nature, of entering college teaching, and all other fields of educated work formerly reserved for men.

Next Year in Jerusalem
by Gloria Goldreich
They are not a drinking group, the Israelis. When letters from home have been few or not at all, they may brood their way through one or two bottles of beer but usually coffee is their drink—strong espresso served in tiny cups with thick dregs hugging the rims.

The Polish Scene
by A. Alvarez
Your first and last impression of Poland, as of all Eastern Europe, is of a shifting but utterly pervasive sense of trouble.

by Nathan Glazer
The following exchange grew out of Nathan Glazer's article, “What Happened at Berkeley,” which appeared in last month's issue. Both Philip Selznick and Mr.

The Invisible Government, by David Wise and Thomas B. Ross
by Ronald Steel
Cloaking the Dagger The Invisible Government. by David Wise and Thomas B. Ross. Random House. 356 pp. $5.95. Unloved by those it serves as much as by those it subverts, the CIA has entered the popular mythology as a composite demon: half-terrifying, half-ludicrous.

Other People's Houses, by Lore Segal
by Cynthia Ozick
A Contraband Life Other People's Houses. by Lore Segal. Harcourt, Brace & World. 312 pp. $5.95. In 1938 a particularly noisy special train from Vienna—it carried the frenetic atmosphere of a school bus—was stopped in Germany to be checked for contraband.

Man's Struggle for Shelter in an Urbanizing World, by Charles Abrams
by Peter Marris
The Homeless Masses Man's Struggle for Shelter in an Urbanizing World. by Charles Abrams. M.I.T. Press. 307 pp. $7.95. A few months ago, I was standing with Charles Abrams by a muddy field five miles outside Nairobi, inspecting a building site for squatters.

Communism and the French Intellectuals, 1914-1960, by David Caute
by J. Weightman
The Mandarin Left Communism and the French Intellectuals, 1914-1960. by David Caute. Macmillan. 412 pp. $10.00. It is well known that the French are among the most intellectual nations of the world—perhaps, even, the most intellectual—and that France is the Western country where Communism has been strongest and most vocal during the last half-century.

Reader Letters March 1965
by Our Readers
The Trial of Jesus TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: The appearance of Paul Winter's article "The Trial of Jesus" [Sep- tember 1964] is, for obvious rea- sons, as timely as it is important.

April, 1965Back to Top
"I'm Sorry, Dear"
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Leslie H. Farber [“I'm Sorry, Dear,” November 1964] has some perceptive things to say when he examines the assumptions of sexology in the context of more general 20th-century liberalizing values.

Jews & Giants
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have not read Nathan Rotenstreich's book, The Recurrent Pattern, nor am I learned in the various philosophical works it discusses, but I share with Mr.

While Tevye Fiddles
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Having seen Fiddler on the Roof twice, I was intrigued by Irving Howe's comments [“Tevye on Broadway,” November '64].

Coming to Terms
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to counter what I consider a terribly muddled conclusion to A. Alvarez's otherwise clear and moving article [“The Literature of the Holocaust,” November 1964].

Our Vietnam Policy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In reading the excellent article by Donald S. Zagoria [“Communism in Asia,” February], I was surprised by the last paragraph, which said inter alia: The roots of Communism in Asia and in the former colonial areas in general, then, run deep, and the problem is not exclusively military or socio-economic, much less a conspiracy directed from Peking.

Art & Science
by Our Readers
To the Editor: There is much to be said for having books in the social sciences reviewed by literary critics and poets, for they can evaluate in terms of larger human values and they are free of the small-clerk mentality increasingly prevalent among social scientists. Thus, Kathleen Nott's review of three books related to suicide [“Mortal Statistics,” October 1964] has excellent humanistic insights.

Extreme Reactions
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Willie Morris's “Cell 722, or Life Among the Extremists” [October 1964] is a masterpiece. . . . What journalist Morris has described is not limited, of course, to Austin, Texas—it is not limited at all.

The Failure of Urban Renewal
by Herbert Gans
Suppose that the government decided that jalopies were a menace to public safety and a blight on the beauty of our highways, and therefore took them away from their drivers.

Two for SNCC
by Robert Warren
Number 1017 Lynch Street, in Jackson, Mississippi, the headquarters of SNCC, is a clean, white, rather new store-front, a big glass window, as for display, on each side, a door in the middle.

Judaism & the Meaning of Life
by Emil Fackenheim
I Religions—which differ in much else—differ in substance according to their experience and understanding of the meeting between the Divine and the human: whether, when, and how it occurs, and what happens in and through it.

by Dezso Kosztolanyi
People often reproach me—Kornel Esti was speaking—for taking all my stories from the time of my youth, a period which could with some justification be termed prehistoric.

Two Cheers for Hedonism
by Milton Himmelfarb
Four men made the revolution that has transformed the world in the past century: Darwin, Marx, Freud, and Einstein. Two of them, Freud and Einstein, were Jews.

The New Immoralists
by William Phillips
A specter is haunting modern literature, the specter of avant-garde homosexuality. Some people are thrilled, others frightened, by the morbid prospects.

Nazis on Trial-Pages from a Journal
by Jakov Lind
Frankfurt has Better things to offer than those 22 men. The evening, so friendly and cool at first, is already spoilt, for tomorrow I am to look at 22 SS-men in civilian clothing who helped to kill a few million people between 1942 and 1945.

Psychoanalysis Americanized
by Harold Rosenberg
In addition to being practiced by professionals, psychoanalysis is used to some degree by most of us to explain things to ourselves.

The Legacy of A. D. Gordon
by Ronald Sanders
In 1904, after having been employed as a clerk for more than twenty years, Aaron David Gordon left his native Russia for Palestine, to begin a new life there as an agricultural laborer.

Children of Violence, by Doris Lessing
by Roger Owen
Doris Lessing, who grew up in Southern Rhodesia between the two wars, has been a witness of the late glories of Empire and has observed at first hand the drama of racial antagonism which increasingly fills our minds.

The Holocaust Kingdom: A Memoir, by Alexander Donat
by Warren Coffey
In August 1939, Alexander Donat's name was Michal Berg, and he was the publisher of a Warsaw morning tabloid. Thirty-four years old, he lived in an apartment in Warsaw's Orla Street with his wife, Lena, and their twenty-one-month-old son, Wlodek.

The Managed Economy, by Michael D. Reagan; and The Economic Theory of
by Ben Seligman
Men will always demand an explanation for their perception of economic reality and a justification for their economic actions. If we can call a body of ideas that meets this demand an ideology, then we may safely say that there will always be ideology.

Seeds of Destruction, by Thomas Merton
by Daniel Callahan
Thomas Merton has always occupied a special place in the American Catholic Church, though for different reasons at different times.

World Communism: The Disintegration of a Secular Faith, by Richard Lowenthal
by Lewis Coser
Richard Lowenthal, currently a visiting research fellow at Columbia University, was for many years a journalist who wrote from London on international affairs.

Reader Letters April 1965
by Our Readers
Extreme Reactions TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Willie Morris's "Cell 722, or Life Among the Extremists" [October 1964] is a masterpiece.... What journalist Morris has de- scribed is not limited, of course, to Austin, Texas-it is not limited at all.

May, 1965Back to Top
Jewish Opinion
To the Editor: As a non-Jew interested in the behavior of major American groups, I have been struck by the interchange between Melvin Tumin and various colleagues, originating in Judaism and carried by Milton Himmelfarb into the pages of COMMENTARY [“How We Are,” Jan.]. Some of Tumin's generalizations about his fellow Jews seem curious coming from a supposedly systematic, empirically oriented social scientist.

Is theTimes out of Joint?
by Our Readers
To the Editor: George Lichtheim's criticism of the American press and the American Left [“MLF & Other Problems,” January] can only be applied to Britain in spades.

Two Protests
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . I was very sorry indeed to read I. J. Singer's story [“Converts,” December 1964], not only because of its cynical portrayal of both the Jews and Gentiles, but also because the portrayal, allowing for exaggeration and caricature, is not true. The Mission in the story is described as Anglican, and the only Anglican Mission that has worked in Warsaw is ours (which, being a “Low Church” would certainly have no crucifix .

For the Record
by Our Readers
To the Editor: For some time I have intended to write a letter commending Professor Richard Bernstein's discerning review of my book, Reason and Conduct [June 1963].

The Tragic Sense
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Lionel Abel's “Is There A Tragic Sense of Life?” [December 1964] is a beautiful essay, written in the peculiar plastic style which recalls Socrates's colloquii.

The Role of Lenin
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As a biographer of Lenin, I am above all concerned with the fact that Lenin was. But this does not prevent me from being fascinated by the question which Leonard Schapiro poses [“Was Lenin Necessary?” December 1964].

"I'm Sorry, Dear" (cont'd)
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Dr. Leslie H. Farber's article [“I'm Sorry, Dear,” November 1964] is more than an unusually bold and sensitive discussion about sex in the present age.

by Our Readers
To the Editor: I find so much that is sound and basic in Nathan Glazer's “Negroes & Jews: The New Challenge to Pluralism” [December 1964] that I hesitate to point up an unfortunate misunderstanding of my position on social discrimination.

Bonn, Cairo, Jerusalem: The Triple Crisis
by Walter Laqueur
London, April 1 In recent months German-Jewish, and German-Israeli, relations have become almost inextricably entangled in wider issues: they can no longer be explained without constant reference to German domestic and foreign policy, to the Middle Eastern conflict, and indeed to East-West relations in general.

Big Business & the Democrats
by David Bazelon
Hardly ever before has so much political history been crowded into so short a period as was jammed into the “fiscal” political year extending from November 22, 1963 to November 3, 1964.

by Dan Jacobson
Behind the holiday resort were mountains—high, bare, and rock-littered, with much black soil showing through green grass; in front of it were the yellow beach and the sea.

Epitaph for a Jewish Magazine:
Notes on the Menorah Journal

by Robert Alter
My first introduction to the Menorah Journal was a fittingly formal one. A few years ago, while visiting the home of a Yiddish intellectual, a friend of my parents, in the upstate New York town where I grew up, I happened to say something enthusiastic about COMMENTARY.

Vietnam & China
by George Lichtheim
This department, though currently conducted by an expatriate European, is not immune from the strains cast upon Atlantic relations by the differences in American and European ways of viewing the world.

Southern Mythology
by C. Woodward
The Making of Southern mythology has not been an exclusively regional enterprise. No doubt Southerners themselves have been the most prolific contributors, but they have had too much assistance from outside to claim exclusive authorship.

Assimilation & the Sociologists
by Marshall Sklare
The question of Jewish assimilation has always been vexed by two different considerations: how willing was the general community to accept Jews fully, and how willing were Jews to deliver themselves up to the norms of the general community.

Pop Goes the Island
by Mordecai Richler
After Churchill died the British popular newspapers had themselves a sentimental orgy (“You can take tears today and catch them and call them the river that flows through London's heart.

The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Idea in America, by Leo Marx
by Neil Compton
American Dreams The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America. by Leo Marx. Oxford University Press. 392 pp. $6.75. Dearborn, Michigan contains two monuments to the genius of Henry Ford.

Principles of the Jewish Faith, by Louis Jacobs
by Chaim Potok
Provisional Absolutes Principles of the Jewish Faith. by Louis Jacobs. Basic Books. 467 pp. $9.50. Rabbi Louis Jacobs is troubled by the “obstacles to belief in some of the classic expressions of the Jewish Creed in those areas where facts about the universe, presented by new knowledge, contradict some of the older formulations.” He is convinced that the acceptance of religious doctrines in the face of such evidence constitutes a sacrifice of intellectual integrity which Judaism does not demand.

New York Proclaimed, by V. S. Prichett
by Jason Epstein
Stranded in the Future New York Proclaimed. by V. S. Pritchett. Harcourt, Brace & World. 116 pp. $15.00. The qualities which so greatly distinguish V.

The Founding Father: The Story of Joseph P. Kennedy, by Richard J. Whalen
by Thomas Curley
“High-Irish” The Founding Father: The Story of Joseph P. Kennedy. by Richard J. Whalen. New American Library. 560 pp. $6.95. The Curley crowd and the Fitzgerald-Kennedy clan never did get along.

Music Observed, by B. H. Haggin
by Albert Goldman
Art as Performance Music Observed. by B. H. Haggin. Oxford University Press. 297 pp. $6.50. Back in the mid-50's, B. H. Haggin, who at that time had been the music critic of The Nation for almost twenty years and had built up a formidable reputation as a fearless champion of the highest musical values, began to abandon, not his position or his pretensions, but his essential function by converting his weekly page of forthright comment on the current scene into a sophisticated record-rating service.

Shadow and Act, by Ralph Ellison
by Robert Warren
The Unity of Experience1 Shadow And Act. by Ralph Ellison. Random House. 317 pp. $4.95. Even if Ralph Ellison were not the author of Invisible Man, his recent collection of essays, Shadow and Act, would be a very significant work.

Reader Letters May 1965
by Our Readers
Clarification TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I find so much that is sound and basic in Nathan Glazer's "Negroes 8c Jews: The New Challenge to Pluralism" [December 1964] that I hesitate to point up an unfortunate misunderstanding of my position on social discrimination.

June, 1965Back to Top
The Vatican Council
To the Editor: I read with great interest, and not a little disbelief in some parts, the article by “F. E.

by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am unimpressed with David Halberstam's self-vindicating article [“Getting the Story in Vietnam,” January]. The course of events in Vietnam since the coup that deposed the Diem family provides little support for the view that Buddhist dissatisfactions were exclusively religious in character and that a new regime was what was needed to press hostilities successfully and unify the country.

How Are We? (Contd.)
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As a Reform Democratic “activist,” I agree with Mr. Himmelfarb [“How We Are,” January] that Jews are a major bulwark of the movement.

Rabbis & Philosophers
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . Accusing Dr. Kadushin of such things as “denying even the rudiments of philosophic method to the rabbis,” or “reading out of the tradition some of our greatest spirits and impoverishing rabbinic theology beyond recognition,” Marvin Fox [December '64] betrays emotional involvement without giving his readers a sense of the content of Dr.

Biographer Defended
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . John Gross [“Zangwill in Retrospect,” December '64] relies so heavily on Maurice Wohlgelernter's recent study of Zangwill, that one would expect some expression of indebtedness.

Negroes & Jews (Contd.)
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . While Nathan Glazer [“Negroes & Jews: The New Challenge to Pluralism,” Dec. '64] concedes that Negroes hold prejudiced attitudes toward Jews, he minimizes the possibility that Jews hold similar attitudes toward Negroes.

Johnson So Far: I: The Great Society
by Robert Lekachman
Lyndon B. Johnson is without question more lovingly immersed in domestic issues, and more effective in getting his programs through Congress, than any American President since Franklin Roosevelt in his first term of office.

Johnson So Far: II: Civil Rights
by Bayard Rustin
When Lyndon Johnson goes before a joint session of Congress and proclaims that “We Shall Overcome,” how is the civil-rights movement to react? And when, in the same speech, he pays homage to demonstrations as a wellspring of legislative progress, what is the civil-rights movement to say? Ironically, a movement whose only hope is political power is deeply discomfited when power speaks in its name. It is not hard to understand why.

Johnson So Far: III: Foreign Policy
by Maurice Goldbloom
In the autumn of 1963 the international prestige of the United States stood higher than at any previous time since the end of World War II.

The American Reading Problem
by Selma Fraiberg
In 1955 a backward schoolboy called Johnny became the central figure in a national literacy scandal. Rudolf Flesch's Why Johnny Can't Read produced domestic ferment over such issues as phonics vs.

What Was the Matter with Henry Adams?
by Marcus Cunliffe
Like a half-buried former civilization—famous, extensive, and perplexing—the Adams family is being uncovered for us. The evolution from generation to generation is made clearer, and the factors that link each.

Nazi Murders and German Politics
by David Schoenbaum
It took only two weeks for the Bundestag to cover the route from mystique to politique. On March 10, before jammed press galleries and a national radio audience, the house debated measures for the extension of the statute of limitations on Nazi murders in a first reading.

The Homecoming of Joel Bialystock
by Deirdre Levinson
The aristotelian prescription which attended Joel Bialystock in his homecoming, the accompaniment, namely, by terror of pity and love, may be accountable finally less to his family than to his own idiosyncrasy.

Jews, Gentiles, and the New Establishment
by Dennis Wrong
Most American sociologists believe in the ideal of an “open” society in which equality of opportunity generally prevails—and equality of opportunity means, of course, the opportunity to become unequal as a result of personal talent, effort, and achievement.

A Farewell to Munoz Marin
by Keith Botsford
One needn't be in Puerto Rico very long to note the presence of Public Relations; the initials stand for both the island and the kind of soft sell that got me down there in the first place: a tropical paradise in which the hills are purple, the beaches yellow, and the races inter-.

An American Dream, by Norman Mailer
by Richard Poirier
“Morbid-Mindedness” An American Dream. by Norman Mailer. Dial Press. 270 pp. $4.95. William James probably would have admired Norman Mailer's An American Dream. And since to read James is more instructive about contemporary literature than to read the reviews of Mailer's book, there's a chance that the novel will find the respected place in history that literary journalism refuses to give it.

An Area of Darkness, by V. S. Naipaul
by John Mander
The Anglo-Indian Theme An Area of Darkness. by V. S. Naipaul. Macmillan. 281 pp. $5.95. From their duration, their intimacy, and intensity, an outsider might take Anglo-Indian relations to be one of the richest and most fascinating of historical themes.

Jews and Americans, by Irving Malin
by George Elliott
A Surfeit of Talk Jews And Americans. by Irving Malin. Southern Illinois University Press. 193 pp. $4.50. In this book Irving Malin is concerned with seven important contemporary poets and fiction writers who are both Jews and Americans and who deal explicitly with Jewishness: Karl Shapiro, Delmore Schwartz, Isaac Rosenfeld, Leslie Fiedler, Saul Bellow, Bernard Malamud, and Philip Roth.

From Hegel to Nietzsche: The Revolution in Nineteenth-Century Thought, by Karl Lowith
by Werner Dannhauser
The Decline of Reason From Hegel to Nietzsche: the Revolution in Nineteenth-Century Thought. by Karl Löwith. Translated by David E. Green. Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

The Anxious Object: Art Today and Its Audience, by Harold Rosenberg
by Henry Aiken
Action Criticism The Anxious Object: Art Today and Its Audience. by Harold Rosenberg. Horizon. 272 pp. $7.50. Not least among Mr. Rosenberg's manifest powers as a chronicler, front-runner, and occasional monitor to “the art establishment,” as he calls it, is his talent as a slogan maker.

Reader Letters June 1965
by Our Readers
Negroes & Jews (Contd.) TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: .. While Nathan Glazer ["Ne- groes & Jews: The New Challenge to Pluralism," Dec.

July, 1965Back to Top
Israelis in America
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . Gloria Goldreich seems to know her way around among the scattered colonies of Israelis in New York, Chicago, San Francisco, etc., and her description of Israelis in America makes for very interesting reading [“Next Year in Jerusalem,” March].

by Our Readers
To the Editor: George Lichtheim's “China, Russia and the Experts” [March] is by far the most intelligent and penetrating essay on post-Khrushchev Russia I have seen so far in any periodical. Maurice Friedberg Department of Classics Russian Division Hunter College New York City

Being Jewish
by Our Readers
To the Editor: George Steiner has written a frontal attack on nationalism while defending Jewish nationalism as qualitatively different and infinitely purer [“A Kind of Survivor,” February].

Civil-Rights Strategy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Bayard Rustin's “From Protest to Politics” [February] is the most perceptive—and potentially most important—piece on the civil-rights movement I have ever seen.

Jacobson on Singer
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his essay, “The Problem of Isaac Bashevis Singer” [February], Dan Jacobson sensitively and affectionately explores the range of Singer's work.

Author's Reply
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In reviewing my book, The Holocaust Kingdom [April], Warren Coffey makes a number of base and baseless accusations and criticisms which call into question my integrity.

German Unification: Prospects & Merits
by Oscar Gass
Who has Power in hand, then proceeds according to his own judgment, for the life of the State can not stand still even during the twinkling of an eye.—Bismarck, January 27, 1863. All depends on me, on my existence, because of my political talents.

A Wedding in B'nai Brak
by Herbert Weiner
It was eighteen years ago in Jerusalem that I had my first experience of Hasidism—flesh-and-blood Hasidism, that is, as opposed to its literary counterpart.

Saturday Night in Harlem
by Claude Brown
Saturday night. I suppose there's a Saturday night in every Negro community throughout the nation just like Saturday night in Harlem.

The Jew: Subject or Object?
by Milton Himmelfarb
Who, Whom? For Mr. Ben Gurion, the seventeen centuries between Bar Kochba's rebellion (132—35 C.E.) and Zionism are not Jewish history but a cessation of history.

Palmerstonian America
by George Lichtheim
The shadow of the 1970's is now beginning to fall upon the Atlantic Alliance. One would not guess this from the complacent reporting of the recent NATO conference in London (insofar as it was reported at all), or from the reassuring speeches made in public by responsible (to their superiors) officials.

Peddlers in Eldorado
by Louis Berg
“The restless spirit of the Jewish wanderer,” said Dr. Jacob Voorsanger, pioneer rabbi of San Francisco, speaking of the '49 Gold Rush, “drove many of the race of Israel to the mining camps of Eldorado.” Once there, however, it did not take “the Jewish wanderer” long to find out that there were more nuggets in the peddler's pack than could be pried out of the mountainside.

Portrait of a Revolutionary
by Harold Isaacs
The treads of anti-colonialism have worn smooth with the hard running of the last decade or so. Only a few colonial dots remain now on the world's map and the only anti-colonial war still going on is taking place obscurely in remote Portuguese Angola.

Urban Renewal
by Herbert Gans
The following exchange was occasioned by Herbert J. Gans's article, “The Failure of Urban Renewal,” which appeared in the April COMMENTARY.

How Children Fail, by John Holt
by George Dennison
Learning the Ropes How Children Fail. by John Holt. Pitman. 181 pp. $4.50. For several months now a public-spirited poster has been displayed in the New York City subway trains, simply a line of type: “I quit school when I were in the sixth grade.” Many rebuttals have been scrawled on the poster, expressing by and large a much finer sense of the dilemma.

Ancient Jewish Philosophy, by Israel I. Efros
by Marvin Fox
Kedushah and Kavod Ancient Jewish Philosophy. by Israel I. Efros. Wayne State University Press. 199 pp. $7.95. With the general claim that there are important philosophic ideas in the Bible and rabbinic literature, one can hardly take serious issue any longer.

In Solitary Witness: The Life and Death of Franz Jagerstatter, by Gordon Zahn
by J. Powers
Conscience and Religion In Solitary Witness: The Life and Death of Franz Jägerstätter. by Gordon Zahn. Holt, Rinehart & Winston. 277 pp. $5.95. Franz Jägerstätter was an Austrian peasant.

Love and Revolution, by Max Eastman
by Hilton Kramer
Politics without Pain Love and Revolution: My Journey through an epoch. by Max Eastman. Random House. 665 pp. $8.95. The history of American radicalism in this century has been rich in personalities but poor in ideas.

The Great Train Robbery, by John Gosling and Dennis Craig
by Harold Steinberg
The Art of the Caper The Great Train Robbery. by John Gosling and Dennis Craig. Bobbs-Merrill. 178 pp. $4.50. The caper is everywhere: in the movies (a well-heeled, sporting gang on the Riviera lifts a masterpiece), in the New York Daily News (a lonely woman is defrauded of her life's savings by a man posing as a CIA agent), in the New York Times (a huge Wall Street brokerage goes under at the hands of an obscure mastermind in New Jersey).

Reader Letters July 1965
by Our Readers
Author's Reply TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: In reviewing my book, The Holocaust Kingdom [April], War- ren Coffey makes a number of base and baseless accusations and criti- cisms which call into question my integrity.

August, 1965Back to Top
Ethnic Affinities
To the Editor: Marshall Sklare is convinced that Milton Gordon has a conflict about his own Jewish identity and that Gordon's Assimilation in American Life “is suffused with the problem in its most characteristic form” [“Assimilation & the Sociologists,” May].

Correcting the Record
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his article, “Two for SNCC” [April], Robert Penn Warren quotes Stokely Carmichael on the subject of an article by Loren Miller, Sr., in the October 20, 1962, issue of The Nation (“Farewell to the Liberals, A Negro View”).

The Quest for God
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his article, “Judaism & the Meaning of Life” [April], Emil L. Fackenheim says, “the Jewish search for meaning in history” is limited.

by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . William Phillips's statement that “Burroughs's confessions . . . are bound to bore anyone” is simply nonsense [“The New Immoralists,” April].

Teilhard's Thought
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Stephen Toulmin's article, “On Teilhard de Chardin” [March] makes some errors concerning Teilhard's theology by accepting uncritically the judgments of Father Rabut as representative of “traditional Catholicism.” There are two problems here as far as Catholic theology is concerned: first, to distinguish authentic Catholic tradition from a traditional or common approach of theologians over a certain period of history, for these two are not always the same; second, to distinguish among Catholic theologians those who are the most accurate interpreters of Teilhard.

Can Culture Explode? Notes on Subsidizing the Arts
by Stanley Kauffmann
Two events of high importance in American cultural history occurred last March. The first was the publication of the Rockefeller Panel Report on the performing arts.

"New York's Finest"
by Thomas Brooks
When, this past spring, Vincent L. Broderick took over command of New York City's Finest from Michael J. Murphy, he found on his new desk a copy of a special report of a City Council subcommittee recommending that the Council set up its own committee to review findings of the Police Department's Civilian Complaint Review Board.

Settling in Israel?
by Ronald Sanders
“You never get over this terrible ambivalence,” she said. “You can't stop yearning for America, and then when you go there on a visit, you can't wait till you get back here.

Two Corpses Go Dancing
by Isaac Singer
It has always tickled my fancy to amuse myself not only with the living but with the dead as well.

American Catholicism after the Council
by Michael Novak
The city of Rome rests placidly in the crystalline Italian sun, century by century, and generations of men appear within her walls and disappear.

The Dutiful Simone de Beauvoir
by Mary Ellmann
Simone de Beauvoir is distinguished by her consistency; on everything she writes, her identity is stamped indelibly. Her temperament is fused with her unwavering conviction, and both assist her in affirming moral right and upbraiding moral wrong.

by Jervis Anderson
I've always had a feeling for uprooted people; people making it, somehow, amid circumstances and rhythms of life different and distant from those in which they were raised.

The Spy of God
by Leon Poliakov
To become, after his death, the most unlikely hero of a controversial play and to owe his official rehabilitation in his own country mostly to a passionate debate over the memory of Pius XII: such has been the posthumous fate of Kurt Gerstein, the “Spy of God”—a fate as outrageously improbable as his life, as Rolf Hochhuth's play, and indeed as the whole madhouse that was Hitler's Germany. Kurt Gerstein, born in 1905 in Westphalia, belonged to an old Prussian family famous for its piety and sense of duty—or, more accurately, its Pflichtgefühl, that untranslatable virtue of a vanished Germany.

Equality and Liberty, by Harry V. Jaffa
by George Kateb
Strange Bedfellows Equality and Liberty. by Harry V. Jaffa. Oxford University Press. 229 pp. $5.75. Eyebrows were raised last summer when the New York Times reported that Harry Jaffa was writing campaign speeches for Barry Gold-water.

The Setting of the Sermon on the Mount, by W. D. Davies
by Seymour Siegel
A Christian “Mishna” The Setting of the Sermon on the Mount. by W. D. Davies. Cambridge University Press. 547 pp. $12.50. Whatever else might be said about the relationship between Judaism and Christianity, one thing is certain—the latter grew out of the former.

O Canada. An American's Notes on Canadian Culture, by Edmund Wilson
by Neil Compton
The Northern Light O Canada. an American's Notes on Canadian Culture. by Edmund Wilson. Farrar, Straus & Giroux. 245 pp. $4.95. Some years ago, according to the Canadian novelist Mordecai Richler, a group of New York editors compiled a list of imaginary books that would be sure to lose money for their publishers.

The Addict and the Law, by Alfred R. Lindesmith
by Howard Becker
Stamping out Addiction The Addict and the Law. by Alfred R. Lindesmith. Indiana University Press. 337 pp. $7.50. I suppose it is an exaggeration to say that no sensible person opposes changing the way we presently deal with our narcotics problem for something akin to the British system, but it is not much of an exaggeration.

The Spanish Republic and the Civil War, 1931-1939, by Gabriel Jackson; and A Poet's War: British Poets and the Spanish Civil War
by Allen Guttmann
The Spanish Tragedy The Spanish Republic and the Civil War, 1931-1939. by Gabriel Jackson. Princeton University Press. 578 pp. $12.50. A Poet's War: British Poets and the Spanish Civil War. by Hugh D.

Reader Letters August 1965
by Our Readers
Teilhard's Thought TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Stephen Toulmin's article, "On Teilhard de Chardin" [March] makes some errors concerning Teilhard's theology by accepting uncritically the judgments of Father Rabut as representative of "traditional Catholicism." There are two problems here as far as Catholic theology is concerned: first, to distinguish authentic Cath- olic tradition from a traditional or common approach of theologians over a certain period of history, for these two are not always the same; second, to distinguish among Catholic theologians those who are the most accurate interpreters of Teilhard.

September, 1965Back to Top
Johnny & the Primers
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . Even more intriguing than Selma Fraiberg's appraisal of the actual educational handling of reading is the more basic philosophical view underlying it [“The American Reading Problem,” June].

Jews & Americans
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his review of Irving Malin's Jews and Americans [June] George P. Elliott makes a nasty crack about Hadassah, equating it with “good-hearted dumpy complacency.” I am a member of Hadassah, but I am not dumpy and at the moment I don't feel very good-hearted either.

Arms & Israel
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Speaking for the Jewish War Veterans of the United States of America, I would like to commend Walter Z.

Faith & Reason
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his review of my book, Principles of the Jewish Faith [May], Chaim Potok states that while I make reason the test of the relevance of Maimonides's principles for the 20th century, I seem to make up the rules of what is reasonable as I go along or to shift arbitrarily back and forth among various kinds of reason.

Chords & Discords
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Mr. Goldman's attack on B. H. Haggin in his review of Music Observed [May] . . . can be of no consequence to readers who know Haggin's work.

"All the News That's Fit to Print": Reflections on the New York Times
by George Lichtheim
To the foreigner who spends some time in the United States, few features of the local scenery are more surprising than the general esteem in which the New York Times is held.

Presenting the Bible
by David Daiches
Something under four thousand years ago a troubled citizen of the Central Mesopotamian city of Haran left the community in which he had been born and brought up to wander westward to the country that was later known as Palestine.

Letter from Havana
by Peter Schmid
Wherever one goes in Havana, one notices how deeply the events in Santo Domingo have distressed the Castro regime. Previously, the walls of houses had displayed innocent calls to the voluntary performance of one's duty during the sugar harvest and to similar heroic deeds of labor; now there suddenly appeared horrible posters showing pictures of dead Marines.

CCNY-A Memoir
by Meyer Liben
1. The Alcoves It appears now, in the judgment of history, which is not irreversible, that there was something special about CCNY in the 1930's.

Sentimentalizing the Jews
by Robert Alter
Beginning with this issue, ROBERT ALTER joins MILTON HIMMELFARB in conducting this department. Mr. Alter's articles will appear four times a year—in March, June, September, and December.

A Major Din Torah
by Isaac Singer
The disputes that were brought to my father for arbitration—he was a rabbi in Warsaw—were usually petty ones. The sums involved would be about twenty or, at the most fifty, rubles.

The Rule of Law in the South
by Haywood Burns
There is a town in Mississippi called Liberty, there is a department in Washington called Justice. This anonymous legend appeared on the wall of the headquarters of the Council of Federated Organizations in Jackson, Mississippi in the summer of 1964.

Sex under Socialism
by Ernst Pawel
The Soviet Union's anti-sexual revolution is now in its fourth decade, its é1an seemingly undiminished by Stalin's death and Khrushchev's thaw.

Writers and Politics-Essays & Criticism, by Conor Cruise O'Brien
by Roger Owen
Chipping Away Writers and Politics—Essays and Criticism. by Conor Cruise O'Brien. Pantheon. 259 pp. $4.95. “Britain presents in the United Nations the face of Pecksniff and in Katanga the face of Gradgrind.” This pronouncement was one of many equally forthright ones made by Dr.

Andre Gide, His Life and Art, by Wallace Fowlie
by J. Weightman
Andre' Gide, His Life and Art. by Wallace Fowlie. Macmillan. 217 pp. $4.95. The repeated use of the term “provocative” on the dust-jacket of Mr.

The Goldwater Caper, by Richard H. Rovere; The Agony of the G.O.P.: 1964, by Robert D. Novak; and The Future of the Republican P
by Andrew Hacker
After the Fall The Goldwater Caper. by Richard H. Rovere. Harcourt, Brace & World. 182 pp. $3.95. The Agony of the G.O.P.: 1964. by Robert D.

We Jews and Jesus, by Samuel Sandmel
by Paul Winter
The Person of Jesus We Jews and Jesus. by Samuel Sandmel. Oxford University Press. 164 pp. $5.00. It has been said that the person of Jesus unites Christians and Jews, and that their different concepts of Jesus divide them.

After Twenty Years, by Richard J. Barnet and Marcus G. Raskin; and The Troubled Partnership, by Henry A. Kissinger
by Paul Johnson
Atlanticism After Twenty Years: Alternatives to the Cold War in Europe. by Richard J. Barnet and Marcus G. Raskin. Random House. 243 pp.

Reader Letters September 1965
by Our Readers
Chords & Discords TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Mr. Goldman's attack on B. H. Haggin in his review of Music Ob- served [May] .

October, 1965Back to Top
Round Three
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Knowing the pugnacious hero-worship that B. H. Haggin inspires, I was not surprised either by the number or the fervor of the negative responses to my review of his Music Observed [“Letters from Readers,” September].

Johnny & the Primers, Cont'd
To the Editor: It ought to be a cause for sadness that it was not a practicing English teacher who offered the brave and brilliant analysis of “The American Reading Problem” [June].

Protest or Politics?
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . Since the Harlem riots of 1964 and the Democratic National Convention at Atlantic City, Bayard Rustin has shown himself to be more and more out of step with the masses of people he purports to understand and lead.

Munoz's Achievement
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Keith Botsford's “A Farewell to Muñoz Marin” [June] is as sour and grudging a tribute to a great man and a great people as will be seen for a long time. .

Menorah Memoirs
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was gratified to read Robert Alter's “Epitaph for a Jewish Magazine” [May] dealing with the Menorah Journal, which was edited by my late father, Henry Hurwitz.

The Political Economy of the Great Society
by Oscar Gass
All art is concerned with . . . contriving and considering how something may come into being which is capable of either being or not being, and of which the origin is in the maker and not in the thing made.

From "The Noise of Time"
by Osip Mandelstam
Riots and French Governesses It was always known in advance when the students would riot in front of the Kazan Cathedral.

The Imagination of Disaster
by Susan Sontag
Ours is indeed an age of extremity. For we live under continual threat of two equally fearful, but seemingly opposed, destinies: unremitting banality and inconceivable terror.

Johnson & the Intellectuals
by Henry Fairlie
During the time that I have been in the United States, I have found nothing more strange or more unattractive than the way in which American intellectuals take pleasure in reviling President Johnson.

On Reading Matthew
by Milton Himmelfarb
Judeo-Christian? Does the Judeo-Christian tradition exist? There has been much talk about it, especially since the Vatican Council, but to talk about a thing does not necessarily mean that the thing is real.

Consensus Television
by Neil Compton
Summer was not the ideal season in which to begin a stint as a television critic. The channels were cluttered with re-runs or dreadful summer replacements.

The Secret
by Isaac Singer
Some odd Divorces were granted in our house, but the one I'm about to describe was the oddest of all.

An Anatomy of the Klan
by Seymour Lipset
The largest and most successful radical rightist organizations in American history—those which use extremist tactics in an effort to restore the privileges of declining social strata—have been the groups which have operated under the name, Ku Klux Klan.

The New Radicalism in America, by Christopher Lasch
by William Phillips
Fashions of Revolt The New Radicalism in America. by Christopher Lasch. Knopf. 349 pp. $6.95. It is becoming more and more difficult to talk cogently about any kind of radicalism, new or old, because there are few common terms, few accepted points of reference, little agreement on what it is we are talking about.

The Modern Hebrew Poem Itself, Edited by Stanley Burnshaw, T. Carmi, and Ezra Spicehandler
by Baruch Hochman
Translating a Tradition The Modern Hebrew Poem Itself. Edited By Stanley Burnshaw, T. Carmi, And Ezra Spicehandler. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. 220 pp.

Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason, by Michael Foucault
by Peter Gay
Chains and Couches Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. by Michel Foucault. Translated by Richard Howard. Pantheon.

August is a Wicked Month, by Edna O'Brien; A Green Tree in Gedde, by Alan Sharp; and Second Generation, by Raymond Williams
by D. Enright
The Four-Letter Novel August Is A Wicked Month. by Edna O'brien. Simon & Schuster. 244 pp. $3.95. A Green Tree In Gedde. by Alan Sharp. New American Library.

Who Speaks for the Negro?, by Robert Penn Warren
by Joseph Epstein
Down the Line Who Speaks for the Negro? by Robert Penn Warren. Random House. 454 pp. $5.95. In Segregation, one of his earlier works on “The Problem,” Robert Penn Warren attempted to uncover the various philosophies of social change prevalent in the South after the 1954 Supreme Court decision.

Reader Letters October 1965
by Our Readers
Menorah Memoirs TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I was gratified to read Robert Alter's "Epitaph for a Jewish Magazine" [May] dealing with the Menorah Journal, which was edited by my late father, Henry Hurwitz....

November, 1965Back to Top
Americans in Israel
To the Editor: Ronald Sanders's article was the first sincere attempt I have encountered to relieve the . . . feelings of guilt and failure of American Jews who are earnestly trying to make a go of it in Israel without much success [“Settling in Israel?” August]. .

Policing the Police
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In Tom Brooks's excellent article, “New York's Finest” [August], he reports that the New York Civil Liberties Union has endorsed Councilman Paul O'Dwyer's proposal to create a New York City Director of Citizen Redress, patterned on Sweden's Ombudsman.

Author's Reply
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am grateful to Marvin Fox for his clear presentation of the main thesis of my book, Ancient Jewish Philosophy; I should like .

Urban Renewal: Round 3
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to add one point to the illuminating exchange of views among George Raymond, Herbert Gans, and Malcolm Rivkin [“Urban Renewal,” July].

by Our Readers
To the Editor: I rarely write fan letters, but I cannot refrain from doing so in connection with Oscar Gass's article, “German Reunification” [July].

Hasidic Joy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Herbert Weiner's “A Wedding in B'nai Brak” [July] is a vivid evocation of a remarkable event in contemporary Hasidic life.

Power & Morality
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Maurice Goldbloom seems to be one of the few critics of American foreign policy . . . whose judgment is based not only on the success of a given political-military action, but also on its ethical and moral components .

Beyond Darwinism: Portmann's Thought
by Marjorie Grene
Marjorie Grene, who here introduces the thought of Dr. Portmann, is currently teaching philosophy at the University of California at Davis.

Beyond Darwinism: The Special Position of Man
by Adolf Portmann
Anyone who speaks of man's special position in the realm of the living, must also stress that this problem has behind it a strange history, one that still affects the discussions of our time even though we are not always fully conscious of it.

A Journal of the Warsaw Ghetto
by Chaim Kaplan
The excerpts below are from the diaries of Chaim Aron Kaplan, a writer, Hebrew scholar, and educator, who perished with his wife at Treblinka in December 1942 or January 1943.

China's Strategy-A Critique
by Donald Zagoria
Of the 72 years that Mao Tse-tung has lived on this earth, 22 of them, almost half his adult life, were spent in leading a protracted—and at times seemingly hopeless—armed struggle against a much superior foe.

Psychoanalysis and Morality
by Leslie Farber
. . . I am dissatisfied with one point: your contradicting my sexual theory and my ethics. I grant you the latter; ethics is far from my interest and you are a pastor.

Movies & Messages
by Midge Decter
There are moments in Ship, of Fools—Stanley Kramer's most recent film—during which a certain type of inveterate moviegoer is likely to feel that he has rediscovered his simple childhood love for the movies.

Reformers in the Ghetto
by Ronald Sanders
The world of real experience comes hard to American writers. It is rare for them to achieve the kind of spontaneous personal identification with an external social order that was characteristic of the 19th-century European novelists.

Flannery O'Connor
by Warren Coffey
We now have all the work by which Flannery O'Connor will be remembered in the world. Of her last stories, collected in Everything That Rises Must Converge,1 it is certainly, the just praise, and may be the highest after all, that they are up to her first ones.

On Escalation, by Herman Kahn
by George Kateb
Revising the Unthinkable On Escalation. by Herman Kahn. Praeger. 308 pp. $6.95. It would be nice to hate Herman Kahn with an easy conscience.

The King of the Cats, by F. W. Dupee
by V. Pritchett
Discernments The King of the Cats. by F. W. Dupee. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 224 pp. $4.95. Mr. Dupee first became known to me through his lucid book on Henry James in the American Men of Letters series.

The History of the Jews, by Poul Borchsenius
by Lucy Dawidowicz
The Pastor and the Jews The History Of the Jews. by Poul Borchsenius. Simon and Schuster. Five volumes: 220, 242, 217, 236,216 pp.

Political Awakening in the Congo, by Rene Lemarchand
by Colin Legum
Darkest Africa Political Awakening in The Congo: The Politics of Fragmentation. by René Lemarchand. University of California Press. 358 pp. $7.95. Remarkably Little has been learned—least of all by the Belgian business community and their Western friends—about the nature of the political forces engaged in the Congo.

People or Personnel, by Paul Goodman
by Christopher Lasch
Getting out of Power People or Personnel: Decentralizing And The Mixed System. by Paul Goodman. Random House. 247 pp. $4.95. Paul Goodman's latest book, like his earlier ones, tends to divorce the idea of politics from the idea of power.

Reader Letters November 1965
by Our Readers
Power & Morality TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Maurice Goldbloom seems to be one of the few critics of Ameri- can foreign policy ...

December, 1965Back to Top
For the Record
To the Editor: Your advertisement in the current issue [October] quotes me as saying: “I consider COMMENTARY among the top few periodicals appearing here or in England.” This is correct as far as it goes.

American Jewish Writing
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “Sentimentalizing the Jews” [September], Robert Alter justifies his denial of the “Jewish character” of American Jewish fiction by an analysis of several recent novels which indicate that “Jewishness” has become a sentimental myth rather than a live response to realities.

Kudos for a Teacher
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Though he described Morris R. Cohen's classroom role at City College, Meyer Liben omitted mention of the effect this thinker had upon us in more personal ways [“CCNY-A Memoir,” September].

To the Editor: Isn't it time that reputable magazines stopped printing scraps of pernicious conversation with unidentified persons in their serious articles? In his “Letter from Havana” [September], Peter Schmid reports that “a young writer” told him that the Russians “never take a bath .

“To Secure these Rights&rdquo
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his article, “The Rule of Law in the South” [September], Haywood Burns seems to forget an important point regarding our legal system in the U.S.: individual citizens are legally entitled to a great many things, like the vote, a fair trial, and equal treatment under the law, but not to a favorable response to their political activities from their fellow citizens. If I were a Southern segregationist and I saw one of my employees taking part in a civil-rights demonstration or registration drive, I certainly would not employ him in my factory or shop longer than his contract demanded.

Jews in the West
To the Editor: As a recent subscriber, I have been greatly impressed by your magazine . . . and was particularly interested in Louis Berg's “Peddlers in Eldorado” [July].

The “Times”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: May I add my voice to what I'm sure will be the chorus of approval for George Lichtheim's article [“All the News That's Fit to Print,' September] .

The Dominican Crisis
by Theodore Draper
Judging from the experiences of the last three administrations, Latin America might well be designated a disaster area for U.S.

Violent Jews
by Herbert Gold
This is a history of two linked violences, the first one seeming comical to me now and the second not now or ever.

Poetry in Israel
by Robert Alter
Israel is probably one of the few remaining countries where verse, far from being a dying technique, has managed to stay at the vital center of literary culture.

The World Politics of Responsibility
by Oscar Gass
If we submit ourselves to the event, if we think more of the accomplished deed than of the suggested problem, we become servile accomplices of success and force.—Lord Acton, The French Revolution Since 1945, Washington has become reconciled to bearing its part in a world where, in the circle of friends, the United States is now the only polity both determined to discharge the varying and ambiguous responsibilities of a Great Power, on all continents, and capable of doing so.

What is an Intellectual?
by Robert Nisbet
The question of who or what is an intellectual may not be one that would have rocked the Mermaid Tavern or rattled the tables of 18th-century coffee houses, but in our self-conscious age it plainly has commanding importance.

Les Portes de la Foret, by Elie Wiesel
by David Daiches
“After Such Knowledge . . .” Les Portes De La Forêt. by Elie Wiesel. Editions du Seuil (Paris). “Do you know what laughter is? I'll tell you.

The Making of the President 1964, by Theodore H. White
by Andrew Hacker
Election Stories 1. America The Making of The President 1964. by Theodore H. White. Atheneum. 431 pp. $6.95. The reviewers have been noticeably harsher on the 1964 version of The Making of the President than they were on its predecessor.

The Road to Number 10, by Anthony Howard and Richard West
by John Mander
2. England The Road To Number 10. by Anthony Howard And Richard West. Macmillan. 317 pp. $5.95. In that invaluable Bad Child's Guide to British History, 1066 and All That, a firm distinction is drawn between the two leading strains in British politics: there are the Roundheads, who are Right but Repulsive; and there are the Cavaliers, who are Wrong but Wromantic.

Starting Out in the Thirties, by Alfred Kazin
by Leo Marx
A Literary Radical Starting Out In The Thirties. by Alfred Kazin. Atlantic Monthly Press. 166 pp. $6.95. Since Benjamin Franklin's time, the classic theme of American autobiography has been the poor boy's rise in the world, rags to riches, obscurity to renown.

House Out of Order, by Richard Bolling
by David Bazelon
The Honest Broker House Out of Order. by Richard Bolling. Dutton. 253 pp. $4.95. House Out of Order was written to stimulate opinion-makers to “inform the American people about the wretched condition of their national legislature.” Considering the source, it is a startling book—something like an event in American politics. Richard Bolling has represented a district from Kansas City in the House of Representatives for more than fifteen years; and eight terms is a serious matter in the House.

Reader Letters December 1965
by Our Readers
The "Times" TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: May I add my voice to what I'm sure will be the chorus of ap- proval for George Lichtheim's ar- ticle ["All the News That's Fit to Print," September] .

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