Assads Still Play By the “Hama Rules”

In February 1982, Syrian dictator Hafez al-Assad decided to send a message to dissidents in the city of Hama. Protests against his regime were met with a full-scale military offensive that left 10,000-20,000 Syrians dead. From that moment on, it became a cliché to say that brutal autocrats like Assad played by the “Hama Rules,” a phrase that brought to mind heartless slaughter and made it clear anyone who dared to oppose him would face death.

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Assads Still Play By the “Hama Rules”

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In Memoriam: Michael Novak, 1933-2017

Celebrating the memory and work of an intellectual giant.

On Friday, the scholar and author Michael Novak passed away at the age of 83. COMMENTARY had the privilege of publishing his work on a number of occasions. His insights over the decades represent a vital contribution to America’s intellectual heritage. Novak’s 1989 essay on the competing ideologies of the 20th Century represents a work of considered thought that spans the generations. We commend it to your attention:

Related to enterprise is the more general virtue of creativity. For personal economic enterprise is not socially sustainable unless would-be entrepreneurs are supported by a social intelligence covering many areas—law, banking and finance, governmental administration, the arts, journalism, education, scientific and industrial research, and even religion and philosophy.

Novak, an American Enterprise Institute scholar, is remembered by AEI President Arthur Brooks. We extend our condolences to the Novak family and mourn their, and our, great loss.

The American Enterprise Institute mourns the loss of our colleague, Michael Novak, who passed away this morning at the age of 83. Michael was an AEI scholar for three decades until his retirement in 2010, and remained a close friend of the Institute.