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January, 1973Back to Top
Wartime France
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In connection with Stanley Hoffman's “On ‘The Sorrow and the Pity’” [September 1972] I'd like to say that Marcel Ophuls is right in singling out France as the only country whose government collaborated with Hitler—the Netherlands did not, Norway did not, Denmark did not, Yugoslavia did not.

by Our Readers
To the Editor: Robert Alters “Updike, Malamud & the Fire This Time” [October 1972] says of The Tenants that “the supposed vying for the role of chief victim is nowhere present in the novel.

The Pottinger Paper (Cont'd)
Professor Thomas Sowell of UCLA, currently on leave at The Urban Institute in Washington, D.C., has given us permission to publish his letter to Professor Frank C.

The Pentagon Papers
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As one of the judges who gave the New York Times the Page One award of the New York Newspaper Guild for its publication of the Pentagon papers, I must take issue with Joseph Bishop, Jr.'s review of The Paper & the Papers by Sanford J.

Schooling in America
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to thank Diane Ravitch for her clear and sympathetic treatment of the school-debunking evidence I present in my book, The Great School Legend: A Revisionist Interpretation of American Public Education [Books in Review, October 1972], but I would also like to clarify certain points which I believe she has misinterpreted. First, rather than ignoring what she calls the “disabling culture” of some immigrant groups, my point in the book is precisely that the schools actually reflected and reinforced propensities—enabling and disabling—determined elsewhere.

Robert Coles
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I think there is another conclusion that one may draw from Robert Coles's emphasis on ambiguity and complexity than the one at which Joseph Epstein [“Dr.

Religious Jewry
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I agree with David Stern's observation in his review of My Name Is Asher Lev [Books in Review, October 1972] that the novels of Chaim Potok portray a highly sentimentalized vision of Brooklyn's Orthodox community.

Quotas and Jobs
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Since the mid-60's I have worked in civil-rights groups attempting to integrate employment in a range of blue- and white-collar occupations in metropolitan Baltimore.

On Autism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I appreciate the intelligence and compassion with which Sonya Rudikoff treats my book, A Child Called Noah, in her essay, “Why Some Children Don't Speak” [October 1972].

Niebuhr and Ethnicity
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As a student of American culture and personality, and of the history of ethnic groups in American life, I am extremely impressed by the astuteness and sensitivity of Michael Novak's observations on the nature of American national character [“Needing Niebuhr Again,” September 1972].

Aesthetics and Politics
by Our Readers
To the Editor: After approving my view that aesthetics and politics are “separate realms of existence,” Norman Podhoretz proceeds rather thoroughly to confound them [“Intellectuals at War,” October 1972].

What the Voters Sensed
by Norman Podhoretz
Among the more puzzling questions arising from an analysis of the election returns like the one by Seymour Martin Lipset and Earl Raab (p.

The Election and the National Mood
by Earl Raab
The reasons underlying Senator McGovern's defeat in the 1972 elections had been thoroughly analyzed long before the polls opened on November 7.

Dayan as Politician
by Hillel Halkin
It was, I believe, the Israeli author Yoram Kaniuk who, in a newspaper article published years ago, compared Moshe Dayan to the Kennedys.

Money, the Job, and Little Women
by Ellen Moers
There are so many ways of earning a living and most of them are failures. —Gertrude Stein, Ida All of Jane Austen's opening paragraphs, and the best of her first sentences, have money in them; this may be the first obviously feminine thing about her novels, for money and its making were characteristically female rather than male subjects in English fiction.

The Cold War According to Kennan
by Adam Ulam
In August 1950 George F. Kennan went on indefinite leave from the State Department. His decision to do so seemed on the face of it inexplicable; only forty-six at the time, he was widely recognized as one of the chief architects of U.S.

Lords of the Press
by Rudolf Klein
The mass media and their masters, the men who control the large-circulation press and television, exert a peculiar, half-guilty fascination upon us.

Defaming the Jews
by Robert Alter
People should be taught what is, not what should be. All my humor is based on destruction and despair. —Lenny Bruce Some clichés become so hallowed by usage that they can serve as a cover for the worst kinds of crassness and stupidity.

America, Rome, and the Bourgeoisie
by William Pechter
The Emigrants is an almost three-hour-long Swedish saga about a mid-19th-century migration of peasants to America, made by a director, Jan Troell, who is his own photographer, and who composes each shot with the care an artist might give to his canvas.

The Intellectuals and the Powers and Other Essays, by Edward Shils
by James Wilson
Social TheoristThe Intellectuals and the Powers and Other Essays. by Edward Shils. University of Chicago Press. 481 pp. $12.50.The great tradition of Western sociological thought has been preoccupied, not with the family, small groups, occupations, or any of the other specialties into which the current sociology curriculum may be divided, but rather with explaining the governing institutions of society, the sources of their legitimacy, and the contradictions and evolutionary processes in which they are embedded.

August 1914; The Nobel Lecture on Literature, by Alexander Solzhenitsyn
by Robert Conquest
Liberalism of the Catacombs August 1914. by Alexander Solzhenitsyn. Translated by Michael Glenny. Farrar, Straus & Giroux. 622 pp. $10.00. The Nobel Lecture on Literature. by Alexander Solzhenitsyn.

Amphigorey; The Awdrey-Gore Legacy, by Edward Gorey
by John Hollander
Modern Victorian Amphigorey. by Edward Gorey. Putnam's. Illustrated. Unpaged. $12.95. The Awdrey-Gore Legacy. by Edward Gorey. Dodd, Mead. Illustrated. Unpaged. $3.95. The recent rise of the picture-book has paradoxically come about as a result of the decline of book illustration in the past half century.

Where the Wasteland Ends, by Theodore Roszak
by Alan Goldfein
Gnosis Manifesto Where the Wasteland Ends: Politics and Transcendence in Post-Industrial Society. by Theodore Roszak. Doubleday. 492 pp. $10.00. When Theodore Roszak wrote his popular The Making of a Counter Culture back in 1969, he may have been partial to Gestalt psychology, to guerrilla theater, to Zen; but there was yet an intentional effort to stand away, to keep at least his little finger on what we call “objectivity,” to give all the pieces a historical coherence and identity (“counter culture”—implying, after all, that it bore a distinct relationship to the culture), and to “see them in the perspective of our times.” To understand.

Somewhere Else, by Robert Kotlowitz
by David Stern
Odyssey of a Jew Somewhere Else. by Robert Kotlowitz. Charterhouse. 373 pp. $7.95. Robert Kotlowitz's first novel tells a story which in its every aspect is commonplace.

Reader Letters January 1973
by Norman Birnbaum
On Autism TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I appreciate the intelligence and compassion with which Sonya Ru- dikoff treats my book, A Child Called Noah, in her essay, "Why Some Children Don't Speak" [Oc- tober 1972].

February, 1973Back to Top
Liberal-Jews' Jew
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was enchanted by Dorothy Rabinowitz's “Summer of '72” [November 1972], showing us a batch of Jewish intellectuals sitting around a seaside cottage and straining at gnats.

Free Speech & Pornography
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . There is a general, and mistaken, view that pornography must be protected under the First Amendment—that prohibitions against smut are an infringement on freedom of speech.

Financing the Schools
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “‘Serrano’ vs. the People” [September 1972], Chester E. Finn, Jr. and Leslie Lenkowsky attack the judicial decisions (beginning in 1971 with Serrano v.

Equality and Justice
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I'm afraid Irving Kristol's irrefutable diagnosis of bourgeois society's spiritual impoverishment [“About Equality,” November 1972] is blurred by his own spirit of “benign neglect.” If our society's “problem is far beyond the competence of politics to cope with,” then of course there's no use fussing about inequality.

The Intellectuals & the Pursuit of Happiness
by Norman Podhoretz
I was, I must admit, surprised both by the volume and by the intensity of the response (p. 12) to Irving Kristol's article “About Equality” which appeared in our November 1972 number.

Higher Education for All?
by Martin Mayer
Access to education has been one of the most durable issues in the political life of this century, and not just in the United States.

A Memoir of Sinai
by Edward Grossman
Abu Rodeis—August 1, 1968. Last night I slept on a folding cot in the Kantara Customs House, not for from the Suez Canal.

The Revolt of the Masses
by Jeane Kirkpatrick
Last year's Presidential election differed from elections of the recent past not so much because of how people voted as why.

Poetry and Public Experience
by Stephen Donadio
In an age defined most vividly by the appearance of schematized conflict on all fronts, one of the most persistent difficulties encountered by the poet is the threat to his belief in the logic of his own experience.

The Greeks, the Romans & Captain Dreyfus
by Milton Himmelfarb
Lady Beaconsfield said she never could remember which came first, the Greeks or the Romans. Because I studied Latin before trying to learn a little Greek, for me the Romans came first.

Disease as a Way of Life
by Eric Cassell
In all the recent talk about the “crisis” in medical care, a major concern—whether explicitly stated or merely implied—has been the disproportionate burden of disease borne by America's poor.

Arthur Miller's Eden
by Jack Richardson
Change is certainly one of the facts of a critic's life. Having been enthralled and perplexed by art for many years, and having struggled to find a useful articulation of his enthusiasms and dislikes, he discovers one day that his pleasures have been restructured, that his intellectual energies are no longer nourished by works that once earned his joy and approval.

Inequality, by Christopher Jencks et al.
by Diane Ravitch
The Limits of Schooling Inequality: A Reassessment of the Effect of Family and Schooling in America. by Christopher Jencks, with Marshall Smith, Henry Acland, Mary Jo Bane, David Cohen, Herbert Gintis, Barbara Heyns, Stephan Michelson. Basic Books.

Bare Ruined Choirs, by Garry Wills
by Andrew Greeley
Catholic Chic Bare Ruined Choirs. by Garry Wills. Doubleday. 272 pp. $7.95. Bare Ruined Choirs is a collection of articles by an “involved” journalist reporting on the last ten years of the history of American Catholicism.

Tradition and Reality, by Nathan Rotenstreich
by Marvin Fox
Secularism Denied Tradition and Reality: The Impact of History on Modern Jewish Thought. by Nathan Rotenstreich. Random House. 145 pp. $6.95. The conviction that the Jews possess a fixed and unchanging tradition is woven into the very fabric of classical Judaism.

The Fall of the American University, by Adam Ulam
by David Thorburn
Troubled Scholar The Fall of the American University. by Adam Ulam. The Library Press. 217 pp. $7.95. Adam Ulam is in pain, and he has written a cranky and opinionated book whose true purpose is to disclose the sources of his pain and its possible cure.

The Big Foundations, by Waldemar A. Nielsen
by Sara Sanborn
In the Money The Big Foundations. by Waldemar A. Nielsen. Columbia University Press. 475 pp. $12.50. How other people spend their money is a perennial American preoccupation, and when the people in question are multimillionaires enjoying special tax breaks, monitoring their disbursements becomes a positive duty.

Reader Letters February 1973
by Irving Kristol
Equality and Justice TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I'm afraid Irving Kristol's irre- futable diagnosis of bourgeois so- ciety's spiritual impoverishment ["About Equality," November 19721 is blurred by his own spirit of "benign neglect." If our soci- ety's "problem is far beyond the competence of politics to cope with," then of course there's no use fussing about inequality.

March, 1973Back to Top
In Praise
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Many thanks to Daniel P. Moynihan for his “Address to the Entering Class at Harvard College, 1972” [December 1972].

Redistributing Income
by Our Readers
To the Editor: An unfortunate decimal-point error in Steven Kelman's letter [Letters from Readers, February] commenting on “About Equality” by Irving Kristol [November 1972] dramatically destroys his case, and, surprisingly, Mr.

Leaving Russia
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was deeply moved by “Getting Out of Russia” by Lev Navrozov [October 1972]. It was especially moving to read of the communion of spirit among those young boys in their early teens, and the depth of the trust which was maintained among them.

On Merit
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Paul Seabury has written a most thoughtful and constructive piece on “The Idea of Merit” [December 1972]. His linking of merit with equal opportunity is highly instructive.

Coles, Orwell & the Press
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In the January issue [Letters from Readers] there is an exchange in which Andrew M. Greeley offers a rather mild criticism of “Dr.

Life under Communism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . Only a serious moral veto of a contention raised by a reviewer seems to me sufficient reason to ask to be heard once again.

About Philip Roth
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have only one reservation in regard to Irving Howe's superb essay on Philip Roth [“Philip Roth Reconsidered,” December 1972]: he lets Roth off too lightly in an area important enough to warrant dissenting comment.

Vietnam and Collective Guilt
by Norman Podhoretz
In discussing the bigoted attitudes toward the general American populace which have become so widespread within the intellectual community in the past few years, James Hitchcock (p.

Prisons, Politics & the Attica Report
by Roger Starr
On September 11, 1972, one year to the day after the end of the Attica prison riot, the Special Citizens' Commission appointed to investigate the riot issued its official report.

Early in the Summer of 1970
by A. Yehoshua
I believe I must once again explore the moment when I first learned of his death. A summer morning, the wide sky, June, the final days of school.

Rewriting History
by Walter Laqueur
Revisionist historiography is almost as old as history itself, the impulses behind it as varied as the full range of human motivation.

The Intellectuals and the People
by James Hitchcock
Events in America in the past decade have often seemed contrived to stand Charles Peguy's famous dictum on its head—everything which has begun in politique has ended in mystique. One by one definable social groups—blacks, students, women, Indians, Spanish-Americans, homosexuals—have discovered their oppressed status, analyzed their condition, and formulated programs to improve it.

A Look at Margaret Mead
by Sheila Johnson
In the mid-1960's, when I was doing graduate work in anthropology, a favorite topic of debate in the student commons used to be whether Margaret Mead was “any good” as an anthropologist.

The Art of Diane Arbus
by Richard Schickel
Until recently it seemed that photography as a serious art (not as an adjunct to fashion and advertising) would be confined to two major traditions.

Remember Thou Art Pulp
by William Pechter
I thought when I wrote about Bed and Board that I wouldn't want to be writing about Truffaut again for the foreseeable future, but then the future has a peculiar disposition to be unforeseeable.

The Seventies: Problems and Proposals, edited by Irving Howe and Michael Harrington
by Elliott Abrams
Where We Are Going The Seventies: Problems and Proposals. by Irving Howe and Michael Harrington. Harper & Row. 519 pp. $12.50. These are times of considerable confusion on matters of public policy.

Religion of Reason out of the Sources of Judaism, by Hermann Cohen
by Michael Meyer
Philosophy of Judaism Religion of Reason out of the Sources of Judaism. by Hermann Cohen. Translated, with an Introduction, by Simon Kaplan. Introductory Essay by Leo Strauss.

Harry Truman, by Margaret Truman
by Louis Berg
Life of a President Harry Truman. by Margaret Truman. Morrow. 602 pp. $10.95. Praise of famous men should not be assigned to their devoted children—the subject is too close to the camera for true definition.

Peace in the Balance, by Eugene V. Rostow
by Adam Ulam
Policymaker Peace in the Balance: The Future of U.S. Foreign Policy. by Eugene V. Rostow. Simon & Schuster. 342 pp. $8.95. In 1966, when many of the original New Frontiersmen sought what then seemed the safe refuge of the academy, Eugene Rostow traveled in the opposite direction, going from the Yale Law School to the State Department.

Black Education, by Thomas Sowell
by Walter Goodman
Standards & Stereotypes Black Education: Myths and Tragedies. by Thomas Sowell. David McKay. 338 pp. $6.95. Black Education begins with a section of pertinent autobiography and ends with a discussion of such matters as IQ and race and proposals for improving the education of ghetto youths.

Reader Letters March 1973
by Marie Syrkin
About Philip Roth TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I have only one reservation in regard to Irving Howe's superb es- say on Philip Roth ["Philip Roth Reconsidered," December 1972]: he lets Roth off too lightly in an area important enough to warrant dissenting comment.

April, 1973Back to Top
A Puzzlement
by Our Readers
To the Editor: To judge from the letters that are sent to the editor of COMMENTARY and subsequently printed, the average reader of your magazine is, instead of an enlightened, curious intellectual, concerned about both sides of a question, an insufferable, self-righteous prig.

by Our Readers
To the Editor: For some reason I'm not on the population-control mailing lists, but through the kindness of a correspondent, I am in receipt of a curious pendant to my “The Population Controllers” [May 1972].

by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his perceptive article on Moshe Dayan [“Dayan as Politician,” January], Hillel Halkin analyzes the positions of the Israeli Right and the Labor government toward the occupied territories and demonstrates that neither side has any claim to moral purity.

The Election and the Democrats
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I don't mean to cavil, since the article by Seymour Martin Lipset and Earl Raab on the 1972 elections [“The Election & the National Mood,” January] seems to me to be basically sound in its three major points: 1) that McGovern's errors rather than Nixon's popularity explain the landslide election; 2) that the election did not represent a referendum on specific issues or an ideological or racial backlash; 3) that the Democratic party still retains the underlying trust of most Democrats who voted for Nixon. But the article also contains three other assumptions that should be corrected: 1) that McGovern misread the mood of the electorate as “alienated” and wrongly assumed that he could win the Wallace vote on the same terms he could attract upper-middle-class professionals; 2) that the Democratic convention ended the election by exposing the extremism and evangelical moralism of the McGovernites; and 3) that an “ideological” candidate like McGovern or Goldwater cannot win a national election.

The New Inquisitors
by Norman Podhoretz
To me, the worst part of the story R. J. Herrnstein (p. 52) tells of the harassment he has endured at Harvard and on other college campuses since publishing an article in the Atlantic on the heritability of IQ scores is what it reveals about the “subtle connection” between “the radicals and the liberal-intellectual community.” The radicals spread lies about Herrnstein and made it difficult for him to speak; the liberals deplored the tactics of the radicals and defended Herrnstein's rights while dissociating themselves from his “views.” The impression was thereby left that Herrnstein's actual views corresponded to the distortions and vilifications publicized by the radicals. Thus the radicals called Herrnstein a racist, although his article said nothing about race and although he does not believe that there is a correlation between the intelligence of blacks and their social position as a group.

Black Progress and Liberal Rhetoric
by Ben Wattenberg
A remarkable development has taken place in America over the last dozen years: for the first time in the history of the republic, truly large and growing numbers of American blacks have been moving into the middle class, so that by now these numbers can reasonably be said to add up to a majority of black Americans—a slender majority, but a majority nevertheless. This development, which has occurred against a historical backdrop of social and economic discrimination, is nothing short of revolutionary.

The “Times” Op-Ed Page: Both Ends Against the Middle
by Carl Gershman
In the past two-and-a-half years, the Op-Ed page of the New York Times—so-called because it appears opposite the editorial page—has become a powerful presence in American culture.

On Challenging an Orthodoxy
by R. Herrnstein
In the immediate aftermath of Charles Darwin's epochal Origin of Species, social theorists were quick to apply the doctrine to man.

A Pride of Candidates
by Dorothy Rabinowitz
When the mayoral race for New York City is over, the considerable number of aspirants to that office will have spent themselves, to say nothing of their fortunes, proving which among them can do most for the citizens of the city; the citizens, on the other hand, will have been deciding which among the candidates can hurt them the least.

The Achievement of Gershom Scholem
by Robert Alter
The cabalist from whom the creature took Its inspiration called the weird thing Golem—But all these matters are discussed by Scholem In a most learned passage in his book. —J.

Our (English) Crowd
by Chaim Raphael
Anything “Our Crowd” can do, we—“The Cousinhood” of England—can do better: or so Chaim Bermant might seem to be saying in his highly entertaining-study of seven enormously wealthy and interconnected Jewish families that rose to dizzy heights of fame and influence in 19th-century Britain.1 In fact, however, Mr.

The Politics of a Guaranteed Income, by Daniel P. Moynihan
by Martin Mayer
FAP and Its Enemies The Politics of a Guaranteed Income: The Nixon Administration and the Family Assistance Plan. by Daniel P. Moynihan. Random House.

Norman Mailer, by Richard Poirier; St. George and the Godfather, by Norman Mailer
by David Thorburn
The Artist as Performer Norman Mailer. by Richard Poirier. Viking. 176 pp. $4.95. St. George and the Godfather. by Norman Mailer. Signet-New American Library. 229 pp.

Reflections on a Teapot, by Ronald Sanders; My Last Two Thousand Years, by Herbert Gold
by David Stern
Fathers and Sons Reflections on a Teapot. by Ronald Sanders. Harper & Row. 383 pp. $8.95. My Last Two Thousand Years. by Herbert Gold. Random House.

Political Violence and Civil Disobedience, by Ernest van den Haag
by Joseph Bishop
Problems of Democracy Political Violence and Civil Disobedience. by Ernest van den Haag. Harper Torchbooks. 123 pp. $1.95. Ernest Van Den Haag's book is something of a literary oddity.

That Most Distressful Nation, by Andrew M. Greeley
by Robert Greene
Lost Identity That Most Distressful Nation: The Taming of the American Irish. by Andrew M. Greeley. Quadrangle. 320 pp. $8.95. Over the past several years evidence has been mounting to indicate that a reemergent white ethnic consciousness is upon us.

Reader Letters April 1973
by Earl Raab
The Election and the Democrats TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I don't mean to cavil, since the article by Seymour Martin Lipset and Earl Raab on the 1972 elec- tions ["The Election 8c the Na- tional Mood," January] seems to me to be basically sound in its three major points: 1) that McGovern's errors rather than Nixon's popularity explain the landslide election; 2) that the elec- tion did not represent a referen- dlum on specific issues or an ideo- logical or racial backlash; 3) that the Democratic party still retains the underlying trust of most Dem- ocrats who voted for Nixon. But the article also contains three other assumptions that should be corrected: 1) that McGovern misread the mood of the electorate as "alienated" and wrongly assumed that he could win the Wallace vote on the same terms he could attract upper- middle-class professionals; 2) that the Democratic convention ended the election by exposing the ex- tremism and evangelical moralism of the McGovernites; and 3) that an "ideological" candidate like McGovern or Goldwater cannot win a national election.

May, 1973Back to Top
Decimal Points and Taxes
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Hyman Bookbinder's letter [Letters from Readers, March] points out that I made a decimal-point error in a calculation illustrating one of the points in a letter responding to Irving Kristol's article on equality [“About Equality,” November 1972].

Women and Work
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Here are some of my reactions to Ellen Moers's “Money, the Job, and Little Women” [January]. Concerned as we all are to establish a meaningful tradition of middle-class women's attitudes toward work outside the home, we must, of course, consider Louisa May Alcott as an important 19th-century example of the independent spirit.

by Our Readers
To the Editor: While Robert Alter's essay “Defaming the Jews” [January] made some cogent observations on the semi-respectability of “jokebook anti-Semitism,” the use of distortion and caricature vis-à-vis Jews is far from limited to greeting cards or the satires of a Philip Roth.

The Question of Open Admissions
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Martin Mayer [“Higher Education for All? The Case of Open Admissions,” February] breezed into a Hunter College Urban Affairs freshman class for twenty minutes, saw part of a slide presentation, and reported it as fourth-grade “show-and-tell” and as exhibiting an all-too-casual acceptance of resulting student rhetoric.

Nixon, the Great Society, and the Future of Social Policy-A Symposium
by Nathan Glazer
In recent months a heated debate has been taking place on the past, present, and future of social policy in the United States.

The Curious Analyzer
by John Sisk
We remember only too well the macabre irony with which in the graveyard scene Hamlet contemplates Yorick's skull; how for him it mocks the vaunt and leap of life, whether manifested in the court jester, the beautiful woman (“let her paint an inch thick, to this favour she must come”), or the mightiest of rulers.

Zionism Revisited: Herzl
by David Vital
It is appropriate to speak of the advent of Theodor Herzl. He was the hero of the Zionist movement—its only hero.

Zionism Revisited: The Historic Enterprise
by Hillel Halkin
Though a voluminous literature exists by now on the Zionist movement, it is one that has plainly generated a good deal more heat than light.

“An American Family”
by Sara Sanborn
As all the world must know by now, a production crew from WNET Television in New York spent two years and over $1,000,000, plus a prodigious amount of talent and energy, pursuing the William C.

A Mother's Vengeance
by William Pechter
“It's nothing but a tissue of lies. . . . Tell me what matters. Nothing. . . . I can't breathe anymore because of all the guilt.

On the Democratic Idea in America, by Irving Kristol
by Josiah Auspitz
Intellectuals and Power On The Democratic Idea in America. by Irving Kristol. Harper & Row. 149 pp. $5.00. Irving Kristol's collection of essays, lionized in the Wall Street Journal, vilified in the New York Review of Books, and discussed critically only in the National Review, has received scant attention elsewhere in the many months since its publication.

The Jewish Bund in Russia: From Its Origins to 1905, by Henry J. Tobias
by Bernard Johnpoll
Jewish Socialism The Jewish Bund in Russia: From its Origins to 1905. by Henry J. Tobias. Stanford University Press. 409 pp. $16.50. A not uncommon political phenomenon, cutting across a variety of national lines, is that of the revolutionary movement around which there evolves an aura of romance and myth.

Marinetti: Selected Writings, edited by R. W. Flint
by Arthur Cohen
The First Futurist Marinetti: Selected Writings. by R. W. Flint. Translated by R. W. Flint and Arthur A. Coppotelli. Farrar, Straus & Giroux.

A Woman Named Solitude, by Andr\'e Schwarz-Bart
by Robert Alter
History's Victims A Woman Named Solitude. by Andre Schwarz-Bart. Translated by Ralph Manheim. Atheneum. 179 pp. $5.95. After the shattering conclusion of The Last of the Just (1959), it was hard to imagine what more .

Reader Letters May 1973
by Irwin Stark
The Question of Open Admissions TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Martin Mayer ["Higher Educa- tion for All? The Case of Open Admissions," February] breezed in- to a Hunter College Urban Affairs freshman class for twenty minutes, saw part of a slide presentation, and reported it as fourth-grade "show-and-tell" and as exhibiting an all-too-casual acceptance of re- sulting student rhetoric.

June, 1973Back to Top
Irony & the Irish
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I wish to make two comments on Robert W. Greene's gracious review of my book, That Most Distressful Nation: The Taming of the American Irish [Books in Review, April]. The first has to do with a matter of statistical fact: like most other American-Irish intellectuals, Mr.

The Photographer's Art
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It is good to see photography being taken seriously in your pages, but Richard Schickel's “The Art of Diane Arbus” [March], interesting as it is, seems to me seriously misleading in certain ways.

Foreign Policy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to respond to the questions posed in Adam B. Ulam's generous review of my book, Peace in the Balance [Books in Review, March]. Mr.

Housing and the 70s
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his review of The Seventies: Problems and Proposals, edited by Irving Howe and Michael Harrington [Books in Review, March], Elliott Abrams, who was not very happy about the book as a whole, singled out for special critical mention our chapter, “What Do We Want Right Now: Legislative Proposals for Reform.” He was most upset by our housing proposals.

To China, With Love
by Sheila Johnson
“Thronging the streets in Canton and bugging pedestrians to distraction was once the most scabrous passel of beggars this side of Calcutta.

On the Rights of Minorities
by Conor O'Brien
Sometimes the only right a minority seems to want is the right to become a majority; and sometimes the minority achieves this by bringing about a change in the political context, including by means of civil war.

Rethinking Israel's Position
by Shlomo Avineri
The influential and outspoken Secretary General of Israel's Labor Federation (Histadrut), Yitzhak Ben-Aharon, recently shocked many of his countrymen when he suggested that Israel consider withdrawing unilaterally from part of the occupied territories, particularly in the West Bank, even before the signing of a peace treaty.

Marriage and Household
by Sonya Rudikoff
After so many centuries, and so much reflection and experience, after so many marriages, is there anything left to be said on the subject? Perhaps, as T.

Kafka's True Will
by Erich Heller
It was Kafka's last will that neither his letters nor his diaries should survive him; nor, for that matter, his unpublished stories and unfinished novels.

The Year of Europe
by Walter Laqueur
The Nixon administration has proclaimed 1973 the “year of Europe,” but the proclamation may be considered a bit rash. Despite President Nixon's scheduled visit to the continent later this year for a series of economic and political discussions, there are no grounds for expecting any real alleviation of the deep and abiding strains in U.S.-European relations, either this year or in the foreseeable future.

The Jewish Vote (Again)
by Milton Himmelfarb
Before the 1972 Presidential election, the thesis became popular that Jews were at long last about to vote according to their economic interests.

The Kennedy Promise, by Henry Fairlie
by James Wilson
Rhetoric and RealityThe Kennedy Promise: The Politics of Expectation. by Henry Fairlie. Doubleday. 364 pp. $7.95.Inevitably, the search for an answer to the question of what went wrong in the 1960's must lead us back to John F.

The Study of Judaism: Bibliographical Essays, Introduction by Jacob Neusner
by Erich Isaac
Judaica The Study of Judaism: Bibliographical Essays. by Jacob Neusner. Anti-Defamation League of B'nai Brith/Ktav. 229 pp. $12.50. The purpose of this collection of bibliographical essays, as stated in the introduction by Jacob Neusner, is to provide guidance for “serious students in the field of religion who are not experts in the study of Judaism.” In addition, Neusner suggests that librarians will find the volume helpful for filling in gaps in their collections, and that teachers in the newly proliferating departments of Jewish studies will find it useful in the planning of courses. But there would seem to be another, albeit unstated, purpose prompting this effort, stemming from the unease that many Jews currently feel with regard to developments both in the academic world and in the broader society.

Paul Nizan, by W. D. Redfern
by James Atlas
A Neglected Modern Paul Nizan: Committed Literature in a Conspiratorial World. by W. D. Redfern. Princeton University Press. 232 pp. $9.00. It often happens that we come to the work of a neglected writer through the tributes of an eminent one: T.

Dorothy Thompson, by Marion K. Sanders
by Dorothy Rabinowitz
Newswoman Dorothy Thompson: A Legend in Her Time. by Marion K. Sanders. Houghton Mifflin. 428 pp. $10.00. No one with a memory of America in the 1940's can be quite free of associations to the name of Dorothy Thompson.

Trotsky and the Jews, by Joseph Nedava
by Joel Carmichael
Leib Bronstein Trotsky and the Jews. by Joseph Nedava. Jewish Publication Society. 299 pp. $6.00. Of the disproportionate numbers of Jewish revolutionaries who surged into European society in the wake of the Emancipation, only Leon Trotsky, né Leib Bronstein, achieved supreme eminence.

Reader Letters June 1973
by Richard Schickel
Housing and the 70's To THE EDITOR 0F COMMENTARY: In his review of The Seventies: Problems and Proposals, edited by Irving Howe and Michael Harring- ton [Books in Review, MIarch], Elliott Abrams, who was not very happy about the book as a whole, singled out for special critical men- tion our chapter, "What Do We Want Right Now: Legislative Pro- posals for Reform." He was most upset by our housing proposals. We had suggested that everyone be given the opportunity to own or share in the ownership of the housing in which he lives.

July, 1973Back to Top
Collective Guilt
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Norman Podhoretz [“Vietnam and Collective Guilt,” March] might be right when he argues that Robert J. Lifton is guilty of “shoddy thinking and unctuous moralizing.”.

“The Cousinhood”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In an otherwise excellent article [“Our (English) Crowd,” April] Chaim Raphael says that when Lord Balfour asked Lord Walter Rothschild to bring the Balfour Declaration to the attention of the British Zionist Federation, the request was “almost as an afterthought.” He hints also that it was addressed to Lord Rothschild in deference to the latter's relationship to the “Cousinhood.” Both statements are wrong, and may easily be misinterpreted. Dr.

IQ, Lysenkoism & Liberal Orthodoxy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I wish to take issue with some of the comments made by R. J. Herrnstein [“On Challenging an Orthodoxy,” April].

The Masada Complex
by Robert Alter
History, however, is not the past. The past is always a created ideology with a purpose, designed to control individuals, or motivate societies, or inspire classes.

Science versus Justice
by Lionel Abel
For Miriam Chiaromonte Was it later than we thought? But this was precisely what we thought, or thought we had been thinking.

The Body Politic
by Steve Brynes
To the person who thinks with his head life is a comedy. —Henry Miller Feedback “So you've sold out,” she said severely, biting down on a liverwurst sandwich while I poured a glass of domestic Chablis under the Virginia sky. “You have to eat to live.” But this small sarcasm was ignored. “If you could only realize the immorality of what you're doing.

Encounter Groups and Other Panaceas
by Alan Mintz
Anytime you use the words now and how and become aware of this, you grow. Each time you use the question why, you diminish in stature.

Key West, With Cubans
by Joan Colebrook
Wednesday, February 14, 1973 The bus ride from Miami to Key West is long and slow. There is no passing on the narrow causeway. From the bus moving southward, Miami appears as a dream city of wide boulevards with a blinding coastline of hotels like great white-iced decorated cakes.

The Question of the Judenrate
by Maurice Friedberg
Of all the harrowing chapters of the Holocaust, that concerning the Nazi-imposed institutions of Jewish “self-government” in occupied Eastern Europe is probably the most painful and the most puzzling.

Deep Tango
by William Pechter
The meaning of the sensation caused by Last Tango in Paris, of the febrile character of its reception quite apart from the character of the film itself, seems to me unmistakably clear: we want pornography.

The Fellow Travellers, by David Caute
by Steven Kelman
Stalinophilia The Fellow Travellers. by David Caute. Macmillan. 433 pp. $8.95. The 20th century has had its share of atrocities, but certainly Hitlerism and Stalinism deserve to be placed in a category all their own.

A Contemporary High Holiday Service, edited by Sidney Greenberg and S. Allan Sugarman; Mahzor for Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur,
by Edward Graham
“Relevant” Prayer A Contemporary High Holiday Service. by Sidney Greenberg and S. Allan Sugarman. Prayer Book Press. 187 pp. $6.95. Mahzor for Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. by Jules Harlow. The Rabbinical Assembly of America.

Looking Back, by Joyce Maynard
by Jane Crain
Her Story Looking Back: A Chronicle of Growing Up Old in the Sixties. by Joyce Maynard. Doubleday. 160 pp. $5.95. At nineteen, Joyce Maynard has achieved a not wholly undeserved publicity.

Honecker and the New Politics of Europe, by Heinz Lippmann
by Myron Rush
Apparatchik Honecker and the New Politics of Europe. by Heinz Lippmann. Macmillan. 272 pp. $7.95. Erich Honecker succeeded Walter Ulbricht on May 3, 1971 as head of the ruling party in East Germany.

The Inspector, by Saul Steinberg
by John Hollander
Visual Aphorist The Inspector. by Saul Steinberg. Viking. 220 pp. $10.00. “There is almost no artist alive,” wrote E. H. Gombrich almost twenty years ago, “who knows more about the philosophy of representation than this humorist.” Saul Steinberg is as far from being merely a humorist today as he was from being a cartoonist then; in the intervening years his art has become increasingly problematic and profound.

A. Philip Randolph, by Jervis Anderson
by James Wilson
A Radical LifeA. Philip Randolph: A Biographical Portrait. by Jervis Anderson. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. 398 pp. $12.50.A. Philip Randolph, who Murray Kempton once suggested may be “the greatest man who has lived in the U.S.

Reader Letters July 1973
by Simon Messing
TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I wish to take issue with some of the comments made by R. J. Herrnstein ["On Challenging an Orthodoxy," April].

August, 1973Back to Top
Margaret Mead
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Shocked onlookers to Sheila K. Johnson's terrorist bombing of a famous international bridge [“A Look at Margaret Mead,” March] must surely wonder what leads fanatics to engage in senseless destruction.

Nuclear Weapons
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his letter on foreign policy [Letters from Readers, June], commenting on Adam B. Ulam's review of his book Peace in the Balance [March], Eugene V.

On the Nature of Black Progress
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The question of whether or not most blacks are in the middle class is purely definitional. Ben J.

Government and the People
by Aaron Wildavsky
We shall never learn what needs to be learned about the American political system until we understand not only what the system does to the people, but what the people do to the system.

Mrs. Virginia Woolf
by Cynthia Ozick
No recent biography has been read more thirstily by readers and writers of fiction than Quentin Bell's account of the life of his aunt Virginia.1 Reviewing it, Elizabeth Hardwick speaks of “the present exhaustion of Virginia Woolf,” and compares the idea of Blooms-bury—it “wearies”—to a pond run out of trout.

George Lichtheim, 1912-1973
by Walter Laqueur
As a student of Marxism and historian of ideas, as an original thinker and a writer of exceptional brilliance, George Lichtheim, who died in April of this year, first came to the attention of general readers with the publication of Marxism in 1961.

The Growth of the Day-School Movement
by David Singer
Writing in these pages thirteen years ago, Milton Himmelfarb took the measure of what was then a newly emerging phenomenon on the American-Jewish scene, the Jewish day school.1 Because such schools—which combine intensive Jewish instruction (usually in the morning) with general studies (usually in the afternoon), all under one roof—were at the time only beginning to make themselves felt as an institution in the Jewish community, Mr.

War Fictions
by John Sisk
To Clausewitz war was very simple, to Stephen Crane it was kind, to General Sherman it was all hell. Clausewitz, of course, had to write a book to explain the simplicity, Crane was speaking ironically in a poem, and Sherman at times found the hell of war to be a heavenly experience.

Reading Lionel Trilling
by Irving Howe
The Italian novelist Ignazio Silone once remarked that most writers keep telling the same story over and over again: it is the story that releases their controlling sense of existence, their springs of anxiety and dilemma.

Modern Jews and Their History
by Ben Halpern
All kinds of people have complained about history, and probably none more justifiably than the Jews. It has been said that a happy people is one without history; but what happens when happiness is offered to an unhappy people at the price of its history? The ensuing panic and confusion are major themes of Jewish history since the Emancipation, whose “social background” is the subject of a new book, Out of the Ghetto, by the Hebrew University sociologist and historian, Jacob Katz.1 One of the most damaging blows to the Jews' self-image since they came out of the ghetto was precisely the gibe that, in current history, Jews had no real meaning: they were irrelevant.

News from Nowhere, by Edward Jay Epstein
by David Haight
The Intrepid Scholar News From Nowhere: Television and the News. by Edward Jay Epstein. Random House. 321 pp. $7.95. The public image of American journalism has always included a good proportion of myth.

The Face of Defeat, by David Pryce-Jones
by James Adams
From the West Bank The Face of Defeat. by David Pryce-Jones. Holt, Rinehart & Winston. 179 pp. $5.95. To the detached observer, the search for truth in the Arab-Israeli conflict must seem a short road to madness.

When Even Angels Wept, by Lately Thomas
by Louis Berg
McCarthy as Buccaneer When Even Angels Wept: A Story without a Hero. by Lately Thomas. Morrow. 654 pp. $12.50. For a book that bases itself on a false premise, Lately Thomas's account of the rise and fall of the late Senator Joseph Raymond McCarthy stands up fairly well, is reasonably solid in its facts, and warranted in most of its assumptions.

Unsecular Man, by Andrew M. Greeley
by Alan Mintz
Religion and Modern Man Unsecular Man: The Persistence of Religion. by Andrew M. Greeley. Schocken Books. 280 pp. $7.95. In his most recent book Andrew M.

Cold Dawn: The Story of SALT, by John Newhouse
by Jeffrey Marsh
Arms Limitation Cold Dawn: The Story of SALT. by John Newhouse. Holt, Rinehart & Winston. 302 pp. $7.95. In the ten years since the Cuban missile crisis, the prospect of nuclear war has become more and more remote from the public mind.

Reader Letters August 1973
by Sheila Johnson
On the Nature of Black Progress To THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: The question of whether or not most blacks are in the middle class is purely definitional.

September, 1973Back to Top
Nursing Licenses
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “Higher Education for All? The Case of Open Admissions” [February] Martin Mayer states: “The ‘nursing profession’ has now succeeded in imposing an A.B.

Letters on Letters
by Our Readers

by Our Readers
To the Editor: Just when many readers are still angry with COMMENTARY for the one-sided and impressionistic treatment of Open Admissions [“Higher Education for All? The Case of Open Admissions,” by Martin Mayer, February], you offer an even-handed and multi-faceted series of focused articles in your symposium on “Nixon, the Great Society, and the Future of Social Policy” [May].

Rewriting “Hamlet”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In the view of John P. Sisk [“The Curious Analyzer,” May], perhaps Shakespeare might have done better to have rewritten Act V, Scene I of Hamlet, leaving out some of the things which Mr.

The Op-Ed Page
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I wish to congratulate Carl Gershman on “The Times Op-Ed Page” [April]. Letters of criticism to the editor of the Times, including my own, have been sidetracked on this very subject, and Mr.

by Our Readers
To the Editor: Because of my involvement in the Attica proceedings, I had decided to avoid comment on the McKay Commission report.

Looking at China
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Let me say at the outset that although Sheila K. Johnson was critical of me in her article, “To China, With Love” [June], I strongly sympathize with the general drift of her article.

An Appointment With Watergate
by Earl Raab
As the witnesses testified before the Ervin Committee, one could hear the rustling of a two-hundred-year-old American ghost. The Watergate affair, standing as it does for the whole bag of “White House horrors,” was not just the creation of evil men; it was the symptomatic rumbling of a deep strain in American society, of which Richard Nixon has come to seem the almost perfect embodiment.

The Conversion of the Jews
by Marshall Sklare
Nothing, it would seem, ever goes away; and thus it was that American Jews, living in a society where interreligious friction has been reduced to a minimum and secularism is rampant, recently found themselves again rallying, as in former, less enlightened times, to oppose Christian conversionist efforts.

The New Egalitarianism and the Old
by Charles Frankel
When I was an undergraduate in the 30's, we used to hoot at yokels who said that socialism meant that everyone would have the same income.

Moral Education and the Schools
by Diane Ravitch
The influence of the conduct and example of adults on the infant mind has been much too slightly regarded, though it would seem sufficiently obvious that the habits and characters of children are formed upon the model of those to whom they look up for support and protection.

A Dissent on Pynchon
by David Thorburn
The acclaim conferred upon Thomas Pynchon's Gravity's Rainbow1 probably reveals more about the uncertain state of our literary culture than about Pynchon's novel itself, which is brilliant in parts but confused and exceedingly tedious as a whole.

Mumford in Retrospect
by Peter Shaw
Lewis Mumford is probably best known as a critic of architecture and city planning, but he has regretted being identified with these subjects alone on the grounds that “if I have any field of specialization at all, it is the all-inclusive one of the social philosopher.” Beginning with his first book, The Story of Utopias, in 1922, Mum-ford has written as one who takes it upon himself periodically to deliver an assessment—generally adverse—on the condition of the planet.

Politics on Film
by William Pechter
It is the climax of The Day of the Jackal, and the paid political assassin, code name “Jackal,” brilliantly disguised as an elderly, one-legged, French army veteran (not only his hair but his skin artificially aged by chemical discoloration), closes in on his target of General de Gaulle at a populous location where the General is to make a public appearance.

The Future While It Happened, by Samuel Lubell
by Elliott Abrams
Winning Elections The Future While It Happened. by Samuel Lubell. Norton. 162 pp. $5.95. According to Samuel Lubell, who has been doing polling and interviewing for decades, “the scope and intensity of discontent in the country was astonishing” in the autumn of 1972.

State of Grace, by Joy Williams; The Summer Before the Dark, by Doris Lessing; The Hothouse by the East River, by Muriel Spark;
by David Bromwich
Fiction Roundup State of Grace. by Joy Williams. Doubleday. 260 pp. $6.95. The Summer Before the Dark. by Doris Lessing. Knopf. 273 pp. $6.95. The Hothouse by the East River. by Muriel Spark. Viking.

Without Guilt and Justice, by Walter Kaufmann
by Werner Dannhauser
Fiction Roundup State of Grace. by Joy Williams. Doubleday. 260 pp. $6.95. The Summer Before the Dark. by Doris Lessing. Knopf. 273 pp. $6.95. The Hothouse by the East River. by Muriel Spark. Viking.

David Smith by David Smith, edited by Cleve Gray; David Smith, edited by Garnett McCoy; Terminal Iron Works, by Rosalind E. Krau
by Emmie Donadio
American Sculptor David Smith by David Smith. by Cleve Gray. Holt, Rinehart & Winston. 176 pp. (paper). $9.95. David Smith. by Garnett McCoy. Praeger. 231 pp.

Reader Letters September 1973
by Jackson Toby
Looking at China TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Let me say at the outset that al- though Sheila K. Johnson was criti- cal of me in her article, "To China, With Love" [June], I strongly sym- pathize with the general drift of her article.

A Mediterranean Society, by S. D. Goitein
by Erich Isaac
Jews under Islam A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the Arab World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza.

October, 1973Back to Top
Contemporary Prayer
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Edward Graham's review of two new High Holiday prayer books [Books in Review, July] reaches a new low in accuracy and scope.

Mobilizing the Middle
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The two recent articles by Ben J. Wattenberg and Richard M. Scammon [“Black Progress and Liberal Rhetoric,” April]—pointing up that some progress against poverty has occurred, but more is needed—and Aaron Wildavsky [“Government and the People,” August]—pointing up quite well the contradictions between various liberal policies—are long overdue.

“An American Family”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Sara Sanborn's article on the Loud family [“An American Family,” May] is thoughtful, reasonable, and provocative. . .

The Question of Masada
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Those who ask, as Robert Alter does [“The Masada Complex,” July], how Josephus could have fabricated the fiction of the mass suicide of Masada's Sicarii, when several thousand Romans were eyewitnesses to the end of Masada, anachronistically transpose modern methods of news dissemination to antiquity, some fifteen centuries before the invention of movable type and some nineteen centuries before news reporting by wireless.

by Walter Laqueur
The idea of using oil as a political weapon against “imperialism” and Israel is not new to the Arab world.

Mailer's “Marilyn”
by Clive James
“She was a fruitcake,” Tony Curtis once told an interviewer on BBC television, and there can't be much doubt that she was.

On Jealousy
by Leslie Farber
To see one's mate across a crowded room, doing something else, with someone else, is to be forcibly reminded of the separateness of our lives, however persuasive may be the imagery of connection and joined fates when we are together.

Who Is Buckminster Fuller?
by Sara Sanborn
Buckminster Fuller, according to Hugh Kenner's estimable new study, Bucky,1 has a collection of 3,500 clippings about himself, as well as 80,000 letters and virtually every other scrap of paper with his name on it that has ever come his way.

Gentlemen and Scholars
by Milton Himmelfarb
In the name of equality, some would admit students to college and professional school by lottery. Though egalitarians of this kind are not numerous, neither are they merely eccentric.

The New Philistinism
by Dan Jacobson
Poets, Shelley wrote, are the unacknowledged legislators of the world. The quotation is embarrassingly well known. Few of those who invoke it, however, seem much embarrassed by the fact that Shelley's proclamation was made just at the time when an unprecedented gap was beginning to open up between poets and other imaginative writers as a class and the rulers of the societies they lived in.

Thinking About the City
by Walter Berns
Cities express an ambivalence in the American soul: we like cities and wish to live in them—or at least to visit them—but we also dislike cities and wish to avoid them, and live instead on farms or in suburbs, and wish we could redesign the whole country along the lines of the Berkshires, in western Massachusets—with the Turnpike for rapid transit but to a different kind of Boston.

The Making of the President-1972, by Theodore H. White
by James Wilson
Politics & the PartiesThe Making of the President—1972. by Theodore H. White. Atheneum. 391 pp. $10.00.The many pleasures of reading Theodore White's accounts of our Presidential elections have in no way been dimmed by their repeated offering.

The New Journalism, by Tom Wolfe
by Jane Crain
The Old Realism The New Journalism. by Tom Wolfe. With an Anthology edited by Tom Wolfe and E. W. Johnson. Harper & Row.

Arthur Rubinstein: My Young Years, by Arthur Rubinstein
by Louis Berg
Bon Vivant Arthur Rubinstein: My Young Years. by Arthur Rubinstein. Knopf. 512 pp. $10.00. The mature Arthur Rubinstein presents so admirable a figure as a man and as a musician that one regrets his decision to confine this heavy tome of light reminiscence to his salad days.

Uncensored Russia, edited by Peter Reddaway; The Heirs of Stalin, by Abraham Rothberg
by Maurice Friedberg
Russia's “Democratic Movement” Uncensored Russia: Protest and Dissent in the Soviet Union. The Unofficial Moscow Journal “A Chronicle of Current Events.” by Peter Reddaway. Foreword by Julius Telesin.

Ralph McGill: Reporter, by Harold H. Martin
by Roger Williams
The Southern Liberal Ralph McGill: Reporter. by Harold H. Martin. Atlantic-Little, Brown. 344 pp. $10.95. Southern liberals have been all but canonized by the North, and it is important that they be seen for what they actually have been: people who struggled and often suffered in the cause of a decent South but who often had a limited understanding of its problems and the necessary solutions to them.

Vice Squad, by Robert H. Williams; City Police, by Jonathan Rubinstein; Serpico, by Peter Maas
by Roger Starr
Officers of the Law Vice Squad. by Robert H. Williams. Crowell. 320 pp. $7.95. City Police. by Jonathan Rubinstein. Farrar, Straus & Giroux. 455 pp. $10.00. Serpico. by Peter Maas. Viking.

Reader Letters October 1973
by Robert Alter
TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Those who ask, as Robert Alter does ["The Masada Complex," July], how Josephus could have fabricated the fiction of the mass suicide of Masada's Sicarii, when several thousand Romans were eyewitnesses to the end of Masada, anachronistically transpose modern methods of news dissemination to antiquity, some fifteen centuries be- fore the invention of movable type and some nineteen centuries before news reporting by wireless. Yet even today, news is being manipulated and distorted, and not only in dictatorships.

November, 1973Back to Top
Israel, Zionism & Masada
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I would like to comment on Shlomo Avineri's “Rethinking Israel's Position” [June] in which he discusses my book, Israel and the Crisis of Western Civilization.

Last Tango
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I believe that William S. Pechter [“Deep Tango,” July] has missed the step in the tango. The meaning of the sensation caused by Last Tango in Paris is not “we want pornography,” as he claims; rather, the excitement generated by the movie is caused by its depiction of ideas whose roots in art and literature reach back to Greek mythology: the archetypal tragedy of Man destroyed by Woman.

Trotsky as Jew
by Our Readers
To the Editor: At the least a reviewer should be consistent, a quality Joel Carmichael seems to lack in his review of my book, Trotsky and the Jews [Books in Review, June].

Vaccination and Sacrifice
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It is, perhaps, not so difficult as Lionel Abel [“Science versus Justice,” July] perceives to find “any real circumstance in which humanity requires the sacrifice of someone innocent.” Take, for example, the practice of vaccination against smallpox.

Day Schools
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . David Singer's article (“The Growth of the Day-School Movement,” August] . . . is especially noteworthy for its recognition that the day schools constitute a “movement,” and Mr.

The Judenräte
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Some few words should be added to Maurice Friedberg's “The Question of the Judenräte” [July]. His closing comment on Isaiah Trunk's book, Judenrat, is that it is a record of separate details, “rarely stopping to offer general observations.” Yet how many historical works have been defaced by an author's irresistible desire to write that final chapter giving expression to his own sociological theories? .

Watergate and the Presidency
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Aaron Wildavsky's article [“Government and the People,” August] raises anew, and in striking fashion, the most serious questions about the future of the American constitutional system.

Virginia Woolf
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Cynthia Ozick's article [“Mrs. Virginia Woolf,” August] is simply fascinating. And I'm glad to see COMMENTARY devote so much space to considering a writer who, until recently, was slighted even in the universities in this country.

On Soviet Dissidence
by Lev Navrozov
“The West, the West,” my guest chimes, looking indolently on. “I was in the West.” He likes our country house, he is sitting at his leisure, arm winglike over chair back, to get the good of it, shedding words. Oh, let us shed words As the garden sheds its amber. Our spot of timeless serenity is actually only a few miles from an airport where foreign statesmen land, some twenty miles from Moscow; but as one rides from the airport all one sees is forests and we are lost in them somewhere, we are pleasantly invisible. “I was in the West,” he sheds words.

Afterthoughts on the 20's
by John Aldridge
The publication last spring of Malcolm Cowley's A Second Flowering: Works and Days of the Lost Generation1 has reopened a question most of us might prefer to leave closed.

The Stalemate Society
by Rudolf Klein
At the beginning of this century, most people living in America worked with their hands, either in factories or on the land.

To the Country
by Bette Howland
It so happens that my mother's oldest and dearest friend, Little Bertha, lives on a farm not ten miles from the summer cottage where my sons and I are staying in the country, and I hadn't seen her in fifteen years.

A Poet of the Holocaust
by Robert Alter
May it never befall you, All you who pass along the road! Look about and see: Is there any agony like mine, Which was dealt out to me, When the Lord afflicted me On His day of wrath? —Lamentations 1:12 The relation of Hebrew poetry to the Holocaust is a peculiar one, largely because many readers and some writers of Hebrew poetry tend to have rather special expectations of it as an instrument of response to national calamity.

The Working Critic
by Jack Richardson
Since the publication, some thirty years ago, of On Native Grounds, Alfred Kazin has been an important, working critic of American literature.

Two Conductors
by B. Haggin
The context I find necessary for an evaluation of Pierre Boulez and Michael Tilson Thomas begins with the remarkably perceptive statement Bernard Shaw made at the age of twenty: that the “highest faculty of a conductor” was “the establishment of a magnetic influence under which an orchestra becomes as amenable to the baton as a pianoforte to the fingers.” I would apply the word “essential” rather than “highest” to the faculty cited by Shaw: it is the one required to give effect to the others.

Jews and the Tragic Sense
by Frederick Plotkin
Throughout its history, Judaism has been haunted by a dilemma—at whose door shall its troubles be laid? That Jews themselves, the men and women now in the world, or those who perished at Auschwitz, Buchenwald, Maidanek, Treblinka, are in any way responsible for its distractions is a proposition too preposterous for any save the fanatics to entertain.

Nostalgia and Adultery
by William Pechter
“Where were you in '62?” the ads for American Graffiti ask. Wherever I was I recall doing my best to stay out of earshot of the kind of Alan Freed-style music which washes over the film from start to finish as pervasively as the very air that's breathed.

The Idea of Fraternity in America, by Wilson Carey McWilliams
by David Donald
Brotherhood The Idea of Fraternity in America. by Wilson Carey Mcwilliams. University of California Press. 695 pp. $14.95. This enormous volume, “pretentious” and “intolerably long” by its author's admission, is really two distinct books bound together.

Travelers, by Ruth Prawer Jhabvala
by Johanna Kaplan
Between Two Worlds Travelers. by Ruth Prawer Jhabvala. Harper & Row. 247 pp. $6.95. Ruth Prawer Jhabvala has written seven novels and three collections of short stories, yet she has remained relatively unknown in this country.

The Dialectical Imagination, by Martin Jay
by Stanley Rothman
International Scholars The Dialectical Imagination. by Martin Jay. Little, Brown. 416 pp. $12.50. On February 3, 1923 a decree of the Education Ministry marked the official creation of the Institut fur Sozialforschung (Institute for Social Research) in Frankfurt, Germany.

The Country and the City, by Raymond Williams
by Alan Goldfein
Counter-Pastoral The Country and the City. by Raymond Williams. Oxford University Press. 335 pp. $9.75. Early in The Country and the City Raymond Williams quotes a couplet by George Crabbe (from The Village, 1783): No longer truth, though shown    in verse, disdain, But own the Village Life a life    of pain. The lines—written during the modern world's most transforming experience, the English Industrial Revolution—are an apology for pastoral poetry's idyllic picture of the countryside.

Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies and Bucks, by Donald Bogle; The Only Good Indian ... The Hollywood Gospel, by Ralph and Natasha
by Richard Schickel
The Red and the Black Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies, and Bucks: An Interpretive History of Biacks in American Films. by Donald Bogle. Illustrated.

SDS, by Kirkpatrick Sale
by Carl Gershman
Young Revolutionaries SDS. by Kirkpatrick Sale. Random House. 752 pp. $15.00. In April 1967 someone at the National Office of Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) came across a cartoon showing dozens of smiling children fleeing through a school gate and six angry guards helplessly chasing after them.

Reader Letters November 1973
by Joel Carmichael
Virginia Woolf TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Cynthia Ozick's article ["Mrs. Virginia Woolf," August] is simply fascinating. And I'm glad to see COMMENTARY devote so much space to considering a writer who, until recently, was slighted even in the universities in this country. I have an undergraduate major an(l a Ph.D.

December, 1973Back to Top
Teaching Values
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Diane Ravitch spends some of her article [“Moral Education and the Schools,” September] attacking my book, Free the Children: Radical Reform and the Free School Movement.

Key 73
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Key 73 [“The Conversion of the Jews,” by Marshall Sklare, September] never posed a serious threat to Jewish life.

Understanding Watergate
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Seymour Martin Lipset and Earl Raab [“An Appointment With Watergate,” September] have analyzed Watergate brilliantly and imaginatively. I would have expected the expert way in which they have developed the radical Right setting.

From 1967 to 1973: The Arab-Israeli Wars
by Theodore Draper
Every Arab-Israeli war has been haunted by the previous one. In the end, each of these wars-1948, 1956, 1967, and 1973—may be thought of as extended battles in a long war.

Kissinger & the Politics of Detente
by Walter Laqueur
Henry Kissinger's appointment as Secretary of State, confirmed by Congress last September, was accompanied by a wave of publicity unprecedented in recent American history.

Auden's Achievement
by Clive James
For a long time before his death, the fact that a homosexual was the greatest living English poet had the status of an open secret: anybody with better than a passing knowledge of W.

Men, Women, and the Parental Imperative
by David Gutmann
“Beware of the man who praises liberated women; he is planning to quit his job.” Thus, Erica Jong in a recent poem.

Images of Einstein
by Jeffrey Marsh
Albert Einstein is probably the only 20th-century scientist whose name would be recognized by a majority of the population. This is, of course, a strong indictment of scientific education in an age of science, but there is a rough justice in it, because Einstein was, beyond doubt, the greatest scientist of the era.

TV Verite
by Jane Crain
Since the release of Titicut Follies in 1967, the work of the documentary filmmaker, Frederick Wiseman, has been receiving consistent, and consistently favorable, attention.

The Soviet Cage, by William Korey
by Elliott Abrams
Jews in Russia The Soviet Cage. by William Korey. Viking. 369 pp. $12.50. Large numbers of people in this country have by now become aware of the situation of Soviet Jewry, yet one may question how well this situation is understood.

The Politics of Lying, by David Wise
by Robert Hazo
Remaking Reality The Politics of Lying. by David Wise. Random House. 415 pp.$8.95. At first glance, The Politics of Lying would seem promising. Written before the Watergate affair burst, its arresting title anticipating what is now called a national crisis, the book, which comes buttressed with a heavy load of references, is directed to the revival of the ideal of “the politics of truth.” Its author, David Wise (co-author of The Invisible Government as well as The U-2 Affair and The Espionage Establishment), also has the requisite credentials; he was correspondent and bureau chief in Washington for the old Herald Tribune and is now a kind of freelance critic of recent governments residing in the capital. Wise's book, however, turns out to be of minimal worth.

The Ferrari in the Bedroom, by Jean Shepherd
by Edward Grossman
Storyteller The Ferrari in the Bedroom. by Jean Shepherd. Dodd, Mead. 269 pp. $6.95. Jean Shepherd, from Indiana originally, is a radio monologist whose show has been broadcast “live” every night for years by a strong AM station in New York City.

Encounters Between Judaism and Modern Philosophy, by Emil L. Fackenheim; If Not Now, When? by Mordecai M. Kaplan and Arthur A. C
by Leon Wieseltier
Jewish Thinkers Encounters Between Judaism and Modern Philosophy. by Emil L. Fackenheim. Basic Books. 275 pp. $10.00. If Not Now, When? Toward a Reconstitution of the Jewish People. by Mordecai M.

Ethnic Enterprise in America, by Ivan H. Light
by Murray Friedman
Business and Culture Ethnic Enterprise in America. by Ivan H. Light. University of California Press. 224 pp. $7.95. The magazine Black Enterprise recently had occasion to list the one hundred largest black-owned and managed businesses in the country.

Reader Letters December 1973
by Earl Raab
TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Seymour Martin Lipset and Earl Raab ["An Appointment With Watergate," September] have an- alyzed Watergate brilliantly and imaginatively. I would have ex- pected the expert way in which they have developed the radical Right setting.

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