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January, 2005Back to Top
Why the Democrats Keep Losing
by Joshua Muravchik
The aftermath befitted the morrow of a civil war. Tens of thousands of Americans visited the website of the Canadian immigration service to learn how they could take themselves into exile.

Arafat Lives
by Efraim Karsh
No sooner was Yasir Arafat declared dead at the French military hospital to which he had been dramatically rushed in early November than a vast cohort of world leaders, from King Abdullah of Jordan to French President Jacques Chirac, began to voice hopes for a quick revival of the Middle East peace process.

Americanism--and Its Enemies
by David Gelernter
Anti-Americanism has blossomed frantically in recent years. Nearly the whole world seems to be pock-marked with lesions of hate. Some of this hatred focuses on George W.

What Is Cynthia Ozick About?
by Hillel Halkin
The first to have ventured, Cynthia Ozick remains in a class by herself. It was in 1966 that she published, in the relatively obscure Hudson Review, her story “The Pagan Rabbi”; in 1969 that “Envy; or, Yiddish in America” caused a stir when it appeared in COMMENTARY.

The Intifada Comes to Duke
by Eric Adler
A new ritual on the American academic scene is the annual conference of the Palestine Solidarity Movement (PSM). The PSM is an umbrella organization that connects various U.S.

Sartre vs. Camus
by Algis Valiunas
The greatest French writer of the 20th century was Marcel Proust, but in their day, Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) and Albert Camus (1913-1960) enjoyed an intellectual cachet that Proust in his own lifetime could only have dreamed of.

by Terry Teachout
In 1945, Arturo Toscanini told the music critic B.H. Haggin that he preferred Haydn to Mozart. “I will tell you frankly: sometimes I find Mozart boring,” he said to his astonished interviewer.

I Am Charlotte Simmons by Tom Wolfe
by Sam Schulman
I am Charlotte Simmons by Tom Wolfe Farrar, Straus & Giroux. 676 pp. $28.95 In his long career, Tom Wolfe has written more pages in order to épater les bien-pensants than any writer now alive.

American Dreams by Jason DeParle
by Kay Hymowitz
American Dream: Three Women, Ten Kids, and a Nation's drive to end Welfare by Jason DeParle Viking. 422 pp. $25.95 Eight years ago Americans ended welfare as they knew it.

Abraham's Promise by Michael Wyschogrod, ed. by R. Kendall Soulen
by David Hazony
Abraham's Promise: Judaism and Jewish-Christian Relations by Michael Wyschogrod edited by R. Kendall Soulen Eerdman's. 253 pp. $24.00 Ours is a time when the academic study of Judaism flourishes, but when learned exploration of Judaism's central ideas has become rare.

Miracle Cure by Sally C. Pipes
by Jonathan Kay
Miracle Cure: How to Solve America's Health-Care Crisis and why Canada isn't the Answer by Sally C. Pipes Pacific Research Inst. 219 pp.

On Intelligence by Jeff Hawkins with Sandra Blakeslee
by Kevin Shapiro
On Intelligence by Jeff Hawkins with Sandra Blakeslee Times Books. 272 pp. $25.00 Elementary biology teaches us that many of the vital parts of the body have forms that follow their function.

Good for the Jews?
by Our Readers
  To the Editor: Jack Wertheimer has made major contributions to our understanding of the American Jewish condition and is one of the cannier observers of American Jewish life, but his critique of the current state of the communal agenda is both wrongheaded and just plain wrong [“Jewish Security & Jewish Interests,” October 2004]. Contrary to what Mr.

Whither Putin?
by Our Readers
  To the Editor: Leon Aron has long been an outstanding analyst of developments in Russia, and I largely agree with his assessment of Vladimir Putin’s first term as president of Russia [“Is Russia Going Backward?,” October 2004].

Two Chinas?
by Our Readers
  To the Editor: Arthur Waldron’s conclusion that the U.S. should support Taiwan is appealing, but the way he arrives at it is misleading [“Our Stake in Taiwan,” October 2004].

by Our Readers
  To the Editor: Having been morbidly fascinated with Noam Chomsky for decades and having written about him on several occasions, (and even engaged in some private correspondence with him), I appreciate Arch Puddington’s assessment of his newfound popularity [“Chomsky’s Universe,” October 2004].

Art Criticism
by Our Readers
  To the Editor: Roger Kimball’s The Rape of the Masters: How Political Correctness Sabotages Art, reviewed by Steven C. Munson [Books in Review, October 2004], attacks me at length for a book I published twenty years ago in which I put forward the remarkable thesis that the Victorians were sexually repressed and that one of them, the painter John Singer Sargent, made a series of apparently “Freudian slips” in his group portrait of the daughters of a fellow artist.

by Our Readers
  To the Editor: I have just read the last sentences of “Perfection” [October 2004] and am rushing to congratulate you for publishing it and thus enabling me to read this wildly funny and heartbreaking fantasy.



February, 2005Back to Top
The War Against World War IV
by Norman Podhoretz
A Second-Term Retreat? Will George W. Bush spend the next few years backing down from the ambitious strategy he outlined in the Bush Doctrine for fighting and winning World War IV? To be sure, Bush himself still calls it the “war on terrorism,” and has shied away from giving the name World War IV to the great conflict into which we were plunged by 9/11.

Has Iraq Weakened Us?
by Victor Davis Hanson
Whatever the results of the elections scheduled for late January in Iraq, a new pessimism about that country, as well as about the larger war on terror, has taken hold in many circles in the United States.

Europe’s Crisis
by Arthur Waldron
The great transatlantic European-American divorce, about which we have heard so much: is it really going to take place? A few months ago, from the other side of the Atlantic, it looked like a done deal.

Doing Justice to the Bible
by Hillel Halkin
The Hebrew Bible is not the first known work in history to have been translated; that honor goes to one of several Sumerian narrative poems, like the Gilgamesh epic or “Ishtar's Descent to the Underworld,” that were put into Akkadian at the start of the first millennium B.C.E.

The Election and the Jewish Vote
by Jay Lefkowitz
American Jews constitute only 3 percent of the voting public, and have cast a majority of their votes for the Democratic nominee in every presidential election since 1916 (the first for which we have data).

When Muslims Convert
by David Gartenstein-Ross
In the bustling religious marketplace of modern America, conversions out of one faith and into another are not exactly news.

Inside the New MOMA
by Steven Munson
The newly redesigned Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) in New York City opened last November after a remodeling that took nearly two and a half years.

Letters of the Composers
by Terry Teachout
A side from what we glean by listening to their music, how do we know what we think we know about the inner lives of the great composers? Only two, Hector Berlioz and Richard Wagner, left behind full-length autobiographies written without assistance.

The Persian Puzzle by Kenneth M. Pollack
by Michael Oren
The Persian Puzzle: The Conflict Between Iran and America by Kenneth M. Pollack Random House. 539 pp. $26.95 In the eyes of many Middle Easterners, Iran today seems to be on a roll.

Home-Alone America by Mary Eberstadt
by Jonathan Kay
Home-Alone America: The Hidden Toll of Daycare, Behavioral Drugs, and Other Parent Substitutes by Mary Eberstadt Penguin. 218 pp. $29.95 Two-thirds of American children under six have mothers who work.

Reagan and Gorbachev by Jack F. Matlock, Jr.
by Sean McMeekin
Reagan and Gorbachev: How the Cold War Ended by Jack F. Matlock, Jr. Random House. 384 pp. $27.95 We are far enough removed from the cold war to take its sudden, peaceful conclusion for granted.

Kaufman and Co. edited by Laurence Maslon
by Algis Valiunas
Kaufman & Co.: Broadway Comedies by George S. Kaufman, Edna Ferber, Moss Hart, Ring Lardner, and Morrie Ryskind edited by Laurence Maslon Library of America.

The War for Muslim Minds by Gilles Kepel
by David Warren
The War for Muslim Minds: Islam and the West by Gilles Kepel Harvard. 336 pp. $23.95 Gilles Kepel heads the postgraduate program on the Arab and Muslim worlds at the Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris, where he was educated—in the heart of the French political and intellectual establishment.

Israel on Trial
by Our Readers
    To the Editor: In the course of criticizing the International Court of Justice (ICJ) for its advisory opinion that the security wall being constructed by Israel violates international law, Andrew C.

Jewish America
by Our Readers
  To the Editor: In the course of his essay, “Telling the Story of America’s Jews,” [November 2004] David Gelernter reviewed Jonathan Sarna’s American Judaism, but that review is a wish list of topics that Sarna supposedly should have covered rather than a serious engagement with what Sarna actually wrote.

Evolutionary Psychology
by Our Readers
To the Editor: There is nothing intrinsically wrong with scientists writing outside their fields—the great physicist Erwin Schrödinger’s reflections on biology, for instance, inspired a generation of top-notch biologists.

by Our Readers
  To the Editor: Charles R. Kesler’s review of Ron Chernow’s biography of Alexander Hamilton is interesting for its echoes of modern American society [Books in Review, November 2004].

À la James
by Our Readers
  To The Editor: The older Joseph Epstein gets, the more admirably Jamesian he becomes. His latest offering, “The Philosopher and the Checkout Girl” [Story, November 2004], even with its politically incorrect title, is superb.

March, 2005Back to Top
Free Speech for Terrorists?
by Andrew McCarthy
The nexus in militant Islam between advocacy and actual savagery is no longer contestable. It has been the subject of too much informed analysis and, more importantly, is an empirically demonstrated fact. Thus, speaking in Brooklyn, New York, on January 16, 1993, the fiery Islamic cleric Omar Abdel Rahman—the “blind sheik,” as he was known—urged his foot soldiers never to fear being labeled terrorists: [We] welcome being terrorists.

The Settlers' Crisis, and Israel's
by Hillel Halkin
Israel is headed this summer for what may be the most severe political crisis of its history. On one side, Prime Minister Ariel Sharon is resolved to go ahead with the military evacuation from the Gaza Strip of an estimated 8,000 Jewish settlers, most of them from Israel's half-million-strong modern Orthodox or “national-religious” community.

What Became of the CIA
by Gabriel Schoenfeld
My first personal encounter with the CIA came in 1989. I was living in Washington, D.C., editing a new publication about Communist affairs under the auspices of the Center for Strategic and International Studies.

Social Security Then and Now
by Bruce Bartlett
By all accounts, Social Security is the most successful domestic government program in American history. This year, more than $500 billion will be relatively costlessly taken from the pockets of American workers and transferred to those living in retirement.

Will the Real Shakespeare Please Stand Up?
by John Gross
Anyone Setting out to write a biography of Shakespeare has to weigh two considerations against each other. On the one hand, we do not know all that much about him.

The Great Black Hope
by Algis Valiunas
Jack Johnson, Joe Louis, Muhammad Ali: each, during his reign as heavyweight boxing champion of the world, was the most famous black man of his time.

Why Artie Shaw Fell Silent
by Terry Teachout
Artie shaw, the clarinetist and band leader who died in January at the age of ninety-four, was the last surviving giant of the Swing Era, the decade-long interlude (1935-45) during which American popular music was dominated by the medium-sized instrumental ensembles known as “big bands” that played jazz and jazz-flavored dance music. Shaw's hit record of Cole Porter's “Begin the Beguine,” made in 1938, established him overnight as one of the most successful bandleaders of the day—his group rivaled and occasionally surpassed in popularity that of his fellow clarinetist Benny Goodman—as well as an innovative soloist whose playing was regarded by many musicians as superior in certain respects to Goodman's.

The Dragons of Expectation by Robert Conquest
by Wilfred McClay
The Dragons of Expectation: Reality and Delusion in the Course of History by Robert Conquest Norton. 272 pp. $24.95 In his famous 1951 essay on Leo Tolstoy, “The Hedgehog and the Fox,” Isaiah Berlin mined a fragmentary saying of the Greek poet Archilochus to create one of the most intriguing, if also sometimes misleading, dichotomies in the history of ideas. “Hedgehogs” were those thinkers—Lucretius, Plato, Dante, Hegel, Dostoevsky—who were captives to a single large and all-embracing idea or concern.

Blink by Malcolm Gladwell
by Kevin Shapiro
Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking by Malcolm Gladwell Little Brown. 288 pp. $25.95 Who can be wise, amazed, temperate and furious,/Loyal and neutral, in a moment? No man:/The expedition of my violent love/Outrun the pauser, reason. —Macbeth, Act 2, Scene 3 _____________ Decisions—even snap decisions—must come from somewhere.

Words on Fire by Dovid Katz; Outwitting History by Aaron Lansky
by David Roskies
Words on Fire: The Unfinished Story of Yiddish by Dovid Katz Basic Books. 464 pp. $26.95 Outwitting History: The Amazing Adventures of a Man who Rescued a Million Yiddish Books by Aaron Lansky Algonquin.

The United States of Europe by T.R. Reid
by Jakub Grygiel
The United States of Europe: The New Superpower and the End of American Supremacy by T.R. Reid Penguin. 305 pp. $25.95 Heralding the decline of the U.S.

Magic Seeds by V.S. Naipaul
by Thomas Meaney
Magic Seeds by V.S. Naipaul Knopf. 288 pp. $25.00 In his Nobel Prize lecture in 2001, V.S. Naipaul announced that he had reached the twilight of his literary career.

Islam and Freedom
by Our Readers
To the Editor: James Q. Wilson summarizes very well the case for hoping that we might create a liberal regime in Iraq [“Islam and Freedom,” December 2004].

Islam and Europe
by Our Readers
  To the Editor: David Pryce-Jones’s article is excellent, and I wish it had been written 30 years ago [“The Islamization of Europe?,” December 2004].

Islamists and the Left
by Our Readers
  To the Editor: Joshua Kurlantzick cites an allegedly criminal incident involving the activist attorney Lynne Stewart and her client, Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman, as an example of a dangerous partnership between the Left and radical Islamists [“The Left and the Islamists,” December 2004].

by Our Readers
  To the Editor: I have read Roger Sandall’s “Can Sudan Be Saved?” [December 2004] with delight; the article neatly summarizes the literature on that country’s tragic past and present.

by Our Readers
  To the Editor: Having enjoyed Joseph Epstein’s writing so much in the past, I am pained to find myself at odds with his estimate of A.

by Our Readers
  To the Editor: Anyone buying into Gabriel Schoenfeld’s overreaching analogy between the state of American armed forces at the end of World War II and the woeful condition in which we now find ourselves in Iraq is going to be badly misled [“Iraq: Prophets of Defeat,” December 2004].

by Our Readers
  To the Editor: Terry Teachout’s article on Luciano Pavarotti confirms my own disdain for a singer whose career has played a key role in the decline of musical expression [“After Pavarotti,” December 2004].

Down at Duke
by Our Readers
  To the Editor: Eric Adler and Jack Langer’s “The Intifada Comes to Duke” [January] is replete with misrepresentations and errors of omission.



April, 2005Back to Top
“Dear Ellen”; or, Sexual Correctness at Harvard
by Ruth Wisse
Dear Ellen, It was great having a chance to catch up with you over lunch today. I don't think we've really seen each other since you graduated from Harvard two years ago, so I had no inkling you were back, and working toward an advanced degree in history.

Bush, Sharon, My Daughter, and Me
by Norman Podhoretz
Jerusalem: Monday, January 31, 2005 “Who are you?” my daughter Ruthie Blum demands as she greets me in the lobby of the King David hotel, “and what have you done with my father?” I laugh appreciatively at this newest twist on her antic idea that I have been invaded by aliens—an idea that first began taking shape about fourteen months ago, during my last visit to Israel, where she has been living for about 27 years now.

Surprise Attack: The Lessons of History
by Richard Posner
Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, there has been an understandable preoccupation with how to reform the nation's intelligence system in order to prevent the recurrence of such an event.

Can the UN Be Fixed?
by Michael Soussan
The last few years have hardly been kind to the United Nations. Accustomed to regarding itself as the world's indispensable institution, it has suffered a series of debilitating blows, raising questions about its long-term viability.

The Islamists’ Other Weapon
by Paul Marshall
Islamists are among the most garrulous of enemies: in a plethora of videotapes, audiotapes, declarations, books, letters, fatwas, magazines, and websites, they have explained their actions repeatedly and at length.

A Yankees Fan in Red Sox Nation
by Charles Dellheim
Boston's Fenway Park is about a six-minute walk from where I work. The “Green Monster” is not really visible from my office on Bay State Road, but come April I know that the academic year is ending, and the baseball season starting, when I see Red Sox nation heading to that legendary field of dreams—dreams that never quite came true until this past autumn.

Singing the Classical-Music Blues
by Terry Teachout
Classical music in America is in an increasingly tight corner. Though many established performing groups continue to draw respectable crowds, most are finding it harder to do so, and even still-popular ensembles like the New York Philharmonic are watching their subscribers grow grayer by the year.

Eurabia by Bat Ye’or
by David Warren
Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis by Bat Ye'or Fairleigh Dickinson. 384 pp. $49.50 For the past 30 years, the Jewish scholar Bat Ye'or, born in Egypt but long resident in Geneva, has been developing formidable credentials as a chronicler of “dhimmitude,” a term with which she is closely associated.

Lane Kirkland by Arch Puddington
by Seth Lipsky
Lane Kirkland: Champion of American Labor by Arch Puddington Wiley. 342 pp. $30.00 One day in 1984, when the outcome of the cold war was still in the balance, the phone rang in my office at the Wall Street Journal/ Europe in Brussels, precipitating an encounter of the kind that changes one's thinking.

God on the Quad by Naomi Schaefer Riley
by Mark Henrie
God on the Quad: How Religious Colleges and the Missionary Generation are Changing America by Naomi Schaefer Riley St Martin's. 288pp. $24.95 We have grown used to the notion that America is now a nation divided between two cultures—red and blue.

Politics and Passion by Michael Walzer
by Adam Wolfson
Politics and Passion: Toward a More Egalitarian Liberalism by Michael Walzer Yale. 208pp. $25.00 Liberal political theory today is in a state of crisis.

Collapse by Jared Diamond
by Kevin Shapiro
Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed by Jared Diamond Viking. 575 pp. $29.95 When the ancient Greeks happened upon ruins whose origins they could not fathom, they called them “Hebrews' castles”—a nod to the Hebrew Bible as the oldest available source of recorded history.

by Our Readers
  To the Editor: David Gelernter’s article contains many interesting quotations, but it fails utterly to make the case for Americanism as the successor to the culture of the Puritans [“Americanism—and Its Enemies,” January].

The Democrats
by Our Readers
  To the Editor: Joshua Muravchik’s analysis of the 2004 election makes a good deal of sense, but I disagree with his suggestion that the endorsement of “liberalism” has spelled defeat for Democratic presidential candidates going back to 1980 [“Why the Democrats Keep Losing,” January].

After Arafat
by Our Readers
  To the Editor: Efraim Karsh’s powerful analysis makes clear that Yasir Arafat lives on in the culture of hatred and violence he fashioned to serve his terrorist war against Israel [“Arafat Lives,” January].

Sartre vs. Camus
by Our Readers
  To the Editor: It is not easy for a philosopher to respond to an article that is unphilosophical in tone and often ideological in content.

Health Care
by Our Readers
  To the Editor: In his review of Miracle Cure by Sally Pipes, Jonathan Kay describes health care in Canada as “often second-rate” by American standards [Books in Review, January].

A Theological Difference
by Our Readers
  To the Editor: In his review of my book, Abraham’s Promise: Judaism and Jewish-Christian Relations, David Hazony concludes that it “presents a skewed and deeply misleading understanding of the Jewish tradition” and that “the ‘promise’ of its title does not just remain unfulfilled but is very nearly betrayed” [Books in Review, January].

by Our Readers
To the Editor: Hillel Halkin’s article, “What Is Cynthia Ozick About?” [January], was outstanding. He demonstrated, more clearly than anyone else has done, why Cynthia Ozick deserves a place in both the pantheon of great American novelists and the pantheon of great American essayists.



May, 2005Back to Top
The Bush Doctrine’s Next Test
by Victor Davis Hanson
On March 14, at about the same time Western antiwar groups were organizing their annual spring demonstrations against American efforts in the Middle East, nearly a million Lebanese, including Sunni Muslims, Druze, and Christians, took to the streets of Beirut.

Jews, Arabs, and French Diplomacy: A Special Report
by David Pryce-Jones
The resounding slogan of “liberty, equality, fraternity,” leaves no room for racism in the French state, in theory. In practice, over the two centuries since that slogan was coined, rulers of France have tried with varying success to fit two peoples—Arabs and Jews—into their grand design for the French nation and for its standing in the world.

Investing in Conservative Ideas
by James Piereson
This past fall, shortly before the presidential election in November, some 300 friends and admirers gathered at the Plaza Hotel in New York City to pay tribute to John Kenneth Galbraith and Arthur M.

What Native Peoples Deserve
by Roger Sandall
The roosevelt Indian Reservation in the Amazon rain forest is not a happy place. Last year, the Cinta Larga Indians slaughtered 29 miners there, and in October the Brazilian who was trying to mediate the conflict was murdered at a cash machine.

My Uncle Simon
by Hillel Halkin
In a Tale of Love and Darkness, his highly praised novelistic memoir of a Jerusalem childhood and adolescence in the 1940's and 50's, Amos Oz mentions my uncle, the Hebrew poet, novelist, and literary critic Simon Halkin. My Uncle Simon was appointed in 1949 to head the department of Hebrew literature at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, to which he moved from New York; until then, the position had been held by Oz's great-uncle Joseph Klausner, who vacated it for a chair in Second Temple studies.

Love at the Multiplex
by Algis Valiunas
Movies for adults—not to be confused with adult movies—are few and far between these days, so one is grateful when serious fare comes to the local multiplex.

Master of the Art Song
by Terry Teachout
Unlike Most well-known classical singers, Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau, who turns eighty on May 28, retired unexpectedly and unobtrusively. Twelve years ago, without making the customary “farewell tour,” the German baritone simply issued a statement declaring that he would no longer sing in public—and kept his word.

Winning the Future by Newt Gingrich
by Dan Seligman
Winning the Future: A 21st Century Contract with America by Newt Gingrich Regnery. 243 pp. $27.95 Newt Gingrich, an inescapable political presence in the mid-90's and a largely forgotten figure in the years since, is back in business and very much on stage again.

Saturday by Ian McEwan; Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close by Jonathan Safran Foer
by Sam Munson
Saturday by Ian McEwan Nan Talese. 289 pp. $26.00 Extremely Loud & Incredibly Close by Jonathan Safran Foer Houghton Mifflin. 326 pp. $24.95 Writing a novel about catastrophic events that are still inescapably present in our collective imagination makes strenuous demands—demands that have hindered or defeated even writers of great intelligence and ability.

Chronicles by Bob Dylan
by Roger Kaplan
Chronicles, Volume I by Bob Dylan Simon & Schuster. 304 pp. $24.00 “This ain't no protest song,” a very young aspiring poet said to an audience at a New York City nightclub specializing in folk music circa 1961, “'cause I don't write no protest songs.” Protest songs were all the rage then, and Robert Zimmerman, already billing himself as Bob Dylan, did not like to be thought fashionable.

Anti-Americanism edited by Andrew Ross and Kristin Ross; Understanding Anti-Americanism, edited by Paul Hollander
by Arch Puddington
Anti-Americanism edited by Andrew Ross and Kristin Ross New York University. 344 pp. $49.95 Understanding Anti-Americanism: Its Origins and Impact at Home and Abroad edited by Paul Hollander Ivan R.

Buried by the Times by Laurel Leff
by Daniel Johnson
Buried by the Times: The Holocaust and America's Most Important Newspaper by Laurel Leff Cambridge. 426 pp. $29.00 This book tells the story of how the most powerful newspaper in the world failed to inform its readers that the most terrible crime in history was taking place in occupied Europe.

World War IV
by Our Readers
  To the Editor: It is not altogether pleasant to appear in my friend Norman Podhoretz’s latest rogues’ gallery [“The War Against World War IV,” February].

Sacred Words
by Our Readers
  To the Editor: Hillel Halkin asserts that the Bible, as a sacred book, “remains stubbornly resistant” to being read as literature, “despite its literary brilliance” [“Doing Justice to the Bible,” February].

Jewish Politics
by Our Readers
  To the Editor: I do not know how old Jay Lefkowitz is, but he certainly could not have been relying on memory when he categorized President Dwight D.

Muslim Apostasy
by Our Readers
  To the Editor: As a former editor of the Cumberland Law Review who worked on the article by Ali Khan that Daveed Gartenstein-Ross criticizes [“When Muslims Convert,” February], I want to address his complaint that Khan “was able to use an American law review as a soapbox from which to advocate the licensed punishment of apostates—and that his grossly illiberal views were never rebutted in its pages.” In fact, Khan’s article was part of a symposium on religious proselytizing in which he was the odd man out.

by Our Readers
To the Editor: Writing in the “Letters” section of the April Commentary, in response to Algis Valiunas’s “Sartre vs. Camus” [January], Neil Ford cites a figure of 100,000 civilian casualties in the war in Iraq.



June, 2005Back to Top
Annihilating Terri Schiavo
by Paul McHugh
During the tumultuous final weeks in the life of Terri Schiavo, the young woman who died in a Florida hospice in April, press reports in the nation's media typically focused on the bitter conflicts among members of her family over her treatment, disagreements among consultants over her state of consciousness, and the increasingly intense arguments in legislatures and the courts over her guardianship.

The Anti-Semitic Disease
by Paul Johnson
The intensification of anti-Semitism in the Arab world over the last years and its reappearance in parts of Europe have occasioned a number of thoughtful reflections on the nature and consequences of this phenomenon, but also some misleading analyses based on doubtful premises.

Culture in the Age of Blogging
by Terry Teachout
Two years ago next month, I started a blog—that is, a “web log,” a website on which I keep a public journal, written in collaboration with the Chicago-based literary critic Laura Demanski (who is known on the blog as “Our Girl in Chicago”).

Bush’s Calling
by Wilfred McClay
Among all the things that liberals loathe about George W. Bush, his religious fervor would seem to be at or near the top of the list.

The Life of Art
by Joseph Epstein
Driving down Sheridan Road, heading north in the right lane, I noticed from the rear a body, a walk, a carriage that looked familiar.

A Korean Solution?
by Arthur Waldron
No one can doubt that the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (“North Korea”) has been, for the half-century of its existence, one of the handful of the most horrible regimes in all of human history.

Jews for Jesus—and Vice Versa
by Hillel Halkin
Imagine the following: it is the year 150 C.E. or thereabouts. After a prolonged conflict within the Jewish community of Palestine and its many offshoots around the Mediterranean, the believers in Jesus have triumphed.

The End of Poverty by Jeffrey Sachs
by David Frum
The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Time by Jeffrey Sachs Penguin. 416 pp. $27.95 In reviewing Jeffrey Sachs's new book for a monthly magazine, one feels rather like the last bomber pilot over Yokohama.

A Strange Death by Hillel Halkin
by Midge Decter
A Strange Death by Hillel Halkin Public Affairs. 400 pp. $26.00 In 1970, Hillel and Marcia Halkin moved to Israel from New York.

God’s Politics by Jim Wallis
by James Nuechterlein
God's Politics: Why the Right gets it wrong and the left doesn't get it by Jim Wallis Harper San Francisco. 384 pp.

Blind Spot by Timothy Naftali
by Andrew McCarthy
Blind Spot: The Secret History of American Counterterrorism by Timothy Naftali Basic Books. 367 pp. $26.95 International terrorism, particularly the variety engaged in by transnational, militant Islamic networks, is the defining national-security problem of the modern era.

Gilead by Marilynne Robinson
by Thomas Meaney
Gilead by Marilynne Robinson Farrar, Straus & Giroux. 247 pp. $23.00 Men of the cloth are playthings for novelists; they come outfitted in the vestments of their own unraveling.

Ladies and Gentlemen, The Bronx Is Burning by Jonathan Mahler
by Fred Siegel
Ladies and Gentleman, The Bronx is Burning: 1977, Baseball, Politics, and the Battle for the Soul of a City by Jonathan Mahler Farrar, Straus & Giroux.

Men in Black by Mark R. Levin
by Dan Seligman
Men in Black: How the Supreme Court is Destroying America by Mark R. Levin Regnery. 288 pp. $27.95 The folk wisdom about the U.S.

by Our Readers
  To the Editor: With Gabriel Schoenfeld’s point that the CIA’s problems “originate in realms deeper than can be addressed by a reconfiguration of the organizational chart,” we agree [“What Became of the CIA,” March].

Sticks and Stones?
by Our Readers
  To the Editor: Andrew C. McCarthy’s “Free Speech for Terrorists?” [March] discusses at some length my book, Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime, and argues that the courts have taken the principle of free speech too far. As Mr.

by Our Readers
  To the Editor: In purporting to analyze “the most severe political crisis” in Israel’s brief history, Hillel Halkin focuses on the influence of Rabbi Abraham Isaac Hacohen Kook and his son [“The Settlers’ Crisis, and Israel’s,” March].

The Man from Stratford
by Our Readers
  To the Editor: I was disappointed with John Gross’s article, “Will the Real Shakespeare Please Stand Up?” [March]. Seeing the title, I thought that Mr.



July, 2005Back to Top
The Neoconservative Convergence
by Charles Krauthammer
The Post-Cold-War era has seen a remarkable ideological experiment: over the last fifteen years, each of the three major American schools of foreign policy—realism, liberal internationalism, and neoconservatism—has taken its turn at running things.

Columbia and the Academic Intifada
by Efraim Karsh
Since its birth in 1948, Israel has faced down numerous attempts to destroy it or undercut its right to exist.

Class Struggle in America?
by Bruce Bartlett
In recent years, the New York Times has suffered many blows to its status and reputation. But when it chooses to employ its vast resources toward a specific goal, it can still influence the national discussion on any given issue.

Europe's "No"
by Michel Gurfinkiel
On February 20 of this year, voters in Spain ratified the European Constitutional Treaty or European Constitution, as it is usually referred to.

How to Think About the Crusades
by Daniel Johnson
If there is one thing that everybody knows about the Crusades, it is that they were a Bad Thing. In the eyes even of most Christians, let alone others, the Crusades were a crime against humanity, one for which apologies are due, especially to Muslims.

What Happened to the Movies?
by Joseph Epstein
I wrote a movie once. A man from a television production firm connected with Warner Brothers called one day to say that he wished to take an option on two stories of mine that had appeared in COMMENTARY, and wondered if I would like to write a screenplay uniting the two.

Eichmann: The Simplicity of Evil
by Hillel Halkin
The 1961 trial of Adolf Eichmann, writes the American scholar Alan Mintz, was “pivotal” in turning the Holocaust from “a topic barely spoken of in public discourse” into “one of the dominant subjects of our time.” These words appear in Mintz's introduction to Facing the Glass Booth, a collection of contemporaneous newspaper coverage of the trial by the Israeli poet and journalist Haim Gouri.1 Translated into English four decades after its appearance in Hebrew in 1962, Gouri's book now joins a small shelf of English-language volumes about this event, of which the most important remains Hannah Arendt's controversial Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil (1963). Indeed, from now on it will be mandatory for anyone interested in the Eichmann trial to read these two books together, since they both complement and clash with each other strikingly.

Romantics’ Return
by Terry Teachout
To what extent, if any, should the quality of a work of art be judged by its originality? The answer to this question is far from obvious.

Freakonomics by Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner
by James Wilson
Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything by Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner Morrow. 242 pp.

Becoming Justice Blackmun by Linda Greenhouse
by Ken Kersch
Becoming Justice Blackmun: Harry Blackmun's Supreme Court Journey by Linda Greenhouse Times Books. 268 pp. $25.00 By the time of his death in 1999, the reputation of Supreme Court Justice Harry A.

Break, Blow, Burn by Camille Paglia
by Sam Schulman
Break, Blow, Burn by Camille Paglia Pantheon. 272 pp. $20.00 Camille Paglia, a scholar who slipped past the cultural gatekeepers in 1990 with the publication of Sexual Personae: Art and Decadence from Nefertiti to Emily Dickinson, is a figure to contend with.

Salonica, City of Ghosts by Mark Mazower
by Andrew Apostolou
Salonica, City of Ghosts: Christians, Muslims, and Jews, 1430-1950 by Mark Mazower Knopf. 528 pp. $35.00 Ottoman history is a seductive topic. This is true partly for reasons of the empire's obvious geopolitical interest—its successor states include present-day Turkey, Iraq, Israel, and Libya—but perhaps in greater part because of the richness and rococo intricacy of the societies over which Constantinople long ruled.

The Prince of the City by Fred Siegel
by Daniel Casse
The Prince of the City: Giuliani, New York, and the Genius of American Life by Fred Siegel Encounter. 320 pp. $26.95 According to the conventional wisdom already circulating about the next presidential campaign, New York City's former Republican mayor Rudolph Giuliani is “unelectable.” He is, as both critics and fans point out, pro-choice, pro-gay rights, pro-gun control.

Marriage, a History by Stephanie Coontz
by Kay Hymowitz
Marriage, a History: From Obedience to Intimacy, or How Love Conquered Marriage by Stephanie Coontz Viking. 448 pp. $25.95 On the domestic front of the culture wars, Stephanie Coontz has been among the most stalwart of marriage “progressives.” A historian whose name can be found in the Rolodex of countless reporters, she is the founder of the Council on Contemporary Families, which describes itself as a “humane and sensitive” alternative to family-values traditionalism.

South Park Conservatives by Brian C. Anderson
by Jonathan Kay
South Park Conservatives: The Revolt Against Liberal Media Bias by Brian C. Anderson Regnery. 191 pp. $24.95 American conservatives have been decrying the left-wing bias of the media for so long that they have come to take its existence for granted.

by Our Readers
To the Editor: Norman Podhoretz supports Ariel Sharon’s “disengagement” plan, but the whole concept of being able to separate Israelis and Palestinians is false [“Bush, Sharon, My Daughter, and Me,” April].

Women's Choices
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Ruth R. Wisse writes powerfully and passionately about the campaign against Harvard President Lawrence Summers; it has been, as she suggests, a shameless stampede [“‘Dear Ellen’; or, Sexual Correctness at Harvard,” April].

Reforming the UN
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Michael Soussan accurately and concisely describes the problems, many of them self-inflicted, plaguing the United Nations [“Can the UN Be Fixed?,” April].

Pinstripes & Red Sox
by Our Readers
To the Editor: As a fellow member of the Yankee diaspora now living in Boston, I commend Charles Dellheim for his excellent article [“A Yankees Fan in Red Sox Nation,” April].

by Our Readers
To the Editor: I read with much interest David Warren’s review of my book, Eurabia, and I am obliged to respond to a few of his comments [Books in Review, April].



September, 2005Back to Top
The Inequality Taboo
by Charles Murray
When the late Richard Herrnstein and I published The Bell Curve eleven years ago, the furor over its discussion of ethnic differences in IQ was so intense that most people who have not read the book still think it was about race.

Myth, Fact, and the al-Dura Affair
by Nidra Poller
This past June, Wafa Samir al-Bis, an aspiring twenty-one-year-old shahida, or “martyr,” was apprehended by Israeli guards at the Erez checkpoint in Gaza and found to be carrying 20 pounds of explosives in her underwear.

Bush and the Realists
by Gary Rosen
Foreign-Policy “realism” has never been an easy sell in America. Its emergence as a mature school of thought in the early years of the cold war is generally credited to Hans J.

In Bellow’s Company
by Herbert Gold
Postwar Paris—ration cards, public baths if a person developed an interest in cleanliness, and a romantic view of ambition as the most reliable means of winter heating—took up once more its honored role as a haven for young American writers.

Among Arab Reformers
by Joshua Muravchik
It was the challenge of Islamist terrorism that impelled George W. Bush to jettison, as he put it, 60 years of American policy emphasizing stability as our key goal in the Middle East in favor of a policy emphasizing freedom and democracy.

Getting Over Oil
by Peter Huber
The United States consumes about 7 billion barrels of oil a year. Quite a few of those barrels come to our shores from the Persian Gulf, a fact that has elicited, since 9/11, a surprising convergence in our politics.

Who Needs Ayn Rand?
by Algis Valiunas
This year marks the centenary of the birth of Ayn Rand, the philosopher and novelist. Although opinion is divided on whether the occasion merits observance, there can be no question that Rand continues to fire her readership with crusading ardor. Twenty-two million copies of Rand's books have been sold; in 2002 alone, sales of her behemoth 1957 novel, Atlas Shrugged, reached 140,000 copies.

Homage to Bix
by Terry Teachout
Born two years and half a continent apart, Bix Beiderbecke and Louis Armstrong, the two most influential figures in the early history of jazz, emerged as major soloists on the same instrument (cornet) at the same time (early 1924).

Dying to Win by Robert A. Pape
by Jonathan Kay
Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism by Robert A. Pape Random House. 352 pages. $25.95 From the end of World War II until 1980, the world did not witness a single successful act of suicide terrorism.

Pornified by Pamela Paul
by Kay Hymowitz
Pornified: How Pornography is Transforming Our Lives, Our Relationships, and Our Families by Pamela Paul Times Books. 320 pp. $25.00 If size really matters, pornography now ranks as one of America's most prominent industries.

The Oslo Syndrome by Kenneth Levin
by Hillel Halkin
The Oslo Syndrome: Delusions of a People Under Siege by Kenneth Levin Smith & Kraus. 571 pp. $35.00 It has long been obvious to all but the incurably or willfully blind that the 1993 agreement signed in Oslo between the government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization was a horrendous blunder on Israel's part.

A Matter of Opinion by Victor S. Navasky
by Nell Rosenthal
A Matter of Opinion by Victor S. Navasky Farrar, Straus & Giroux. 426 pp. $27.00 Even if this memoir tells only part of the story—as is clearly the case—Victor S.

China Hands by James Lilley
by Gabriel Schoenfeld
China Hands: Nine Decades of Adventure, Espionage, and Diplomacy in Asia by James Lilley with Jeffrey Lilley Public Affairs. 417 pp. $30.00 How does the United States exercise its power in Asia, and to what end? The tapestry is vast, but one American with an extraordinary grasp of its many threads is James Lilley.

The Temple of Jerusalem by Simon Goldhill
by Benjamin Balint
The Temple of Jerusalem by Simon Goldhill Harvard. 194 pp. $19.95 The first time I went up to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, I did so with the trepidation of someone aware of the thick skein of rabbinic prohibitions that enfolds this holiest of Jewish sites.

America’s Constitution by Akhil Reed Amar
by Ken Kersch
America's Constitution: A Biography by Akhil Reed Amar Random House. 672 pp. $29.95 During the Reagan years, many of the most prominent theorists at our law schools boldly argued either that the meaning of the Constitution was radically indeterminate or that, because the Constitution was a “living” document, judges should interpret it in light of contemporary values.

At the Quai d'Orsay
by Our Readers
  To the Editor: I would like to respond to the article by David Pryce-Jones, “Jews, Arabs, and French Diplomacy” [May], which I read with astonishment and indignation.

The Vision Thing
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Wilfred M. McClay correctly identifies George W. Bush’s “religious fervor”—and, even more, the sincerity of belief animating that fervor—as what liberals loathe most about the President [“Bush’s Calling,” June].

Classical Music
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Reviewing Joseph Hor-owitz’s book, Classical Music in America, Terry Teachout agrees with the author that the blame for the failure of modern music to take root in the repertoires of American orchestras lies with European-born conductors, like Arturo Toscanini, who were hostile to American music and to new music in general [“Singing the Classical-Music Blues,” April].

Rules of Law
by Our Readers
To the Editor: May I amplify Dan Seligman’s excellent review of Mark R. Levin’s Men in Black: How the Supreme Court Is Destroying America [Books in Review, June]? The problem of “activism” by the Supreme Court is due in large part to the bipartisan cowardice of Congress.



October, 2005Back to Top
Israel After Disengagement
by Hillel Halkin
It was necessary, it would seem, for the disengagement from Gaza to take place for the strategy behind it to be revealed as unworkable. That strategy was based on two assumptions that have guided the Likud government of Ariel Sharon, both clearly held by him yet only partially articulated for reasons of political expediency.

Mao Lives
by Arthur Waldron
The 20th century was remarkable not only for the number and scale of the atrocities it witnessed but also for the slowness with which these frightful events were recognized for what they were, let alone condemned.

Jews and the Jewish Birthrate
by Jack Wertheimer
Not long ago, a Manhattan rabbi stunned his congregants by informing them that the future of the Jewish people would be secured not through trips to Israel, not through the battle against anti-Semitism, and not through the continued upward mobility of Jews, but in the bedroom.

Justice to Pissarro
by Dana Gordon
For over a century, the painter Paul Cézanne (1839-1906) has been considered the father of modern art. His ascendancy, which began around 1894, had a tidal influence on the development of the avant-garde, leading to both abstraction and expressionism, commanding the fealty of Picasso and Matisse, dominating the standard narrative of the development of modernism through the late 20th century, and lingering today. But things did not always look this way.

Iraq and the Conservatives
by Joshua Muravchik
Arguments about the wisdom of America's invasion of Iraq will not be resolved until the outcome becomes clearer, which may not be for some time.

In the Matter (Again) of J. Robert Oppenheimer
by James Nuechterlein
The Oppenheimer question is back—not that it ever went away. Famous initially as the “father of the atomic bomb,” the scientist J.

Why They Don’t Write ’em Like They Used To
by Terry Teachout
Alec Wilder, who died in 1980, was one of the least classifiable artists who has ever lived. A semi-classical composer who doubled as a sometime writer of popular songs, he was responsible for a handful of standards (“I'll Be Around,” “While We're Young”) and a much larger number of lesser known but beautifully crafted ballads (“I See It Now,” “South to a Warmer Place,” “Did You Ever Cross Over to Sneden's?”) that were performed and recorded by such celebrated singers as Frank Sinatra and Mabel Mercer.

Maimonides by Sherwin B. Nuland; The Life of David by Robert Pinsky
by Jon Levenson
Maimonides by Sherwin B. Nuland Nextbook/Schocken. 240 pp. $19.95 The Life of David by Robert Pinsky Nextbook/Schocken. 224 pp. $19.95 “There is no end to the making of books,” wrote the biblical sage, an observation to which the subsequent history of the Jews bears eloquent witness.

Postwar by Tony Judt
by Daniel Johnson
Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 by Tony Judt Penguin. 960 pp. $37.95 In some respects, Tony Judt ought to be the right man for the job of writing a history of Europe since 1945.

One Nation Under Therapy by Christina Hoff Sommers and Sally Satel
by Bruce Thornton
One Nation Under Therapy: How the Helping Culture is Eroding Self-Reliance by Christina Hoff Sommers and Sally Satel St. Martin's Press. 310pp.

Soldiering for Freedom by Herman J. Obermayer
by Jonathan Cohen
Soldiering for Freedom: A GI's Account of World War II by Herman J. Obermayer Texas A&M. 324 pp. $32.95 Coinciding with the 60th anniversary of the end of World War II, a clutch of new books has focused on the day-to-day life of American soldiers, mostly as conveyed in letters home to families and loved ones.

When Affirmative Action Was White by Ira Katznelson
by Dan Seligman
When Affirmative Action was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-Century America by Ira Katznelson Norton. 238 pp. $25.95 Among many possible outcomes of the Supreme Court makeover now in progress is a new focus on affirmative action, also known as racial preference.

Ending Life
by Our Readers
To the Editor: The gratuitously violent title of Paul McHugh’s article sets the tone for an unbalanced analysis of the Terri Schiavo case that typifies so much of the hyperbole and misinformation that have pervaded the public debate about it [“Annihilating Terri Schiavo,” June].

by Our Readers
To the Editor: Charles Krauthammer alleges that after September 11, “many realists were brought to acknowledge the poverty of realism,” but his description of the “realist” perspective on foreign policy is not one that most realists would recognize [“The Neoconservative Convergence,” July-August].

by Our Readers
To the Editor: I was disappointed by Paul Johnson’s article, “The Anti-Semitic Disease” [June]. Mr. Johnson suggests that anti-Semitism is, quite literally, a “disease of the mind.” This is essentially a deterministic argument: if anti-Semitism is a disease, there is no personal responsibility, no free will.

"God's Perspective"
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Since my book Why the Jews Rejected Jesus: The Turning Point in Western History came out, it has been met by impassioned responses from every quarter, including the two major evangelical Christian magazines, World and Christianity Today.

Bush & Israel
by Our Readers
To the Editor: In a letter to the editor in your July-August issue, commenting on Norman Podhoretz’s article, “Bush, Sharon, My Daughter, and Me” [April], Allan Leibler asserts: “At the end of March, the American ambassador to Israel, Daniel Kurtzer, stated emphatically that there was no understanding with the U.S.



November, 2005Back to Top
Defending and Advancing Freedom
by Symposium
To commemorate Commentary’s sixtieth anniversary, and in an effort to advance discussion of the present American position in the world, the editors addressed the following statement and questions to a group of leading thinkers: In response to a radically changed world situation since the Is- lamist attacks of 9/11, the United States under George W.

Defending and Advancing Freedom
by Paul Berman
The Bush Doctrine contains two strands of analysis that, pushing in opposite directions, have produced gigantic failures in American policy.

Defending and Advancing Freedom
by Max Boot
I applaud the Bush Doctrine. I think it was the right response—the only possible response—to the horror of 9/11. In light of the very real prospect that millions of Americans may be killed by biological or nuclear weapons, it would be madness to sit back and rely on the law-enforcement approach that failed on 9/11.

Defending and Advancing Freedom
by William Buckley, Jr.
I do not count myself a supporter of the Bush Doctrine, though I count myself a supporter of Bush. The President’s “diagnosis” of the threat we faced—or were facing—or continue to face—requires more parsing than I think the editors of Commentary would wish from me.

Defending and Advancing Freedom
by Eliot Cohen
I have never understood the supposed novelty of the Bush Doctrine. The right to preemption is inherent in the functioning of a more or less anarchical society of states.

Defending and Advancing Freedom
by Niall Ferguson
In my book Colossus: The Rise and Fall of the American Empire (2004), I argued that the Bush Doctrine was less radical as a doctrine than was widely thought when it was promulgated. The administration’s key document, the September 2002 National Security Strategy of the United States, argued that because “deliverable weapons of mass destruction in the hands of a terror network or murderous dictator .

Defending and Advancing Freedom
by Aaron Friedberg
Since 9/11, the “Bush Doctrine” label has been applied to various aspects of administration policy, from the President’s initial “with us or against us” warning to state sponsors of terrorism, to his declared willingness to act preemptively (and, if need be, unilaterally) to head off the danger of covert WMD attack, to his assertion that final victory in the global war on terror depends on the spread of liberty across the Middle East and throughout the Islamic world.

Defending and Advancing Freedom
by Francis Fukuyama
I believe that the Bush Doctrine’s central assumption—that the United States had to transform the politics of the Middle East as a means of solving the post-9/11 terrorist threat—was misguided, and that the problem was greatly compounded by extremely poor policy execution before and after the Iraq war.

Defending and Advancing Freedom
by Frank Gaffney
I heartily agree with the Bush Doctrine as described by the editors and as outlined in the 2002 National Security Strategy of the United States. We are once again engaged in a global conflict imposed upon us by a dangerous, totalitarian ideology that has properly come to be known as Islamofascism.

Defending and Advancing Freedom
by John O'Sullivan
Preemption and the democracy project are both better than they sound. That is partly because both have been described and justified in overly ambitious, unqualified, and extravagant terms.

Defending and Advancing Freedom
by Martin Peretz
A half-century has passed since the appear ance of Oriental Despotism, a majestic study by Karl A. Wittfogel written in the then still common genre of global history.

Defending and Advancing Freedom
by Richard Perle
Despite a history of terrorist attacks on our ships and embassies and despite evidence that al Qaeda was recruiting, training, and organizing for even more murderous attacks on Americans around the world, the United States, under Clinton and then under Bush, did nothing.

Defending and Advancing Freedom
by Daniel Pipes
As the editors note, the Bush Doctrine consists of two parts, preemption and democracy, both of them far-reaching in their implications.

Defending and Advancing Freedom
by Richard Pipes
I do not recall a period in modern history when United States foreign policy has been under such relentless attack both from abroad and at home as in the administration of George W.

Defending and Advancing Freedom
by Norman Podhoretz
In the beginning I was an enthusiastic supporter of the Bush Doctrine, and I still am. Let me, then, recount the ways.

Defending and Advancing Freedom
by David Pryce-Jones
Plenty of men in public life in Muslim countries regularly and openly call on their audiences to mobilize for war against the West in general and the United States in particular.

Defending and Advancing Freedom
by Arch Puddington
In 1972, Freedom House began publishing an annual survey to assess the state of global freedom. The results, back then, made for grim reading: only 44 countries earned the designation of “free.” At the time, freedom was restricted to Western Europe, North America, and a few scattered outposts like Israel, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. To compound a bad situation, the direction of global politics seemed to be moving decisively against free societies.

Defending and Advancing Freedom
by Natan Sharansky
If the Bush Doctrine means linking the foreign policy of the United States to the degree of freedom enjoyed by citizens of other countries—as called for by President Bush in his second inaugural address when he declared that America would “encourage reform in other governments by making clear that success in our relations will require the decent treatment of their own people”—then I have been a supporter of the Bush Doctrine for over three decades.

Defending and Advancing Freedom
by Amir Taheri
I have supported the Bush Doctrine from the start as an example of enlightened self-interest. As a democracy, the United States has always been threatened by despotic regimes of different colorings.

Defending and Advancing Freedom
by Ruth Wedgewood
Two projects are commonly associated with the Bush Doctrine, both of them arising from the major transformations in strategy called for by the post-9/11 world.

Defending and Advancing Freedom
by George Weigel
The Bush Doctrine clarified the issues at stake in a moment of new peril for American democracy, and indeed for the democratic project.

Defending and Advancing Freedom
by James Wilson
President Bush, in his September 2002 preface to The National Security Strategy of the United States, said that this country will act against emerging terrorist threats “before they are fully formed,” not because we seek unilateral advantage but because we wish “to create a balance of power that favors human freedom.”I believe that these arguments are correct.

Defending and Advancing Freedom
by R. James Woolsey
Democracy and the rule of law have gained decisively in the 60 years since World War II. In 1945 there were 20 democracies; today, according to Freedom House, there are 89 operating under the rule of law and another nearly 30 with regular and generally fair elections.

Sailing to Ithaca
by Hillel Halkin
I first set foot on the island of Ithaca by swimming ashore. This was not how it was done by Odysseus, who was carried from a ship in early dawn by the sailors conveying him on the final leg of his long journey home.

God, Man, the Devil—and Thomas Mann
by Thomas Jeffers
At one point in the 20th century, everyone who read serious books knew that Thomas Mann was the most important German writer of the age and one of the most important writers, period.

The Dorsey Sound
by Terry Teachout
For just over a decade, from 1935 to 1946, American popular music was dominated by the instrumental groups known as “big bands.” These groups, which consisted of three or four trumpets, two to four trombones, four or five saxophones, one or two singers, and a “rhythm section” of piano, guitar, bass, and drums, crisscrossed the country playing for dances and on the radio.

Imperial Grunts by Robert D. Kaplan
by Gabriel Schoenfeld
Imperial Grunts: The American Military on the Ground by Robert D. Kaplan Random House. 421 pp. $27.95 Is America an empire, and, if so, is that a good or a bad thing, either for the U.S.

Divided by God by Noah Feldman
by Adam Wolfson
Divided by God: America's Church-State Problem—and What We Should do About It by Noah Feldman Farrar, Straus & Giroux. 306 pp. $25.00 Is it constitutional for public institutions to display the Ten Commandments? Well, it depends—or so the Supreme Court held this past June.

Collected Poems 1954-2004
by Michael Weingrad
Collected Poems 1954-2004 by Irving Feldman Schocken. 464 pp. $28.50 For the last half-century, the American poet Irving Feldman has been loping along a course uncompromisingly his own.

Red Star Over Hollywood by Ronald Radosh and Allis Radosh
by Mark Falcoff
Red Star Over Hollywood: The Film Colony's Long Romance with the Left by Ronald Radosh and Allis Radosh Encounter. 309 pp. $29.95 Even the most casual observer of American film culture is aware of the degree to which Hollywood remains in deep thrall to the Left.

A War Like No Other by Victor Davis Hanson
by Clifford Orwin
A War Like No Other: How the Athenians and Spartans Fought the Peloponnesian War by Victor Davis Hanson Random House. 416 pp.

Middle East Studies
by Our Readers
To the Editor: I am writing to correct an egregious error in Efraim Karsh’s article about the controversy at Columbia University over allegations of classroom bias against pro-Israel students [“Columbia and the Academic Intifada,” July-August].

In the Eurozone
by Our Readers
To the Editor: For a Central European of my generation (I was born in 1946) it has been especially painful to see the widening fissure between the U.S.

Class Dismissed
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Bruce Bartlett has written a useful and mostly accurate assessment of the evidence concerning intergenerational income mobility in America [“Class Struggle in America?,” July-August].



December, 2005Back to Top
Who Is Lying About Iraq?
by Norman Podhoretz
Among the many distortions, misrepresentations, and outright falsifications that have emerged from the debate over Iraq, one in particular stands out above all others.

The Storm Over Katrina
by Wilfred McClay
We are so constituted that we believe the most incredible things; and, once they are engraved upon the memory, woe to him who would endeavor to erase them. —Goethe, 1774 _____________   As the flood waters have receded from the drowned city of New Orleans, and the immense destructive effects of Hurricane Katrina from general awareness, a number of more detached and dispassionate evaluations of the crisis have begun to filter through.

Europe’s “Good Jews”
by Emanuele Ottolenghi
It is common knowledge that anti-Semitism in Western Europe has been on the rise for the last five years. Its frequency and intensity have coincided for the most part with the curve of violence in the Middle East, and with the incendiary and openly slanted way that this violence has been covered in the European media.

The First Genocide of the 20th Century?
by Guenter Lewy
The term “genocide,” coined in 1944 by the Polish-Jewish émigré lawyer Raphael Lemkin, was meant to describe Hitler's then-ongoing campaign to exterminate the Jews of Europe.

Forgetting Edmund Wilson
by Joseph Epstein
“Mommy, you mean my father is a great critic?”—and he smiled—“I always thought he was just a two-bit book reviewer.” —Mary McCarthy, recalling a post-divorce conversation with her then nine-year-old son Reuel Wilson _____________ “You wrote Finlandia, didn't you?,” the wife of the Aspen Institute's president asked Edmund Wilson at a dinner in New York at which the Institute awarded him a $30,000 prize.

Sutzkever’s Ascent—-A Memoir
by David Roskies
In late May 1967, my mother picked up the phone in our home in Montreal to call the Yiddish poet Abraham Sutzkever in Tel Aviv.

This Is Your Brain on Nanobots
by Kevin Shapiro
In 1769, Wolfgang von Kempelen, a thirty-five-year-old Hungarian engineer, built the world's first chess computer—a chest-sized cabinet of gears and cogs behind which sat a wooden mannequin dressed as a Turk.

Journalism, Hollywood-Style
by Terry Teachout
There has always been something faintly silly about Hollywood's worshipful portrayal of journalists. With the exception of such cynical comedies as Howard Hawks's His Girl Friday (1940), most American movies purporting to show journalism as it is take for granted the trustworthiness and good intentions of the average reporter.

The Jewish Century by Yuri Slezkine
by Hillel Halkin
The Jewish Century by Yuri Slezkine Princeton. 344 pp. $29.95 The Equation of Jewishness with the quintessence of modernity, the central thesis of Yuri Slezkine's The Jewish Century, is hardly new.

The Moral Consequences of Economic Growth by Benjamin M. Friedman
by Dan Seligman
The Moral Consequences of Economic Growth by Benjamin M. Friedman Knopf. 570 pp. $35.00 Booms are better than busts. When the good times roll, people have more money, more options in life, more fun, higher living standards.

Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military by Husain Haqqani
by Alex Alexiev
Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military by Husain Haqqani Carnegie Endowment for International Peace 395 pp. $35.95 (hardcover), $17.95 (paperback) Perhaps the most significant reverberations of the suicide bombings in London this past July were felt in far-off Islamabad.

Matisse the Master by Hilary Spurling
by Steven Munson
Matisse the Master by Hilary Spurling Knopf. 544 pp. $40.00 In this second volume of her biography of arguably the greatest of 20th-century painters, Hilary Spurling recounts the life of Henri Matisse from 1909, when he was in the midst of consolidating the gains of his breakthrough Fauve period, through the two world wars, to his death in his studio at Cimiez in 1954.

The Year of Magical Thinking by Joan Didion
by Sam Schulman
The Year of Magical Thinking by Joan Didion Knopf. 240 pp. $23.95 On December 25, 2003, Quintana Dunne, the twenty-five-year-old daughter of the novelist and essayist Joan Didion, was admitted into a New York hospital with an infection that sent her into life-threatening septic shock.

Group Differences
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Charles Murray recommends that we renounce current taboos and forthrightly begin to discuss group characteristics [“The Inequality Taboo,” September].

Power Politics
by Our Readers
To the Editor: One need not be an “oil hawk,” as Peter W. Huber and Mark P. Mills refer to some members of our Set America Free Coalition, to lose sleep over the prospect that tens of trillions of dollars could be shipped to the Persian Gulf in the coming decades in order to satisfy the world’s appetite for oil [“Getting Over Oil,” September].

The Zionist Left
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Hillel Halkin begins his review of my book, The Oslo Syndrome: Delusions of a People Under Siege [September], by observing that the 1993 Oslo peace accords between Israel and the PLO—about which he himself was initially ambivalent—were “a horrendous blunder on Israel’s part.

Ayn Rand
by Our Readers
To the Editor: Algis Valiunas criticizes Ayn Rand’s “unlimited faith in reason,” complaining that “there are no mysteries in her world” [“Who Needs Ayn Rand?,” September].



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