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January, 1987Back to Top
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Nora Beloff's article, “The Truth about Titoism” [October 1986], does not tell the truth about Yugoslavia's debt crisis.

Team B
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Richard Pipes's excellent article on Team B [“Team B: The Reality Behind the Myth,” October 1986] conforms in all important respects to my own recollections as a Team B member.

The Academy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In their otherwise excellent article, “The Tenured Left” [October 1986], Stephen H. Balch and Herbert I. London exaggerate the degree to which universities have supinely accepted illegal campus protest and disorder engendered by the South African divestiture issue.

Sandinista Anti-Semitism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Readers of “Sandinista Anti-Semitism and Its Apologists” by Joshua Muravchik, Susan Alberts, and Antony Korenstein [September 1986] are likely to be misled in at least three respects by its reference to two articles in the October 1984 issue of Moment. First: one would not know from the authors that the issue of Moment they cite contained not two but three articles on Nicaragua and the Jews.

Another “Low Dishonest Decade” on the Left
by David Horowitz
We first became involved with the New Left—that movement which eventually degenerated into the devious and dishonest Left of today—at the end of the 1950's, a time when McCarthyism was dying and a new radical movement was struggling to be born in demonstrations against the House Committee on Un-American Activities.

Poland's Jewish Ghosts
by Ruth Wisse
Following the amputation of a limb, it is usual for the patient to experience sensations as if the limb were still present.

Who Speaks for American Blacks?
by Glenn Loury
This past June a front-page story in the New York Times announced “a major shift of thinking” among “many black leaders.” According to the report, these leaders are now “openly debating whether black Americans should rely more on their own initiative and efforts in solving critical problems long attributed to racism.” Thus, six years into the Reagan era, it turns out that some black elected officials and leaders of major civil-rights organizations have “discovered” self-help as a legitimate tool for advancing the condition of the black poor; some of the problems of blacks, they can be heard to acknowledge, will not be solved by government action, but will require for their successful resolution the direct involvement of black people themselves. This new insight has of course been encouraged by political reality.

How “La Prensa” was silenced
by Jaime Chamorro
During the national insurrection in Nicaragua against Anastasio Somoza, my family's newspaper, La Prensa, opposed his regime with all the resources at its command (including a loan of $50,000 to the Sandinistas, which has never been paid back).

In the Capital of Modern Cruelty
by Algis Valiunas
Touristen raus. Tourists out. It was written, not on the Wall itself (which was covered along that stretch in the Kreuzberg district with other graffiti less transparent in meaning, esoteric doodlings done with some flair by adept practitioners of the metropolitan guano school), but on some kind of machine housing hard by.

Wagner as Anti-Semite
by Samuel Lipman
In the long history of Jewish persecution, anti-Semitism in German-speaking lands occupies a special, and especially horrible, place. It is a curious irony that this position of dishonor was won in a time and place—post-Enlightenment Europe—that seemed to offer Jews the acceptance and assimilation so many of them ardently desired. As it did elsewhere, anti-Semitism in German-speaking lands had existed for many centuries.

The Rise & Fall of Roman Polanski
by Tod Lindberg
. . . Europe was my true home—I loved the sheer antiquity and asymmetry that made it so different from modern, four-square America.

Arab and Jew, by David K. Shipler
by Edward Alexander
Off Balance Arab and Jew: Wounded Spirits in a Promised Land. by David K. Shipler. Times Books. 596 pp. $22.50. On March 28, 1982, the New York Times carried a story headed “West Bank Occupation Now Resembles Annexation,” which included the following sentences about three Arab mayors dismissed by Ariel Sharon: “All were the targets of car bombings in 1980.

The Capitalist Revolution, by Peter L. Berger
by Melville Ulmer
Democratic Capitalism The Capitalist Revolution: Fifty Propositions about Prosperity, Equality, and Liberty. by Peter L. Berger. Basic Books. 262 pp. $17.95. Peter Berger, a penetrating student of society who has explored issues ranging from the economies of the Third World to political theory and the sundry religions of mankind, here focuses upon a project that is at once grand in purview and yet tightly restrained in its immediate purposes.

The Halakhic Mind, by Joseph B. Soloveitchik
by David Singer
Enlightened Orthodoxy The Halakhic Mind: An Essay on Jewish Tradition and Modern Thought. by Joseph B. Soloveitchik. Seth Press. 135 pp. $16.95. Orthodox Judaism is much in the news these days, and much of the news is not good.

The Financing of Terror, by James Adams
by William McGurn
IN MID-APRIL 1986, almost at the moment American F-Ill's were making their way to Libya, a group of experts on terrorism were mak- ing their way to a conference in Scotland.

The Media Elite, by S. Robert Lichter, Stanley Rothman, and Linda S. Lichter
by Terry Teachout
A Subtler Bias The Media Elite: America's New Powerbrokers. by S. Robert Lichter, Stanley Rothman, and Linda S. Lichter. Adler & Adler. 342 pp.

Reader Letters January 1987
by David Cohen
TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Readers of "Sandinista Anti- Semitism and Its Apologists" by Joshua Muravchik, Susan Alberts, and Antony Korenstein [September 1986] are likely to be misled in at least three respects by its reference to two articles in the October 1984 issue of Moment. First: one would not know from the authors that the issue of Mo- ment they cite contained not two but three articles on Nicaragua and the Jews.

February, 1987Back to Top
Military Reform
by Our Readers
To the Editor: What a disappointment it was to read Alvin H. Bernstein's review of America Can Win by Gary Hart and William S.

Randolph Bourne
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It is not my intention to respond to reviews of my book, The Lyrical Left: Randolph Bourne, Alfred Stieglitz, and the Origins of Cultural Radicalism in America, especially basically generous reviews such as Kenneth S.

by Our Readers
To the Editor: Edward Alexander's vicious attack on the book Anatoly and Avital Shcharansky: The Journey Home [“Shcharansky's Secret,” October 1986] is not only mean-spirited but also incompetent; I am amazed that COMMENTARY gave the book for “review” to a man who is unqualified to judge such a journalistic work.

Peace Studies
by Our Readers
To the Editor: While many observers are reduced to vague complaints about the academic world's leftward drift, Stephen H. Balch and Herbert I.

The South
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I enjoyed Joseph Epstein's “And That's What I Like About the South” [November 1986]. His descriptions of certain people still fit well once you get outside of the large cities down here.

The Soviet Union
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Though I have the greatest respect for Vladimir Bukovsky and rate his book, To Build a Castle, as one of the classics of resistance literature, may I venture to disagree with his proposition [“Will Gorbachev Reform the Soviet Union?,” September 1986] that Gorbachev has only three options in confronting his internal troubles? Besides the three which Mr.

by Our Readers
To the Editor: In their article, “Our Conservatism and Theirs” [October 1986], Brigitte Berger and Peter L. Berger define their own kind of conservatism as one that avoids the moral absolutism .

AIDS & the Law
by Our Readers
To the Editor: It is curious that in defending the Supreme Court's decision on sodomy, David Robinson, Jr. [“Sodomy and the Supreme Court,” October 1986] should invoke the public-health risk of AIDS, an issue which long postdates the legislation he seeks to justify.

Why the Soviets Want an Arms-Control Agreement, and Why They Want It Now
by Eugene Rostow
In its potential significance, the Reykjavik summit can be compared to the Cuban missile crisis of 1962 among the Soviet-American confrontations since 1945.

My Mother's Conversion
by Dan Segre
My mother, born Jewish, is buried in a Christian cemetery. In her case, destiny really seems to have played tricks with our family.

Of Markets and Myths
by Robert Reich
Whenever Americans discuss government's role in the economy, the terms of debate are deceptively clear. Either we leave the market free, or the government controls it.

Houses of the Dead
by Fernanda Eberstadt
The sound of trees falling in the Arctic takes a long time to travel, and thus it may be understandable that one of the greatest of the Soviet prison-camp memoirs, Gustav Herling's A World Apart,1 should have been published in the United States only last year, over four decades after the experiences it describes took place.

by Michael Magie
My dentist is a well-trained and careful fellow. And he seems also to be a sympathetic sort. Perhaps that sounds odd in a dentist, but so it is.

Israel's Alienated Intellectuals
by Edward Rothstein
By now the “soul” of Israel has long since been consigned by the international community to a sort of purgatory.

Post-Counterculture Tristesse
by Carol Iannone
To judge by the work of some of our younger novelists, the American dream has died even while coming true.

Eisenhower at War 1943-1945, by David Eisenhower
by Edward Luttwak
Politician in Uniform Eisenhower at War 1943-1945. by David Eisenhower. Random House. 977 pp. $29.95. By 1960 or so it was the consensus of military historians that Britain had managed to fight all of World War II with hardly one good general (Slim of Burma was the ritual exception); that the Germans had gained no benefit from a great many, of whom Guderian, Kesselring, Manstein, and Rommel were only the best known; and that the United States had discovered a surprising number of first-rate generals in its minuscule prewar officer corps, from George Marshall, the architect of victory in Washington, to top field commanders such as the solid Omar Bradley, the outrageously talented George Patton, and the brilliant Douglas MacArthur, to an entire crop of more junior men of obvious quality. Only Dwight D.

Semites and Anti-Semites, by Bernard Lewis
by Robert Wistrich
Islam vs. Jewry Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry into Conflict and Prejudice. by Bernard Lewis. Norton. 283 pp. $18.95. “By following daily events in the occupied land, we get day-after-day proof beyond any doubt that what is termed ‘Zionist racism’ is just an extension of talmudic teachings and development of the same teachings.

A Machine That Would Go of Itself, by Michael Kammen
by Walter Berns
The Constitution & Us A Machine that would go of Itself: The Constitution in American Culture. by Michael Kammen. Knopf. 532 pp. $29.95. Michael Kammen, the Newton C.

Fidel, by Peter G. Bourne; Fidel: A Critical Portrait, by Tad Szulc
by Luis Aguilar
Legend Fidel. by Peter G. Bourne. Dodd, Mead. 332 pp. $18.95. Fidel: A Critical Portrait. by Tad Szulc. Morrow. 703 pp. $19.95. It is probably best that living legends, particularly living revolutionary legends, not live too long.

Letters from Prison and Other Essays, by Adam Michnik
by Maurice Friedberg
Polish Patriot Letters from Prison and Other Essays. by Adam Michnik. Translated by Maya Latynski. University of California Press. 354 pp. $25.00. A strange country, Poland.

Reader Letters February 1987
by Peter Berger
AIDS & the Law TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: It is curious that in defending the Supreme Court's decision on sodomy, David Robinson, Jr.

March, 1987Back to Top
Team B
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “Team B: The Reality Behind the Myth” [October 1986], Richard Pipes gives the impression that in 1976 the U.S.

by Our Readers
GenocideTo the Editor: In his review of Robert Jay Lifton's The Nazi Doctors [Books in Review, December 1986], Daniel Jonah Goldhagen refers to “the other genocides” of our century and lists them: Cambodia, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Paraguay, and the Soviet Union; nor does he forget the genocide of the Armenians in 1915-16.But he does not mention the genocide that is going on right now in Afghanistan.

Capitalism & Selfishness
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “Capitalism and Selfishness” [December 1986], André Ryerson offers a crisp and lucid argument against my theory of the morality of capitalism.

Anti-Semitism, Left & Right
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Norman Podhoretz's “The Hate That Dare Not Speak Its Name” [November 1986] will in years to come be considered as historically important a document as his “J'Accuse” [September 1982]. Arnold Beichman Hoover Institution Stanford, California _____________   To the Editor: One does not have to be either a Jew or a Zionist (I am neither) to agree with and commend Norman Podhoretz for his thoughtful, well-documented article.

World War I, World War II, World War III
by Donald Kagan
World War II dominated the imagination of most people who lived through it. For decades afterward most Americans looked at world affairs through the lens ground to fit the vision they had of the 1930's and the broad consensus as to what it revealed: the world had suffered a terrible war needlessly.

Modern Ideologies & the Jews
by Alain Besançon
For Europeans, broadly speaking, the history of Christianity commingles nicely with history-in-general. By contrast, the story of the Jews is frequently considered a matter apart.

The Schlesinger Thesis
by Kenneth Lynn
Once upon a time, the books of the historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. were worth reading. In The Vital Center (1949), for instance, he spoke with a fog-cutting scorn of those “progressives” who still clung to the miasmic dreams of the 1930's and were still blind, in consequence, to Soviet imperialism and the malevolence of the American Communist party.

Beyond Abstract Art?
by Roger Kimball
For many observers, Frank Stella has claim to be one of the two or three most important and original abstract artists to have emerged on the New York art scene in the fertile, tumultuous years of the early 60's.

Young People A Story
by Allegra Goodman
The Checker cab cuts in front of a tour bus and screeches to a stop at the St. Moritz. “Brooklyn Jewish Hospital, please,” Henry Markowitz tells the tiny Yemeni cab driver. “You got it,” she says without turning around.

The Curious Case of Marek Edelman
by Lucy Dawidowicz
In 1983, the Polish authorities, planning an official observance of the 40th anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising, invited Marek Edelman to join the honorary sponsoring committee.

Reckless Disregard, by Renata Adler
by James Wilson
Libel & the MediaReckless Disregard: Westmoreland v. CBS et al., Sharon V. Time. by Renata Adler. Knopf. 243 pp. $16.95.In two articles published last year in the New Yorker, Renata Adler leveled a stinging attack on the press and the lawyers who defend the press.

The Jew as Ally of the Muslim, by Allan Harris Cutler and Helen Elmquist Cutler
by Daniel Pipes
Christian, Muslim, Jew The Jew as Ally of the Muslim: Medieval Roots of Anti-Semitism. by Allan Harris Cutler and Helen Elmquist Cutler. University of Notre Dame Press.

Utopia in Power: The History of the Soviet Union from 1917 to the Present, by Mikhail Heller and Aleksandr M. Nekrich
by Maurice Friedberg
From Lenin to Gorbachev Utopia in Power: The History of the Soviet Union from 1917 to the Present. by Mikhail Heller and Aleksandr M.

A Conflict of Visions, by Thomas Sowell
by Larry Nachman
Divided Souls A Conflict of Visions: Ideological Origins of Political Struggles. by Thomas Sowell. Morrow. 273 pp. $15.95. In August 1762, Msgr. Christophe de Beaumont, Archbishop of Paris, issued a condemnation of Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Emile.

Reader Letters March 1987
by Norman Podhoretz
Anti-Semitism, Left & Right TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Norman Podhoretz's "The Hate That Dare Not Speak Its Name" [November 1986] will in years to come be considered as historically important a document as his "J'Accuse" [September 1982].

April, 1987Back to Top
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Stephen H. Balch and Herbert I. London's superb report on the grotesque, self-righteous political posturings of left-wing academics [“The Tenured Left,” October 1986] and André Ryerson's letter in the February issue of COMMENTARY detailing the machinations of the Peace and World Security Studies program (PAWSS) at Amherst, Smith, Mt.

The Spanish Civil War
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his poignant article, “For Whom the Bell Tolled” [December 1986], Jeffrey Hart discusses one of the most traumatic political and intellectual experiences of this century.

Conservative Judaism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: . . . While I do not disagree with Howard Singer's critique of Conservative Judaism [“The Judaism Born in America,” December 1986], I do not accept it as applying only to Conservatism, as opposed to Orthodoxy and Reform.

The Contras
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The article by Penn Kemble and Arturo J. Cruz, Jr., “How the Nicaraguan Resistance Can Win” [December 1986], is no less valid now than it was before the so-called Iran-contra scandal blew up.

American Blacks
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Glenn C. Loury's article on the “discovery” of self-help by some black elected officials and leaders of civil-rights organizations [“Who Speaks for American Blacks?,” January] presents a competent survey of vexations long suffered by those of us who have differed from the line laid down by the civil-rights establishment. Mr.

The Guns of Watergate
by Leonard Garment
The headline on the cover of Newsweek not long ago boldly announced, “Nixon's Back.” The story inside the magazine featured a photo of the former President engaged in a warm and smiling chat with Katharine Graham at the American Newspaper Publishers convention.

Liberty, Equality, Sexuality
by Allan Bloom
Contrary to the popular prejudice that America is a nation of unintellectual and anti-intellectual people, where ideas are at best means to ends, this country is actually nothing but a great stage on which theories have been played out as tragedy and comedy.

Is Messianism Good for the Jews?
by Jacob Katz
Perhaps it is permissible at this point to say, with all due caution, that Jewish historiography has generally chosen to ignore the fact that the Jews have paid a very high price for the messianic idea. —Gershom Scholem, Sabbetai Zevi: The Mystical Messiah Ever since biblical antiquity, messianism has been an integral component in the making of Jewish history.

Requiem for the “Establishment”
by H.J. Kaplan
An American newsman once came to me in Paris, during the Vietnam peace talks in 1967, where I was serving as the spokesman for the delegation, and raised an impertinent question: wasn't Averell Harriman, the head of our delegation, a terminally stupid man? Off the record, of course.

Pol Pot in Retrospect
by Arch Puddington
That the Khmer Rouge committed some of the most despicable crimes against humanity of the modern age is today almost universally acknowledged.

Senor Borges's Portico
by Joseph Epstein
One of the interesting differences between high art and great science is that the former is both unique and its emergence unpredictable in a way that is not quite true of the latter.

Imperialism and the Anti-Imperalist Mind, by Lewis Feuer; The Tears of the White Man, by Pascal Bruckner
by Scott McConnell
Empire Imperialism and the Anti-imperialist Mind. by Lewis Feuer. Prometheus. 265 pp. $22.95. The Tears of the White Man: Compassion as Contempt. by Pascal Bruckner. Translated by William R.

Wilhelm Marr: The Patriarch of Anti-Semitism, by Moshe Zimmermann
by Richard Levy
Conspiracy Theorist Wilhelm Marr: The Patriarch of Anti-semitism. by Moshe Zimmermann. Oxford University Press. 178 pp. $19.95. No one thought much of Wilhelm Marr during his long life (1819-1904) or afterward.

The Jaguar Smile, by Salman Rushdie
by George Russell
Revolutionary Tourism The Jaguar Smile: A Nicaraguan Journey. by Salman Rushdie. Viking. 171 pp. $12.95. The Nicaraguan revolution of 1979 must surely go down as one of the best-marketed efforts of its kind in history.

Men and Marriage, by George Gilder
by Terry Teachout
A Woman's Place Men and Marriage. by George Gilder. Pelican. 219 pp. $15.95. Certain controversial books, as George Orwell suggested in Nineteen Eighty-Four, are influential in inverse proportion to their availability.

How NATO Weakens the West, by Melvyn Krauss
by Alvin Bernstein
Going It Alone How NATO Weakens the West. by Melvyn Krauss. Simon & Schuster. 217 pp. $18.95. Melvyn Krauss here stumbles through the thickets of international affairs armed only with the analytical tools and moral assumptions of a free-market economist.

Reader Letters April 1987
by Howard Singer
American Blacks TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Glenn C. Loury's article on the "discovery" of self-help by some black elected officials and leaders of civil-rights organizations ["Who Speaks for American Blacks?," January] presents a competent sur- vey of vexations long suffered by those of us who have differed from the line laid down by the civil- rights establishment.

Speak of the Devil
by Jaroslav Pelikan
There is perhaps no more telling index to the unresolved—and therefore unspoken—theological problems of an age than the nervous laugh.

May, 1987Back to Top
by Our Readers
To the Editor: At first glance, Michael Magie's article, “Patients” [February], seems to fall well within that genre of popular prattle about dentists that perpetuates the same worn stereotypes as mother-in-law jokes.

by Our Readers
To the Editor: I read with interest “In the Capital of Modern Cruelty” by Algis Valiunas [January]. It is a thoughtful and poignant article.

by Our Readers
To the Editor: Robert B. Reich's article, “Of Markets and Myths” [February], though neither unintelligent nor uninteresting, seems nevertheless to be rather too smitten with a truism.

Dostoevsky and the Jews
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was very pleased to see the article by Fernanda Eberstadt, “Houses of the Dead” [February], which rightly praised the remarkable book of Gustav Herling, A World Apart.

Arms Control
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Among the many virtues of Eugene V. Rostow's article, “Why the Soviets Want an Arms-Control Agreement, and Why They Want It Now” [February], is its insistence that “.

Contras and “La Prensa”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Peter Collier and David Horowitz, who once mouthed all the correct slogans for the “devious and dishonest Left,” now perform the same service for the Right [“Another ‘Low Dishonest Decade’ on the Left,” January]. A good example is their treatment of my report (now published as Contra Terror in Nicaragua) documenting a systematic pattern of contra attacks and atrocities against Nicaraguan civilians.

Poles and Jews
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As a Polish subscriber to COMMENTARY who is neither a historian nor a journalist but is more or less typical of the younger generation of the Polish-Catholic intelligentsia, I would like to comment on Ruth R.

The Latest Myths About the Soviet Union
by Nick Eberstadt
Among students of Soviet affairs, the publication of Seweryn Bialer's latest book, The Soviet Paradox: External Expansion, Internal Decline,1 has been treated as an event of major importance.

Why Blacks, Women & Jews Are Not Mentioned in the Constitution
by Robert Goldwin
The bicentennial we celebrate this year honors the Constitution written in 1787, that is, the original, unamended Constitution. Some well-meaning citizens have denounced celebrating or even praising that Constitution.

Crazy in the Streets
by Paul Appelbaum
They are an inescapable presence in urban America. In New York City they live in subway tunnels and on steam grates, and die in cardboard boxes on windswept street corners.

Churchill at War
by Eliot Cohen
Nearly half a century ago Winston Churchill rallied the people of Great Britain with words that have not lost the power to make the pulse quicken.

The Rise & Fall of Interfaith Dialogue
by Howard Singer
The recent, ill-starred trip to Israel by John Cardinal O'Connor, Archbishop of New York, was undertaken, in part at least, at the suggestion of American Jewish leaders.

Picasso's Motif
by James Gardner
Pablo Picasso's influence has completely overleapt its artistic boundaries, implanting itself, often unseen, deeply within the souls of people everywhere.

Dead from Lincoln Center
by Samuel Lipman
Evidence that a massive expansion of the American opera public might be possible has been gathering since the beginning of the 20th century.

Reagan's America, by Garry Wills
by Suzanne Garment
The Eureka Treatment Reagan's America: Innocents at Home. by Garry Wills. Doubleday. 472 pp. $19.95. Garry Wills has written what is in some respects a conventional biography of Ronald Reagan.

Wine, Women & Death, by Raymond P. Scheindlin
by Robert Alter
A Golden Age Wine, Women & Death: Medieval Hebrew Poems on the Good Life. by Raymond P. Scheindlin. Jewish Publication Society. 204 pp.

Risking the Future, edited by Cheryl D. Hayes
by Andre Ryerson
Part of the Problem? Risking the Future: Adolescent Sexuality, Pregnancy, and Childbearing. Vol. I. by Cheryl D. Hayes. National Academy Press. 352 pp.

Do You Believe in Magic?, by Annie Gottlieb
by Tod Lindberg
Aquarius at Middle Age Do you Believe in Magic? The Second Coming of the Sixties Generation. by Annie Gottlieb. Times Books. 409 pp.

Deep Black, by William E. Burrows
by Angelo Codevilla
Ignorance vs. Intelligence Deep Black: Space Espionage and National Security. by William E. Burrows. Random House. 401 pp. $19.95. William Burrows, who teaches journalism at NYU, here performs a tour de force.

Reader Letters May 1987
by David Horowitz
Poles and Jews TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: As a Polish subscriber to COM- MENTARY who is neither a historian nor a journalist but is more or less typical of the younger generation of the Polish-Catholic intelligent- sia, I would like to comment on Ruth R.

June, 1987Back to Top
“My Mother's Conversion”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Never have I read anything in the realm of religion so engrossing as “My Mother's Conversion” by Dan Vittorio Segre [February]. COMMENTARY does itself proud by carrying in its pages this masterfully-told story—so meaningful for our times. Beatrice Sadowsky New York City _____________  

The German Army
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Though I thought Edward N. Luttwak's review of David Eisenhower's paean to his grandfather, Eisenhower at War 1943-1945 [Books in Review, February], was apt and elegant, he made one remark that I felt needed elaboration: “It was simply a fact that one German soldier was worth three or four Allied soldiers in infantry combat until the very last weeks of the war.” How did Mr.

Conservative Judaism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: We applaud COMMENTARY for its timeliness in publishing “The Judaism Born in America” [December 1986], which spotlighted the centennial year of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America.

Jose Luis Borges
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The article by Joseph Epstein, “Señor Borges's Portico” [April], is a legitimate personal comment on the Argentine writer's life and work.

Israel's Intellectuals
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I very much enjoyed Edward Rothstein's article, “Israel's Alienated Intellectuals” [February]. I hope that it will help put into proper perspective the well-reported jeremiads, criticisms, and moral lamentations of some of my fellow Israelis.

History & the Historians
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “The Schlesinger Thesis” [March], Kenneth S. Lynn raises the interesting question of why the field of 20th-century American political history “has declined to the point where senior-faculty positions .

Preventing World War III
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Donald Kagan's “World War I, World War II, World War III” [March] is one of the best articles I have ever read in COMMENTARY.

Government by Lawyers & Judges
by Walter Berns
We call it judicial review, and while the point has frequently been disputed, sometimes fiercely, there is really no question but that the Framers intended federal judges to exercise the power to invalidate laws that they consider unconstitutional. To be sure, under the provisions of Article III, the judges are not directly authorized to declare laws unconstitutional.

The Uses of Exodus
by Fernanda Eberstadt
If the biblical Book of Genesis is the story of one family—in today's parlance, we might call it a “multigenerational saga”—then the book which follows, Exodus, is the story of the birth of a nation and its constitution, of a people's binding with God by history and by covenant.

Anthony Eden & the Decline of Britain
by Owen Harries
The catastrophic decline of Great Britain is one of the central events of the 20th century. As the United States in many respects now occupies the place held by Britain when the century began, it is an event that Americans should find worthy of some reflection.

Letter to a New Israeli
by Ruth Wisse
Dear B—, Unhappy as I am that so close a friend is gone, I cannot scold you for leaving. You've done what I think is right, a word that still carries full weight with you and me.

by Kelly Cherry
Applaud, friends, the comedy is over. —Beethoven (on his deathbed) The year my father was a graduate student at the conservatory in Chicago, he had to carry a full course load, prepare and give a recital, write a string quartet, write and orchestrate a violin concerto, take one academic subject at the University of Chicago (he chose poetry), write a thesis, and make up two undergraduate credits by correspondence from Louisiana State University, where he was normally on the faculty.

Beyond California
by Roger Sandall
From a distance it looked as if the harbor breakwater at Fremantle was covered with moving derrières, and a closer view confirmed that this was so.

The Fiction We Deserve
by Carol Iannone
To paraphrase George Orwell on the English language, most people who bother with American fiction at all seem ready to admit that it is in a bad way.

A History of the Jews, by Paul Johnson
by Martin Gilbert
A Special People A History of the Jews. by Paul Johnson. Harper & Row. 644 pp. $25.00. Perhaps inevitably in our current decade, the vast preponderance of historical writing about the Jews has focused on the Holocaust: its origins, its course, and its implications.

The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys, by Doris Kearns Goodwin
by Kenneth Lynn
Letting the Chips Fall? The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys: An American Saga. by Doris Kearns Goodwin. Simon & Schuster. 932 pp. $22.95. The author of The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys, an ambitious work of more than 900 pages spanning a hundred years of family history, from the baptism in Boston in 1863 of John Francis Fitzgerald, the infant son of an immigrant Irishman and his second-generation Irish-American wife, to the presidential inauguration in Washington in 1961 of John Fitzgerald's forty-three-year-old grandson and namesake, simply cannot stop talking about the cooperation she has received from the current generation of leadership in the Kennedy family. She is grateful, Doris Kearns Goodwin writes in the preface to her book, “to Senator Edward M.

Armed Truce: The Beginning of the Cold War 1945-1946, by Hugh Thomas
by Donald Kagan
In the Beginning Armed Truce: The Beginning of the Cold War 1945-1946. by Hugh Thomas. Atheneum. 667 pp. $27.50. More than four decades have passed since the end of World War II and the beginning of what we call the cold war that arose from it, yet the origins of the cold war and the responsibility for it remain the subject of serious controversy.

The Harvest of Sorrow, by Robert Conquest
by Arch Puddington
Starvation as Policy The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine. by Robert Conquest. Oxford. 384 pp. $19.95. The Harvest of Sorrow qualifies as a monumental contribution toward an understanding of the modern totalitarian state.

The Closest of Enemies, by Wayne S. Smith
by Mark Falcoff
Washington vs. Havana The Closest of Enemies: A Personal and Diplomatic History of the Castro Years. by Wayne S. Smith. Norton. 308 pp.

Reader Letters June 1987
by Howard Singer
Preventing World War III TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Donald Kagan's "World War I, World War II, World War III" [March] is one of the best articles I have ever read in COMMENTARY. It combines broad historical anal- ysis, geopolitical insight, and, per- haps most importantly, a profound sense of the tragedy of European politics in 1914 and 1938-39, a trag- edy which may not have to recur on a vaster scale if Mr.

July, 1987Back to Top
Feminism & Society
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Since COMMENTARY has so long illumined my days with its ardent intelligence, I was more startled than distressed by Terry Teachout's charges against my book, Men and Marriage [Books in Review, April].

The American Mind
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I wish to congratulate Allan Bloom on his article, “Liberty, Equality, Sexuality” [April]. It is the humane and heartfelt effort of a civilized man confronting a most daunting and uncivilized prospect: that the twin génies of the American psyche—freedom and equality—have dimmed to such an extent that they serve more to undermine than to inspire a large percentage of the most influential segments of our present and upcoming generations, and that this noxious influence has infiltrated the very core of our social fabric—the relationship between the sexes. His testimony is sobering news to those who would proffer a political remedy to a problem which is more properly one of cultural, even spiritual, dimensions.

Borges's Portico
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The same afternoon I read Joseph Epstein's first-rate article, “Señor Borges's Portico” [April], I chanced (in the course of writing another page myself on Borges, for the University of Chicago Press) to reread that author's “The Other.” I had already quietly and silently demurred when I read Mr.

“The Wise Men”
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I have just read with some dismay the article by H.J. Kaplan, “Requiem for the ‘Establishment’” [April], in which he discusses The Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They Made by Walter Isaacson and Evan Thomas.

The Dellmus Record
by Our Readers
To the Editor: During the course of their hubristic political hegira from revolution to reaction, Peter Collier and David Horowitz, two self-proclaimed former New Left activists turned righteous writers, seem to have lost their way on the zealots' road to Damascus.

Arab vs. Arab Over Palestine
by Daniel Pipes
As we have once again been reminded by the great debate over the desirability of an international conference on the Arab-Israeli conflict, that conflict is generally assumed to be about the competing claims of the Jews and the Palestinians to the same piece of land.

Can the Sandinistas Still Be Stopped?
by George Russell
Seen from the viewpoint of Nicaragua's ruling Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), the war against U.S. “imperialism” is not going badly at all these days.

Fantasies About South Africa
by Peter Berger
“The west” has long been an important presence in the politics of South Africa. “South Africa” has now become, at least for a time, a significant political issue in Western democracies.

by M.E. Liu
I am at a garden party in Belmont, thinking about conviction and Fort Polk. Within five minutes of meeting them, the Southern boys of Fort Polk would produce their wallets and pridefully show two snapshots.

Literacy at the Barricades
by James Tuttleton
We are at present embroiled in a public crisis over the literacy of the American people, sparked a couple of years ago by the sensationalist book of Jonathan Kozol, Illiterate America, and fed dutifully in the interim by the news magazines and television networks, with their even more sensationalist “coverage” of this latest American failing. Some professional educationists see nothing to get upset about.

Prophets With Tenure
by Richard Neuhaus
Michael Walzer is surely in the front ranks of contemporary social critics. His major works, such as Spheres of Justice (1983), command respectful attention among many moral philosophers and political theorists.

Defenders of the Faith
by Robert Alter
Some readers may be a little surprised to discover that Cynthia Ozick's new novel, The Messiah of Stockholm,1 is dedicated to Philip Roth.

Strategy, by Edward N. Luttwak
by Eliot Cohen
Paradox in War Strategy: The Logic of War and Peace. by Edward N. Luttwak. Harvard University Press. 283 pp. $20.00. Among civilian defense analysts, Edward Luttwak has no peer.

The Lobby, by Edward Tivnan
by Joshua Muravchik
Attacking AIPAC The Lobby: Jewish Political Power and American Foreign Policy. by Edward Tivnan. Simon & Schuster. 304 pp. $19.95. Edward Tivnan believes that a principal obstacle to peace in the Middle East—perhaps the principal obstacle—is Israeli intransigence.

The Care of the Self, by Michel Foucault; Foucault: A Critical Reader, edited by David Couzens Hoy
by Richard Marin
Sex & Power The Care of the Self: Volume Three of the History of Sexuality. by Michel Foucault. Translated by Robert Hurley. Pantheon.

Descent to Suez, by Evelyn Shuckburgh
by David Pryce-Jones
Thoughts of an Arabist Descent to Suez: Foreign Office Diaries 1951-56. by Evelyn Shuckburgh. Norton. 380 pp. $24.95. Over a long period prior to World War II the British Foreign Office was a principal institution in defense not of Britain alone but of the international order.

The Selected Letters of Mark Van Doren, edited by George Hendrick
by Jeffrey Hart
Teacher & Poet The Selected Letters of Mark Van Doren. by George Hendrick. Louisiana State University Press. 280 pp. $30.00. It is startling how little remains of Mark Van Doren, how little he is present to us today, fifteen years after his death.

Janus and Minerva, by Stanley Hoffmann
by David Gress
A Turn Toward Utopia Janus and Minerva. Essays in the Theory and Practice of International Politics. by Stanley Hoffmann. Westview. 458 pp. $39.95. Inside this rather fat book by Stanley Hoffmann, a professor of international relations at Harvard and a well-known liberal proponent of realism in foreign policy, there are two thinner books struggling to get out.

Reader Letters July 1987
by David Horowitz
The Dellums Record TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: During the course of their hu- bristic political hegira from revo- lution to reaction, Peter Collier and David Horowitz, two self- proclaimed former New Left ac- tivists turned righteous writers, seem to have lost their way on the zealots' road to Damascus.

August, 1987Back to Top
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was very pleased to see that Arch Puddington noted the plight of the Cham people in “Pol Pot in Retrospect” [April].

Watergate and After
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Leonard Garment in his article “The Guns of Watergate” [April] seems to suggest that President Nixon made a mistake in not destroying the Oval Office tapes.

Poles and Jews
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I very much admire what Lucy S. Dawidowicz has done and is doing on behalf of Jewish culture and Jewish history, but what she has done to Marek Edelman in the pages of COMMENTARY borders on the unforgivable [“The Curious Case of Marek Edelman,” March]. First, let me be clear about my relationship to Marek Edelman.

The Importance of Sidney Hook
by Hilton Kramer
Of the writers who belonged to the original “family” of the now much-chronicled New York intellectuals, Sidney Hook has been in several important respects the most unusual.

A Farewell to Civil Rights
by James Nuechterlein
We do not have to live very long to discover that life is forever passing us by. We continually obsolesce, and our ideas all go out of fashion in time.

Can the Media Be Reformed?
by Suzanne Garment
In the wake of Gary Hart's withdrawal from the presidential race, the American press and its friends are as divided on a major ethical issue as they have been in a long time.

Joanna Loves Jesus A Story
by Jacob Lampart
Joanna loves Jesus. She has loved him for three weeks now, and has never been happier. The only problem is that Joanna is Jewish and her father, Rabbi Emmanuel Preshko, who heads a congregation of 300 families in the Five Towns, isn't emotionally equipped for such revelations.

The Pornography Report That Never Was
by Terry Teachout
The catalogue of Rutledge Hill Press, a small publishing house located in Nashville, Tennessee, is a modest but evocative eight-page booklet which serves as a useful reminder that the publishing business in America is a good deal more democratic than is often supposed.

Liberalism & the Hebrew Prophets
by Jerold Auerbach
It has long been an article of faith among American Jews that their political liberalism expresses traditional Jewish values. A commitment to the rule of law (the legacy of Torah), reinforced by a passion for social justice (inherited from the Hebrew Prophets), defines “the biblical heritage of American democracy.” Liberalism, however, is not an expression of the biblical tradition, but an alternative to it.

Why Europeans Support the Sandinistas
by Mark Falcoff
In The preface to When the Going Was Good (1946), a selection from his travel books written in the 1920's and 30's, Evelyn Waugh wrote, without much regret, that his own traveling days were over: Never again, I suppose, shall we land on foreign soil with a letter of credit and passport .

Bernstein: A Biography, by Joan Peyser
by William Youngren
Artist in Conflict Bernstein: A Biography. by Joan Peyser. Beech Tree Books/William Morrow. 481 pp. $22.95. In the brief time since its publication, Joan Peyser's new biography of Leonard Bernstein has been frequently and vigorously attacked in the press.

Enemy in the Promised Land, by Sana Hasan
by Edward Alexander
Enlightened Adversary Enemy in the Promised Land: An Egyptian Woman's Journey into Israel. by Sana Hasan. Pantheon. 335 pp. $18.95. From 1974 to 1977 Sana Hasan gained notoriety as “the Egyptian in Israel,” the wayward daughter of Egypt's former ambassador to the United States who had undertaken a “personal mission for peace” in defiance of her parents, her government, and her diplomat-husband, who divorced her shortly after her arrival in “the promised land.” Her new book about those three years suggests that Israel had been her destiny long before she decided, at age twenty-five, to take leave from her studies in political science at Harvard in order to act out her belief in “dialogue” and direct negotiation. From an early age, the hatred of Israel inculcated in Miss Hasan by her Egyptian education had produced unexpected results: “‘Zionist’ .

The Next Left, by Michael Harrington
by Larry Nachman
Fordism & Its Discontents The Next Left: The History of a Future. by Michael Harrington. Holt. 197 pp. $17.95. Michael Harrington'S The Next Left, a work of unrelieved economic argument, aims to demonstrate that the prosperity Americans believe they enjoy is both shaky and illusory.

The Special Relationship, edited by Wm. Roger Louis and Hedley Bull
by George Szamuely
Imaginary Empire The Special Relationship: Anglo-American Relations Since 1945. by Wm. Roger Louis and Hedley Bull. Oxford University Press. 408 pp. $59.00. The widespread use of the term “American imperialism” must be counted among the more significant features of the post-1945 political world.

Midrash and Literature, edited by Geoffrey H. Hartman and Sanford Budick
by Baruch Hochman
For Interpretation Midrash and Literature. by Geoffrey H. Hartman and Sanford Budick. Yale University Press. 412 pp. $28.95. Over the past fifteen years or so, literary studies in our leading universities have undergone a complete turnabout.

Nixon: The Education of a Politician 1913-1962, by Stephen E. Ambrose
by Richard Neuhaus
The Vocation of Politics Nixon: The Education of a Politician 1913-1962. by Stephen E. Ambrose. Simon & Schuster. 732 pp. $22.95. During his 1962 bid for the California governorship, Richard Nixon was not helped by the remark of the master of ceremonies at one of his fund-raising dinners: “Too many people are saying, ‘I don't like Nixon, but I don't know why.’” People are still saying that.

Reader Letters August 1987
by Lucy Dawidowicz
Poles and Jews TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I very much admire what Lucy S. Dawidowicz has done and is do- ing on behalf of Jewish culture and Jewish history, but what she has done to Marek Edelman in the pages of COMMENTARY borders on the unforgivable ["The Curious Case of Marek Edelman," March]. First, let me be clear about my relationship to Marek Edelman.

September, 1987Back to Top
What Price Messianism?
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Jacob Katz's article, “Is Messianism Good For the Jews?” [April], starts with a quotation from Gershom Scholem's Sabbetai Zevi: The Mystical Messiah indicating that Jews have paid a high price for their messianism.

Street People
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Paul S. Appelbaum's generally accurate and sensible account of the current plight of many homeless mentally-disordered persons is unfortunately marred by unrealistic recommendations and by a serious rhetorical lapse that underscores why his recommendations are misguided [“Crazy in the Streets,” May]. Dr.

Interfaith Dialogue
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Howard Singer's article, “The Rise and Fall of Interfaith Dialogue” [May], is written from the perspective of one who, by his own admission, dismissed dialogue twenty years ago and now wants to tell those Jews who have engaged in its painstaking process, “I told you so.” But to achieve this self-congratulatory goal, Mr.

On Serwyn Bialer
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In one respect, Nick Eberstadt's review of Seweryn Bialer's book, The Soviet Paradox: External Expansion, Internal Decline, is very clever and very evil [“The Latest Myths About the Soviet Union,” May].

How Eminent Physicists Have Lent Their Names to a Politicized Report on Strategic Defense
by Angelo Codevilla
“Physicists Express ‘Star Wars' Doubt; Long Delays Seen.” This headline in the New York Times of April 25, 1987 heralded a 424-page Report to the American Physical Society of the Study Group on Science and Technology of Directed Energy Weapons.

The Imperial Congress
by George Szamuely
A revisionist version of American history is in the process of being written to account for and to justify the newly assertive role of Congress in the conduct of foreign policy.

Israel: A House Divided?
by Ruth Wisse
Dear B—, Your first letter from Israel was not exactly what I had expected—no description of sunset falling against Jerusalem stone, of exotic walks through the Valley of the Cross.

Reclaiming the Catholic Heritage
by Anne Muggeridge
In the late 1970's, one of my sons, during a Canadian Remembrance Day (Veterans' Day in the U.S.) assembly in a Catholic high school run by the Holy Cross Fathers, was exhorted by his young priest-teacher, “If they draft you, don't go!

The Succession A Story
by Allegra Goodman
Rabbi Everett Siegel walks stealthily through the mall carrying a Woolworth's shopping bag. Tall and stout, he cannot hope to hide in the crowd of young mothers and strollers.

Sid, You Made the Prose Too Thin
by Joseph Epstein
A man arrives for his first appointment with a psychiatrist, and reports suffering from an unrelenting sadness and gloom. “It's not at all uncommon,” the psychiatrist replies, after hearing him out.

Salinger Then and Now
by Terry Teachout
Even though he has published nothing since 1965, the books of J.D. Salinger remain popular. The Catcher in the Rye alone still sells some 250,000 copies worldwide each year.

Chaim Weizmann: A Biography, by Norman Rose
by David Vital
Founding Father Chaim Weizmann: A Biography. by Norman Rose. Viking. 520 pp. $24.95. One of the small signs suggesting that Jews are at last beginning to be able to deal with the recent history of their people with relatively cool heads is the change that has come over the reputation of certain major figures in it.

From This Moment On: America in 1940, by Jeffrey Hart
by Peter Shaw
On the Eve of Greatness From This Moment On: America in 1940. by Jeffrey Hart. Crown. 352 pp. $22.50. As times change so do preferences for the past.

American Society: Public and Private Responsibilities, edited by Winthrop Knowlton and Richard Zeckhauser
by Leslie Lenkowsky
The Common Interest American Society: Public and Private Responsibilities. by Winthrop Knowlton and Richard Zeckhauser. Ballinger. 360 pp. $24.95. Not least among the supposedly novel beliefs attributed to the Reagan administration is that many activities undertaken by government should rather be done in the private sector.

The Complete Yes Minister: The Diaries of a Cabinet Minister, edited by Jonathan Lynn and Antony Jay
by Nelson Polsby
Comic Truths The Complete Yes Minister: The Diaries of a Cabinet Minister by the Right Hon James Hacker, Mp. by Jonathan Lynn and Antony Jay. Salem House.

Rabi: Scientist and Citizen, by John S. Rigden
by Jeffrey Marsh
A Life in Physics Rabi: Scientist and Citizen. by John S. Rigden. Basic Books. 352 pp. $21.95. I. I. Rabi is the grand old man of American science.

The Black and the Red: Francois Mitterrand, The Story of an Ambition, by Catherine Nay
by Roger Kaplan
Mitterrand by Stendahl The Black and the Red: François Mitterrand, The Story of an Ambition. by Catherine Nay. Translated by Alan Sheridan. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Reader Letters September 1987
by Howard Singer
On Seweryn Bialer TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: In one respect, Nick Eberstadt's review of Seweryn Bialer's book, The Soviet Paradox: External Ex- pansion, Internal Decline, is very clever and very evil ["The Latest Myths About the Soviet Union," May].

October, 1987Back to Top
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was tremendously moved by Kelly Cherry's story, “Alzheimer's” [June]. The author has managed somehow to personalize the illness, without making it trivial, and at the same time, expose the tragedy of it all. COMMENTARY is to be congratulated for running the story, and Kelly Cherry even more so for writing such a powerful piece of work. Thomas C.

Polish History
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Ever since COMMENTARY published the article by Lucy S. Dawidowicz about myself and Marek Edelman [“The Curious Case of Marek Edelman,” March], I have received a steady stream of correspondence from your readers, many of whom have now taken the trouble to read my books on Polish history.

Teen-age Pregnancy
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I take great issue with André Ryerson's appraisal of Risking the Future, edited by Cheryl D. Hayes [Books in Review, May].

Fact & Fiction
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Joshua Muravchik's review of The Lobby by Edward Tivnan [Books in Review, July] is noteworthy not only in successfully rebutting some of the author's highly questionable conclusions but in exposing Tivnan's incredibly sloppy journalism as well. Two instances cited by Mr.

Utopians & Realists
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am dismayed by the shallow analysis in David Gress's review of Stanley Hoffmann's new book, Janus and Minerva: Essays in the Theory and Practice of International Relations [Books in Review, July].

Technical Intelligence
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In his review of my book, Deep Black: Space Espionage and National Security [Books in Review, May], Angelo M.

Minimalist Fiction
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In “The Fiction We Deserve” [June], Carol Iannone is to be applauded for saying what the “professionals” of the literary circuit do not dare to say and also for providing the best analysis I have seen of what might be called the “post-60's” mentality: the consequence of what occurs when slogans become clichés, and what is left is not actual revolution but a corrosive spiritual poison that prevents the young from ascribing any value whatsoever to their existence (neither the values of the counterculture, because they are taken for granted, nor the values of past culture because they are deemed not to be taken seriously).

New Israelis
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Ruth R. Wisse's convoluted, overwrought “Letter to a New Israeli” [June] is instructive in revealing a particular mindset among North American Jewry.

South Africa
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Peter L. Berger and Bobby Godsell are to be congratulated for their clear, realistic, humane sketch of the forces in South Africa today [“Fantasies About South Africa,” July].

by Our Readers
To the Editor: In the last paragraph of her article, “The Uses of Exodus” [June], Fernanda Eberstadt observes that a Bible devoid of divine revelation is just another book competing with other great books for recognition and acclaim. Is open competition an unfair burden to place upon the author(s) of the Torah? Does the invoking of God, or the use of His name, automatically elevate a doctrine to a level that transcends all critical analysis? Would or should the reforms of Solon have escaped opposition if he had claimed revelation on Olympus; or would the Napoleonic Code have silenced its critics if Bonaparte had spent a few hours on Mont Blanc? The injection of divine authority into human affairs presents the sort of philosophical dilemma that Plato .

The Constitution
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Robert A. Goldwin's article, “Why Blacks, Women & Jews Are Not Mentioned in the Constitution” [May], is, quite simply, a gem.

Crime, the Constitution, and the Iran-Contra Affair
by L. Crovitz
It Was obvious that the announcement on November 25, 1986 by Attorney General Edwin Meese that profits from the secret sale of arms to Iran had been diverted to the democratic resistance in Nicaragua would trigger the bloodiest political battle since Watergate.

Resurrecting the New Left
by Scott McConnell
Wrapped within the current boom in 60's rock-and-roll, and within the more elusive nostalgia for a time when drugs and promiscuous sex seemed there to be enjoyed without consequence, lies a movement to bring about a resurrection of the 60's in their specifically political aspect.

Pagans, Christians, Jews
by Chaim Raphael
When, as a schoolboy in England many years ago, I learned of the statement by W.R. Inge, Dean of St.

Total Immersion A Story
by Allegra Goodman
“Heavenly father,” the chaplain begins. The students hush at the outdoor assembly. They bow their heads and only a slight rustling can be heard among all those children marshaled in a standing wave—first-graders at one goal post, rising seniors at the other.

Justice to John P. Marquand
by Terry Teachout
“When you are dead,” John P. Marquand once said, “you are very dead, intellectually and artistically.” Twenty-seven years after Marquand's death, he is very dead indeed.

Israel's Providential Men
by Paul Johnson
The creation of the state of Israel, one of the few events in our tragic century of which one can truthfully say, “This was a good work,” invites serious thought about that curious historical no-man's land where spiritual and secular forces meet.

Beyond Glasnost
by Walter Laqueur
Literary periodicals are in great demand these days in the Soviet Union, and issues of particular interest are sold out in hours, if not in minutes.

Hemingway, by Kenneth S. Lynn
by Jeffrey Hart
Portrait of the Artist Hemingway. by Kenneth S. Lynn. Simon & Schuster. 702 pp. $24.95. Ernest Hemingway began as a miniaturist, writing highly concentrated vignettes and very short stories, all of them full of multiple shaded meanings.

Waltzing With a Dictator, by Raymond Bonner
by George Russell
Washington vs. Manila Waltzing With a Dictator: The Marcoses and the Making of American Policy. by Raymond Bonner. Times Books. 533 pp. $19.95. Suddenly, it seems, nobody in the West wants strongmen any more.

“With All Your Possessions”: Jewish Ethics and Economic Life, by Meir Tamari
by Erich Isaac
Wealth and Worship “With All Your Possessions”: Jewish Ethics and Economic Life. by Meir Tamari. Free Press. 340 pp.$22.50. The role played by religion in the development of economic systems has been a subject of respectable scholarly investigation since the time of Max Weber and R.H.

Showdown at Gucci Gulch, by Jeffrey H. Birnbaum and Alan S. Murray
by Richard Brookhiser
The Tax Reformers Showdown At Gucci Gulch: Lawmakers, Lobbyists, and the Unlikely Triumph of Tax Reform. by Jeffrey H. Birnbaum and Alan S.

Sands of Sorrow, by Milton Viorst
by David Bar-Illan
Blaming Israel Sands of Sorrow. by Milton Viorst. Harper & Row. 328 pp.$19.95. Milton Viorst, a journalist and one of a number of former liberal supporters of Israel who in recent years have turned on the Jewish state and now regularly excoriate its policies, sets out to prove that the fault (dear Brutus) lies not in the twists of contemporary liberal politics but in the metamorphosis of Israel itself.

Reader Letters October 1987
by Howard Brotz
The Constitution TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Robert A. Goldwin's article, "Why Blacks, Women 8c Jews Are Not Mentioned in the Constitu- tion" [May], is, quite simply, a gem.

November, 1987Back to Top
by Our Readers
To the Editor: My good friend and colleague in the dialogue, Rabbi Balfour Brickner, once quipped that there were some in his community who have a difficult time taking yes for an answer.

Cynthia Ozick
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Robert Alter's “Defenders of the Faith” [July] yokes two fascinating novels, Philip Roth's The Counter-life and Cynthia Ozick's The Messiah of Stockholm.

Pakistan & the West Bank
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Daniel Pipes writes in his article, “Arab vs. Arab Over Palestine” [July], that Pakistan recognized the Jordanian annexation of the West Bank.

Europe & the Sandinistas
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The only common thread I can discern in the attitudes of the Europeans described by Mark Falcoff in “Why Europeans Support the Sandinistas” [August] is a rather spiteful anti-U.S.

by Our Readers
To the Editor: In recalling “The Pornography Report That Never Was” [August], Terry Teachout is quite correct in noting that seldom has any report so little read been so much criticized.

Latin America
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As one who grew up in a home where COMMENTARY was avidly read every month, I was very glad to hear that my book, Partners in Conflict: The United States and Latin America, had been mentioned by George Russell in “Can the Sandinistas Still Be Stopped?” [July].

Judicial Review
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Walter Berns makes such a broad-based attack on the constitutional law of the last forty years that one wonders, notwithstanding his disclaimer, whether he accepts the legitimacy of judicial review at all [“Government by Lawyers & Judges,” June].

Philosophy & Faith
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am very grateful to Hilton Kramer (“The Importance of Sidney Hook,” August] for his vindication of my political thought and behavior during the last fifty years. It is not therefore out of churlishness that I am moved to comment on some of his observations.

AIDS: Are Heterosexuals at Risk?
by Michael Fumento
AIDS, we have been told, is not just a “gay disease,” or a disease of intravenous (IV) drug abusers passing contaminated needles.

The New York (Jewish) Intellectuals
by Ruth Wisse
By now, most educated Americans know something of the New York intellectuals and their achievement. When William Phillips and Philip Rahv (born William Litvinsky and Ivan Greenbaum) revived the defunct Partisan Review (born Communist) in December 1937 as an independent Marxist periodical, they attracted a distinguished circle of contributors who turned the magazine into an exciting intellectual forum.

Population Scares
by P.T. Bauer
1. Since the 1960's, population pressure and growth have been widely regarded as prime causes of Third World poverty and prime obstacles to economic development.

The Feminization of the American Left
by James Nuechterlein
It is ironic, in this putatively conservative age, that such a radical social movement as feminism should be so pervasive an influence.

Atonal Music and Its Limits
by Neil Ribe
The modern era in Western music began in 1911 with the publication of Arnold Schoenberg's Theory of Harmony, which declared that “tonality is no natural law of music, eternally valid.” Schoenberg's announcement came as a shock to the vast majority of musicians who regarded tonality as the indispensable condition of music.

A Cautionary Case of Bilingualism
by Peter Brimelow
Unlike every other wave of mass immigration to the United States, the influx of Hispanics has been accompanied by widespread pressure for the development of some sort of institutional bilingualism.

Mortal Rivals, by William G. Hyland
by Owen Harries
Dealing with the Soviets Mortal Rivals: Superpower Relations from Nixon to Reagan. by William G. Hyland. Random House. 271 pp. $19.95. When Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger assumed responsibility for the foreign policy of the United States in 1969, they faced a horrendous situation.

Tevye the Dairyman and the Railroad Stories, by Sholem Aleichem
by Robert Alter
A Classic Tevye the Dairyman and the Railroad Stories by Sholem Aleichem. Translated and with an Introduction by Hillel Halkin. Library of Yiddish Classics/ Schocken.

“Them”: Stalin'S Polish Puppets, by Teresa Toranska
by Arch Puddington
Waltzing With Molotov “Them”: Stalin'S Polish Puppets. by Teresa Toranska. Harper & Row. 384 pp. $22.95. Some of the fascination exercised by Communism derives from the atmosphere of intense secrecy which has historically enveloped its leading personalities.

Punishment Without Walls, by Douglas Corry McDonald
by John Dilulio,
Escape from Prison? Punishment Without Walls. by Douglas Corry McDonald. Rutgers University Press. 278 pp. $30.00. Over the last two decades, criminal-justice scholars, policy-makers, and activists have been tripping over one another in a rush to find meaningful alternatives to incarceration.

Curse of the Giant Muffins and Other Washington Maladies, by Michael Kinsley
by Terry Teachout
Liberalism Lite Curse of the Giant Muffins and Other Washington Maladies. by Michael Kinsley. Summit. 286 pp. $17.95. The dust jacket of Curse of the Giant Muffins and Other Washington Maladies describes Michael Kinsley as “the hottest young columnist in Washington.” Vanity Fair recently published a vulgar puff piece by Christopher Hitchens explaining why Kinsley is the greatest thing since Walter Lippmann.

Prison Writings, by Kim Dae-Jung
by William McGurn
Korean Democrat Prison Writings. by Kim Dae-Jung. University of California Press. 333 pp. $25.00. On a dull Monday morning in June of this year, the presidential choice of South Korea's ruling Democratic Justice party (DJP), Roh Tae-Woo, stunned the world with his announcement that he would urge President Chun Doo Huan to accept every major reform demanded by the opposition, especially direct presidential elections.

Reader Letters November 1987
by Sidney Hook
Philosophy & Faith TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: I am very grateful to Hilton Kramer ["The Importance of Sid- ney Hook," August] for his vindi- cation of my political thought and behavior during the last fifty years.

On Becoming a Jew
by Roger Owen
One morning in the summer of 1978, and in the manner prescribed by Jewish law, I became a Jew. Such an event is something one does not easily forget, and in my case the occasion was made especially memorable by its setting and circumstances. My conversion took place in New York during my first visit to the United States.

December, 1987Back to Top
Letter to the New Republic
by Our Readers
To the Editor: For some reason, Judge Richard A. Posner saw fit to compose an article (not a book review) devoted exclusively to an attack on my essay, “Government by Lawyers & Judges,” published in the June 1987 issue of COMMENTARY.

J.D. Salinger
by Our Readers
To the Editor: One can understand the sickness of American culture by reading Terry Teachout's “Salinger Then and Now” [September]. The article, which begins with a discussion of Salinger's lawsuit against Random House and Ian Hamilton (for unfair use of Salinger's correspondence in Hamilton's biography J.D.

The Imperial Congress
by Our Readers
To the Editor: George Szamuely, in his “The Imperial Congress” [September], seeks an explanation for the onslaught on the presidency, particularly with respect to foreign policy, that took place in the aftermath of .

Catholics & Patriotism
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In her article, “Reclaiming the Catholic Heritage” [September], Anne Roche Muggeridge raises many points worthy of comment. The one I would like to address is her statement: “Indeed, the more orthodox a Catholic is, the more patriotic he is, and the more supportive of traditional American political and moral principles.” If what is meant by patriotism is a proper regard for the common good of the country, then indeed all Catholics are duty bound to be patriotic wherever they reside.

New Zealand
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Roger Sandall's critique of New Zealand, “Beyond California” [June], quickly degenerates from a witty send-up in the first few paragraphs to an appallingly inaccurate portrayal of the country and its foreign policy.

Goals & Quotas
by Our Readers
To the Editor: James Nuechterlein's “A Farewell to Civil Rights” [August] is an excellent article. I have only one negative comment.

Journalistic Ethics
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Suzanne Garment's cautious and curiously unfocused piece on the media, “Can the Media Be Reformed?” [August], seems to suggest that the profession of journalism has no code of ethics, but that practice varies according to the character of the individual journalist.

Remembering Vietnam
by H.J. Kaplan
In Saigon between 1965 and 1966, while I was serving as counselor to the American embassy, I lived for about fourteen months in a street called Phan Dinh Phung, a name that had unaccountably slipped my mind, until I came across it again in The Palace File, by Nguyen Tien Hung and Jerrold S.

A Light Unto the Nations?
by Ruth Wisse
Dear b—, In the absence of a letter from you I am reading those of the “father of Zionist socialism,” Moses Hess—the ones that make up his 1862 book Rome and Jerusalem. Hess is immensely appealing.

Inventing the Homosexual
by Marjorie Rosenberg
From antiquity until perhaps a century ago, choice was presumed to govern sexual behavior. But in the late 19th century, with a burgeoning medical science as midwife, a new kind of creature was born—“the homosexual”—his entire identity based on his sexual preference.

A Fateful Intellectual Friendship
by Edward Rothstein
The Jewish mystic lives and acts in perpetual rebellion against a world with which he strives with all his zeal to be at peace. —Gershom Scholem In His House in Jerusalem, Gershom Scholem, the great historian of Jewish mysticism, kept a painting, Paul Klee's Angelus Novus.

A Boy's Own Author
by Joseph Epstein
Taste in reading, like taste in food, tends to be formed early and changed seldom. Despite all the therapeutically salutary effects that Bruno Bettelheim claims fairy tales have on children, my own recollection is that, when read to me by my father, they bored the Doctor Dentons off me.

The Columbus Argument
by David Stove
There might be good arguments for being anti-conservative in particular circumstances. But are there any good arguments for being anti-conservative in all circumstances? If there are, they would clearly have to be very general arguments: general enough to be philosophical, or at least to be of interest to philosophers. There has only ever been one very general argument for anti-conservatism, as far as I know, and it is not a good one.

Toni Morrison's Career
by Carol Iannone
Nearly twenty-five years ago, the literary critic Irving Howe and the novelist Ralph Ellison engaged in a heated debate on the options of the black writer in America.

Veil, by Bob Woodward
by Michael Ledeen
Inside Out Veil: The Secret Wars of the CIA 1981-1987. by Bob Woodward Simon & Schuster. 543 pp. $21.95 Despite the near-total lack of documentation for most of Bob Woodward's tales in this book about the CIA under the directorship of the late William J.

Gershwin, by Edward Jablonski
by William Youngren
A Life in Music Gershwin. by Edward Jablonski. Doubleday. 436 pp. $21.95. It is probably fair to say that George Gershwin (1898-1937) was the most famous American musical figure of his brief time.

Sacred Survival, by Jonathan Woocher
by Jonathan Sarna
“Federation Judaism” Sacred Survival: The Civil Religion of American Jews. by Jonathan Woocher. Indiana University Press. 254 pp. $25.00. The term civil religion, popularized by Robert Bellah in a seminal essay of 1967, commonly refers to the symbols, rituals, myths, and tenets that together comprise “the transcendent universal religion of the nation.” In the United States, according to most of those who have studied the subject, civil religion rises above church and ethnicity to provide a measure of national cohesiveness and shared purpose—a taste of that “moral unity” which Emile Durkheim considered so essential both to religion and to society.

Man of the House, by Thomas P. O'Neill with William Novak
by David Brock
The Speaker Speaks Man of the House: The Life and Political Memoirs of Speaker Tip O'Neill. by Thomas P. O'Neill, With William Novak. Random House.

The Collected Essays and Criticism, by Clement Greenberg, edited by John O'Brian
by Roger Kimball
Art and Culture The Collected Essays and Criticism. by Clement Greenberg. Edited By John O'Brian University of Chicago Press. Volume I: Perceptions and Judgments, 1939-1944.

Reader Letters December 1987
by Walter Berns
Journalistic Ethics TO THE EDITOR OF COMMENTARY: Suzanne Garment's cautious and curiously unfocused piece on the media, "Can the Media Be Re- formed?" [August], seems to suggest that the profession of journalism has no code of ethics, but that prac- tice varies according to the char- acter of the individual journalist. Professional pressure of one kind or another, plus a certain pragma- tism illustrated by some nostrums from Sam Donaldson, would seem to determine the ethical tenor of the journalist's approach to his job. In fact, the journalistic profes- sion does have a clear operational code of ethics, which is fairly con- sistent throughout the free world, but is not set down in any of the various "codes of practice" issued by unions, publications, or other professional groups.

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